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RECORDS 

of the 

INDIAN MUSEUM 

(A JOURNAL OF INDIAN ZOOLOGY) 
Vol. XII, 1916. 

EDITED BY 

THE DIE ECTOR 

OF THE 

ZOOLOGICAL SURVEY OF INDIA. 



Calcutta : 

PUBLISHED BY ORDER OF THE TRUSTEES OF THE INDIAN MUSEUM. 
BAPTIST MISSION PRESS. 



1916. 



-yVarS- 



CONTENTS. 

— O — 

Part I. Published 2qth February, 1916. 

Page 
I. On some undescribed Aphides from the collection of 

the Indian Museum . . . . . . i 

II. On some Indian Cestoda, Pt. II . . . . 5 

III. Notes on Oriental Dragonflies in the Indian Museum, 

No. 4 . . . . . . . . 21 

IV. Report on a collection of MoUusca from the Cochin and 

Ennur backwaters . . . . . . 27 

V. Four new species of Aidacobolus, Poc. (Diplopoda : 

Spirobolidae) from India . . . . . . 41 

VI. On the Hydrozoon Campanulina ceylonensis (Browne) 40 

Part II. Published 28th March, 1916. 

VII. The Evolution and Distribution of the Indo- Australian 
Thelyphonidae, with notes on the distinctive charac- 
ters of various species . . . . . . 59 

VIII. Report on a small collection of Marine Mollusca 

dredged in shallow water in the Andaman Islands . . 87 

Part III. Published igth May, 1916. 

IX. A new Chlamys from Calcutta . . . . . . loi 

X. Description of two new Fish from the Chilka I^ake . . 105 

XI. Description de la larve de Lasiodactylus chevrolati, 

Reitt. (Coleoptera, Nitidulidae) . . . . 109 

XII. Contributions to a knowledge of the Terrestrial Isopoda 

of India, Pt. II . . . . . . , . 115 

Part IV. Published ^ist August, 1916. 

XIII. Notes on Indian Odonata . . . . . , 129 

XIV. vSome Ivignicolous Beetle-Iyarvae from India and Borneo 137 

Part V. Published zjth September, 1916. 
XV. Notes on the Ciliate Protozoa of Lahore . . . . 177 

XVI. The Cephalopoda of the Indian ■Museum . . . . 1S5 



ii Contents. 

Part VI. Published -^ist October, 1916. 

Page 

XVII. Notes on the Freshwater Fish of Madras . . . . 249 

XVIII. Studies in Indian Helminth ology, No. Ill . . . . 295 

Part VII. Published 16th November, 1916. 

XIX. On a collection of Oligochaeta belonging to the Indian 

Museum . . . . . . . . 299 

Part VIII. Published 18th December, 1916. 

XX ) 

XXT \ ^^t^s °^ Crustacea Decapoda in the Indian Museum : — 

VI. — Indian Crangonidae . . . . . . 355 

VII.— Further Notes on Hippolytidae . . . . 385 



UST OF PLATES. 



— ♦ — 

Plates I— IV (Thelyphonidae) 

Plates V— VII (Hydvozoa) 

Plate VIII (Crustacea Decapoda) 

Plates IX— XIX (Isopoda) 

Plates XX— XXri (Beetle-Iyarvae) . 

Plates XXIII— XXIV (Cephalopoda) 

Plates XXV— XXIX (Fish) 

Plates XXX— XXXIII (Oligochaeta) 

Plates XXXIV— XXXV (Cestoda) . 

Plate XXXVI (Crustacea Decapoda) . 



Follow page 
86 

58 
384 
128 
176 

248 
294 

354 
298 
406 



IvIST OF AUTHORS. 

Page 
Annandale, N., D.Sc. 

On the Hydrozooa Cainpanulina ceylonensis (Browne). I. — 
The Systematic Position and Synonymy of the species . . 49 

Bhatia, B. Iv., M.Sc. 

Notes on the Ciliate Protozoa of Lahore . . . . 177 

Chaudhuri, B. L., D.Sc. 

Descriptions of two new Fish from the Chilka Lake . . 105 

COLLINGE, W. E., M.Sc. 

Contributions to a knowledge of the Terrestrial Isopoda of 
India, Pt. II . . . . . . • • 115 

GooT, P. van der. 

On some undescribed Aphides from the collection of the 
Indian Museum. . . . . . . . . i 

Gravely, F. H., M.Sc. 

The Evolution and Distribution of the Indo- Australian Thely- 
phonidae, with notes on the distinctive characters of vari- 
ous species . . . . . . . . . . 59 

Some Lignicolous Beetle-Larvae from India and Borneo . . 137 

Kemp, S., B.A. 

Notes on Crustacea Decapoda in the Indian Museum : — 

VI. — Indian Crangonidae . . . . . . 355 

VII. — Further Notes on Hippolytidae , . . . 385 

Laidlaw, F. F. 

Notes on Oriental Dragonflies in the Indian Museum, No. 4 21 
Notes on Indian Odonata . . . . . , . . 129 

Lloyd, R. E., M.B., D.Sc. 

On the Hydrozoon Campanidina ceylonensis (Browne). II. — 
Life History of the Hydroid and Medusa . . . . 52 

Massy, Anne L. 

The Cephalopoda of the Indian Museum . . . . 185 

Maulik, S., B.A. 

A new Chlamvs from Calcutta . . . . . . loi 

Peyerimhoff, p. de. 

Description de la larve de Lasiodactylus chevrolati, Reitt. 
(Coleoptera, Nitidulidae) . . • • ■ • 109 



vi List of Authors. 

Pa%e 
Preston, H. B., F.Z.S. 

Report on a collection of Mollusca from the Cochin and 
Bnnur backwaters . . . . . . ,27 

Report on a small collection of Marine Mollusca dredged in 
shallow water in the Andaman Islands . . . . 87 

vSlLVESTRI. F. 

Four new species of Aulacobolus Poc. (Diplopoda : vSpiro- 
bolidae) from India . . . . . . . . 41 

Southwell, T., A.R.C.Sc, F.Z.S. , F.L.S. 

On some Indian Cestoda, Pt. II . . . . . . 5 

Stephenson, J,, M.B., D.Sc. 

On a collection of Oligochaeta belonging to the Indian 
Museum . . . . . . . . . . 299 

Stewart, F. H., D.Sc. 

Studies in Indian Helminthology, No. Ill . . . , 295 

SuNDARA Raj, B., M.A. 

Notes on the Freshwater Fish of Madras . . . . 249 



INDEX. 



-O- 



N.B.— An asterisk {*) preceding a line denotes a new variety or subspecies ; a 
dagger (f) indicates a new species; a double dagger (J) a new genus or sub- 
genus : synonyms are printed in italics. 



A 










Page 






Page 


Alectrion unicolorata 




28 


Abalius . . . . 62, 


63, 77, 78, 82 


Aleochara bilineata . . 




150 


manilanus 




. 7S, 81 


Alope 




387 


nasutus 




81 


Alphitobius diaperinus 




168 


rohdei 




. 78, 8[ 


fagi 




169 


samoanu 




. 78, 81 


mauvitaniciis . . 




169 


willeyi 




. 78, 81 


piceus 




169 


Abothrium crassum . . 




6 


Alphitophagus bifasciatus 




167 


fragile 




6 


Ambassis ambassis . . 


251 


279 


rugosuni 




6 


commersoni 




279 


Abralia andamanica. . 




■ 239 


miops 


251 


279 


trigonura 




240 


myops 




279 


Acanthocirrus macropeos 




13 


ranga 


251 


278 


macrorostratus . . 




13 


Amblypharyngodon . . 




259 


Acanthosepion hasselti 




223 


microlepis 


251 


260 


Aceraius . . 




139 


mola 


251 


260 


grandis hirsutus 




142, 143 


Amia calva 




15 


helferi 




143 


Amphibia. . 




14 


kuwerti 




142 


Amphicotylinae 




5,6 


pilifer 




143 


Amphilephus fasciola . . 




181 


Acmaeodera adspersula 




152 


Amphiprion percula . . 




390 


Aegeon .. ..355 


, 374, 


375,383 


A mphotercotyle elegans 




7 


afpne 




• 376 


Anabantidae 




251 


andamanense . . 




375, 379 


Anabas scandens 250,251,276, 


277 


278 


bengaleuse 




375, 379 


Anaitis calophylla 




95 


cataphractus 


375, 


376, 378 


Anatinacea 


• 39, 99 


habereri 




374. 375 


Ancylocaris 




390 


lacazei 




374, 375 


aberrans 


389 


390 


medium 


376, 


377- 378 


Ancylocheira douei 




153 


obsoletmn 




37^, 377 


Angasia armata 




399 


orientalis 


374, 


375, 378 


Anguilla . . 




261; 


pennata 


375, 


376, 377 


australis 


251 


266 


propensalata . . 


375, 


376, 377 


bengalensis 




265 


Aegeon ( Parapontocaris) 


anda 




bicolor 


, 


266 


manense 




■ 379 


elphinstonei .. 251, 


265, 


266 


bengalense 




■ 379 


Anguillidae 




251 


Aegus 




ISO 


Anomalocardia squamosa 




36 


roepstorffi 


147, 


149. 150 


Anomia 




35 


Aesalus scarabaeoides 




147 


Anoplocephalinae 




18 


Agrilus anxius 




155 


Atithaxia inculta 




154 


auricoUis 




155 


umbellatarum . . 




154 


granulatus 




155 


Aphanisticus consanguineus 




155 


ruficoUis 




155 


krugeri 




•55 


Agrioninae 




21, 129 


Aphididae. . 




I 


Akidinae . . 




.. 158 


Aploclieili. . 




270 


Akis bacarozzo 




.. 158 


Aplocheilns inelanostigma 




294 


punctata 




■■ 158 


panchax 




294 


reflexa 




.. 158 


rubrostigma 




268 


Alaba rectangulata , . 




30 


Aplustridae 




93 


Albtila Conor hynchiis . . 




253 


Arachnida 




84 


vulpes 




■ • 253 


Area 




93 



Vlll 



Page 



Area granosa 




35 


Area (Anadena) holoserica 




93 


Area (Fossularca) lactea 




35 


Arcaeea . . 




35,93 


Areidae 




35,9^ 


Ardeola grayi 




13 


A rgis 




383 


Argonauta boettgeri . . 




188 


bottgeri 




188 


Argonautidae 




188 


Arius 




264 


falcarius 




51, 264 


Armadillidiidae 




. 118 


Armadillidium . . 




117 


Armadillo. . 




117 


infuseatus 




126 


intermixtixs 




126 


nigromarginatus 




126 


Armadilloidea 




117 


Asida bigorrensis 




. 158 


corsiea 




. 158 


dejeani 




. 158 


jurinei 




. 158 


sericea 




. 158 


Asidinae . . 




. 158 


Astevotenthis andamanica 




239 


Aulacobolus 




41 


fexcellens 


41 


. 42,43 


tgravelyi 




. 43, 44 


tnewtoni 




. 45, 48 


thurstoni 




46 


fvariolosus 




. 46, 47 


Aulacocyclus kaupi . . 




. 138 


Aulophorus 


299, 


300, 304 


f urcatus . . 300 


304. 


30s, 306 


palustris 




305, 306 


stcphensoni 


304, 


305, 306 


Aviculariinae 




85 


B 






Barb lis 




254, 257 


amphibius 


251. 


255, 257 


ehrysopoma 


251, 


254, 255 


dorsalis 


251, 


255,256 


filamentosus 


251, 


257, 258 


mahecola 


251, 


257, 258 


pinnauratus 




• 25<; 


sarana 




• 255 


sophore 251 


256,' 


257, 258 


stigma 




256, 257 


vittatus 


251, 


258, 259 


Bathj'botlirium 




6 


Bathyteuthidae 




241 


Bathyteuthis abyssicola 




241 


Belone caneila 




251, 270 


Bcnthoteuthis megalops 




. 241 


Bithynis . . 




• 390 


tBittium gravelyi 




29 


Blaps chevrolati 




160 


fatidica 




160 


gigas 




159 


lethifera 




160 


lusitanica 




160 


rnorlisaga 




160 


mueronata 




160 


obtusa 




t6o 


plana 




160 



Page 

Blaps pt'oducta . . . . 160 

Blaptiiiae. . . . . . 159 

Bolitonaeus quadridentatus . . 165 

Bolitophaginae . . . . 164 

Bolitophagns agaricola 165, 166 

armatus . . . . 165 

reticulatus . . . . 165 

Bolitotherus cornutus . . 164 

quadridentatus . . . . 165 

Bos taiirus . . . . 16 

Bothridintaenia . . . . 7 

Bothrioeeplialus macrocephalus. . 7 

Botliriotaenia . . . . S 

Brachys aeruginosa .. .. 155 

Buceiuum . . . . 28, 29, 89 

Bulla . . . . . . 92, 93 

Buprestidae .. .. 152 

Buprestis doiiei .. .. 153 

Burmoniseus .. 115, 126, 127 

fkempi . . 115, 127, 128 

moulnieinus . . 126, 12S 

Bycrea villosa . . . . 163 



Calliteuthis 

reversa 
Calyptraea pellucida . . 
Campanulina 

acuminata 

ceylonensis 

repens 
Camptosomata 
Capulidae . . 
Cardiacea . . 
Cardiaspis pisciformis 

mouhoti 
Cardidae . . 

tCardiomya andamaniea 
Cardium . . 
Caridea 
Cassidinae. . 
Catapiestus indicus . . 
Catla huchanani 

catla 
Catoxantha 
Cephalopoda 
Cerandria corniUa 
Ceratognathus froggatti 

irroratits 
Ceriagrion. . 

eerinorubellum 

coromandclianum 

erubeseens 

olivaceuni 

trubiae 
Ceritliiidae 

Ceropria suboeellata . . 
Ceruchus tarandus 
Cestoda 
Cestoidea . . 
Cetonia aurata 
Cha/copJtora viyginiaca 

virginiensis 
Chara 
Chela argentea 

clupeoides 
Chenopus atrata 



243 

242 

90 

49, 50, 51, 55 

49 

• • 49, SO 

50 

lOI 

90 

94 

.. iq6 

.. 156 

94 

99 

94 

383, 394, 400 

lOT 

171, 174 
•'54 
254 
152 
186 
167 
146 

147 
132 

132, 134 

133 

133 

132 

29 

. . 167 
146 

.. 5,16 

. . 17, 18 

■ . . 146 

152 

152 

250 

261 

251, 260, 267 



250, 251, 



185 



IX 





J 


Page 




Page 


Cheraphilus 




355 


fCubaris bninneo caudatus 115 


121, 123 


Chilifera . . 




182 


fcavernosus 


IIS, 123 


Cliione imbricata 




36 


fchiltoni . . 115 


122, 123 


marmorata 




3^-' 


tdilectum 


115, 120 


Chiroteuthidae 




243 


texpansus 


115, 119 


Chiroteuthis (Chirotliavima) im 


pe- 




tgravelii 


IK, 118 


rator 




243 


tlobatus . . 115 


124, 125 


Chlamydinae 




lOI 


t])usilliis 


115, 120 


Chlaiuydodonta 




182 


fe')lidulus 


122 


Chlamys . . 




lOI 


Cucujidae . . 


150 


tgravelyi 


101 


102 


Cultellus subelHpticus 


37 


Clirysobothris affinis . . 




154 


Cuspidaria annandalei 


39 


dentipes 




154 


tcochinensis 


39 


feniorata 




154 


Cuspidariidae 


• • 39, 99 


Chrysochroa (Megaloxantha) 


bi- 




Cj^clodinina 


x8o 


color gigautea . . 




152 


Cyclostrema micans . . 


33 


Chrysomelidae 




lOI 


Cyclostrematidae 


33 


Chrysophlegma flavinucha 




II 


Cylichna cylindracea. . 


92 


Cichlidae . . 




251 


fCylichnella syngenes 


92 


Ciliata 




177 


Cyprinidae 


251, 278 


Cirrhina reba 


251 


254 


Cyprinodontidae 


251 


Cirroteuthidae 




186 


Cyrenidae . . 


36 


Cirroteuthis grimaldii 


1*86, 


247 


Cysticercus cellulosae 


16 


macrope 




187 


fasciolaris 


. . 16, 17 


meaiigensis 




186 


pisiformis 


16 


Cistopus bursarius 




204 






indicus 


204 


205 


D 




Clarius batrachus 


251, 


262 




maguy 




262 


Davainea . . 


•• 7,^ 


Clupea finta 




6 


cesticillus 


9 


ilisha 




252 


corvina 


9 


Clupeidae . . 




251 


echinobothrida 


9 


Cobitididae 




251 


Davainea friedbergeri 


8 


Codokia fischeriana . . 




37 


polycalcaria 


9 


Coelenterata 




56 


proglottina 


.8 


Coenagvioninae 




129 


Davaineidae 


• • 5' 7 


Coleoptera.. 


59 


109 


Davaineinae 


• ■ 7, 8 


Colepina . . 




180 


Davidius . . 


135, 13*5 


Coleps hirtus 




180 


aberrans 


I3S 


Colpoda cucuUus 




182 


davidi 


135 


Conchacea. . 


■ • 3f 


, 94 


*davidi assamensis 


135, 136 


tCoiiradia cancellata. . 




30 


zallorensis 


13s 


Coraebus bifasciatus . . 




154 


Dendrocitta 


13 


Coralliocrangon 


. , 


384 


Dendroctonus 


III 


tCorbicula cochineiisis 




36 


Diaperinae 


166 


Corvus macrorhynchus 


8, 9, 10 


Diapens aeiiea 


166 


splendens 




9 


boleti 


166 


Cotugnia . . 




7 


Dibothrium longicollc . . 


8 


digonopora 




8 


Dibranchia 


•• 37, 9S 


Cranchiidae 




245 


Dicerca 


157 


Crangon .. ..355, 379 


'383 


384 


divaricata 


•• 153 


affinis 




380 


Dichogaster 


299, 346 


cassiope 




380 


affinis 


■• 348 


consobrinus 




380 


Dichogaster bolaui palmicola 


300, 348 


crangon . . 379 


380, 


381 


nialayana 


346, 348 


hakodatei 




380 


Dicranotaenia 


10 


propinquus 




380 


Didinium nasutum . . 


180 


Crangonidae .. 355 


383, 


384 


Diorchis acuminata . . 


12 


Cricelomys gambianus 




18 


americana 


13 


Cristovomer namaycush 




IS 


Diplocanthits 


10 


Crustacea Decapoda . . 


355. 


385 


Diplopoda. . 


41 


CrN'pticinae 




164 


Dipylidiinae 


13 


Crypticus glaber 




164 


Discosoma 385, 387, 


389, 390 


quisquilius 




164 


Dorcus 


149, ISO 


Cryptocheles 




392 


parallelopipedus 146, 147, 


148, 149 


Cubaridae . . 




126 


Doyyichthys 


269, 270 


Cubaris . . 115, 117, 119 


123, 


126 


bleekeri 


.. 269 


falbolateralis . . 


115, 


125 


cimcalns 


270 



Doryrhamphus 

brachyuras 

cuncalus 
Dosinia laminata 
Drawida . . 

ghatensis 
tjalpaigurensis 
robusta typica 
travancorensis. 
Drepanidotaenia 
gracilis 
lanceolata 



Echinocotyle 

Echocenis cornutus 

Egeon orien*alis 

Eichhornia 

Eireiie 

Eledona agaricicola . . 

agaricola 
Eledonella 

diaphana 
heathi 
Elenophorinae 
Elenophorus coUaris . . 
Eleodes 

dentipes 
gigantea 
opaca 
Eleodiini . . 
Eleodiiiae . . 
Eleotris f usca 
Elodea 
Elopidae . . 
Elops apalike 

hawaiensis 
indicus 
lacerta 
machnata 
saunts 
Enallagma parvum . , 
Enchelina . . 
Enchelys arcuata 
Engraulis purava 
Enoploteuthidae 
Episphenus indicus . 
neelgherriensis. 
Epitonium robillardi . 
Ethalia capillata 
Etroplus . . 

maculatus 
suratensis 
Eucentrobolus 
Eudichogaster 

bengalensis 
Eulima oxytata 

frossinsulae 
Eulimidae 
Euprymna morsei 
Eutyphoeus 

*annandalei ful 
bastianus 
incommodus . 
nicbolsoni 
waltoni 



= 51 



299: 



Page 

269, 270 

250, 251, 269, 

270 

270 

94 

307 

309 

307 

309 

309 

), II 

12 

12 



10 
.. 167 
379 
.. 183 
50 
.. 165 
. . 165 

2I,:J 

213, 214, 215 

214 

157 

■• 157 

161 

160, i6t 
i6[ 
161 
161 
160 
251, 286, 287 
250 

.. 251 
253 
251 

251, 252 
252 
251 

.. 251 
131 

.. 178 
179 

251, 253 

•• 239 
141, 142, 143 

139, 141 

91 

.. 87, 92 

285, 289 

251, 282, 285 

251, 285, 286 

41 

299, 344, 345 

344 

.. 87,91 

91 

91 
216 
299, 342 
?idus . . 342 

342 
342 
342 
342 



Exhippolysmata 
tugelae 



Figulinae . . 
Piguhis striatvis 
FoUiculina 
Fossaridae 
Fulvia papyracea 



385, 401, 402 
402 



149 
146, 149 

54 
30 

94 



G 

Galhis bankiva . . . . 9, 14 

gallus . . . . 8 

Gastropoda . . . . 27, 87 

Gelastocaris parouae . . . . 401 

Glossoscolecidae . . 299, 349 

Glossoscolecinae . . . . 299 

Glyphidrilus . . 299, 300, 349 

annandalei . . . . 349 

stuhhnanni . . . . 300 

ftuberosus . . 300, 349 

Gnathoceya (Ccrandria) cornuta . . 167 
Gnathocerus cornutus . . 167 

Gobiidae . . . . . . 251 

Gobius giuris kokius . . . . 288 

fostreicola . . . . 105 

setosiis . . . . 287 

striatus . . . . 250 

Gobius (Acentrogobius) acutipin- 

nis . . . . 251, 287, 288 

neilli . . 251, 287 

Gobius (Glossogobius) giuris 251, 288, 289 
Gobius (Oxyurichthys) striatus 251, 289 
Goniphinae . . . . 135 

Gonocephaluni intermedium . . 162 
micans . . . . 163 

Gonocephalum pusillum . . 163 

pygmaeum . . . . 163 

simplex . . . . 163 

Greenidea . . . . . . 3 

Gryporhynchus pusillus .. 13 

Gryporhynchus (Acauthocirrus) 

macropeos . . . . 13 

H 



Hageniui aberrans 




135 


Halammobia pellucida 




164 


Halysis gracilis 




12 


Haplochilus 270, 291 


, 292, 293, 


294 


dayt 




291 


melanostigma 251, 


266, 268, 


269, 




291 


293 


melastigma 




266 


panchax 




269 


nibrostigma 


'268 


291 


Hectarthrum 




150 


trigeniinum 


ISO 


iSi 


Heliopathes abbreviatus 


161, 


162 


gibbus 




162 


ibcricus 




161 


Heliophilus ibericus . . 




161 


Helodrilus 


299 


352 


Helodrilus (Bimastus) constrictus 


352 


eiseni 
parvus 




352 
352 



XI 







Page 1 


1 






Helodrilus (Eisenia) foetida 




352 






Page 


Helopinae. . 






172 


Ichthyotaenia 




IS, 16, 18 


Helops agoHUS 






172 


Ichthyotat-nia (Acanthotaenia) 


angustatus 






172 


nilotica 




15 


assimilis 






172 


Ichthyotaenia (Proteocephalus) 


Cerberus 






173 


ambloplitis 




15 


coeruleus 






172 


pusilus 




'5 


ecoffeti 






172 


Ichthyotaeniidae 




15 


laevioctostriatus 






172 


Idotea 




401 


lanipes 






173 


Infusoria 




.. 183 


laticoUis 






173 


Inioteuthis japonica . . 




215, 216 


pellucidus 






173 


maculosa . . 




215, 216 


pyreiiaeus 






173 


morsei 




216 


striates 






172 


Iphthimus italicus 




169 


Heterophaga opatroides 






168 


tiravadia annandalei 




31 


Hippocampi 






270 


fennurensis 




31 


Hippolysmata 


385 


401, 


402 


ffunerea . . 




30 


dentata 




402, 


405 


Irene ceylonensis 




49, 51, 52 


eusirostris 


385, 


401, 


402, 
403 


palkensis 
Ischnura . . 




51 
129 


ensirostris punctata 






403 


aurora 




130^ 131 


vittata 


402 


404, 


405 


delicata 




131 


Hippolysmata (Lysmatella) prima 


404 


forcipata 




129 


Hippolyte 


387 


, 391, 


392 


gangetica 




129, 130 


ventricosus 






391 


immsi 




131 


Hippolytidae 




'38s, 


402 


inarmata 




130, 131 


Hispinae . . 






lOI 


nursei 




131 


Histioteuthidae 






242 


rufostigma 




130, 131 


Holocrates gibbus 






162 


senegalensis 




23, 129, 130 


Holophrya 




'178 


179 


Isocerus purpurascens 




161 


coleps 






179 


Isopoda 




115, 126, 127 


findica 


178 


. 179 


180 








simplex 






179 


J 






Holophryina 






178 






Hoplocephala haemorrhoidalis 
Hydrobiidae 
Hydromedion nitidum 
sparsutum 




166 

31 

173 

173 


Japatella diaphana 
Julodis albopilosa 
onopordi 




213 
152 
152 


Hymenolepididae 




5,9, 14 








Hymenolepidinae 




9, 10, 12 


L 






Hymenolepinae 






9 








Hymenolepis .. 9, 


10, ] 


I, 12 


, 19, 
298 


Labeo 

calbasu 




•• 253 
251, 253, 255 


capillaroides 






10 


Labochirus 60, 61, 


62, 


53,64,67, 79, 


dimmuta 






10 






80, 82, 83 


flavopunctata . . 






10 


africanus 




64 


murina 


16 


, 295 


296 


andersoni 




• • 66, 83 


nana 




29s 


, 296 


browni 




66 


Hypoctonus 60, 61, 62, 


63 , 67 , 69 


, 73, 


cervinus 




• - 65 




79, 


80, 8 


1,83 


dawnae 




. 66, 67 


binghami 






68 


ellisi 




■ ■ 67, 83 


birmanicus 






68 


gastrostictus . 




65 


fcarmichaeli . 






67 


kraepelini 




.. 65 


formosus 






68 


proboscideiis . 




.. 64 


formosiis insular is 






68 


tauricornis 




6s 


granosus 






69 


Lacrymaria vermicularis 


180 


oatesi 


61, 


66, 67, 68 


Lamellibranchiata 




33 


rangunensis 






68 


L,ampito . 


■299 


315, 317, 327 


saxatilis 






69 


fdubius 




• • 315 


stoliczkae 




. . 60, 69 


mauritii 




• - 315 


sylvaticus 






69 


I,ampra rutilans 




153 


wood-masoni 






69 


solieri 




• • 153 


Hypophloeus bicolor , . 






169 


Lasiodactylus 




112 


fasciatus 






169 


caliginosus 




.. 113 


femigineus 






169 


chevrolati 


109 


,110, III, 112 


linearis 






169 


pictus 




112 


pini 






169 


lyates calcarifer 




251, 278 


unicolor 






169 


Ivat rentes 392 


396 


398, 399, 402 



Xll 



Latreutes auoplonyx 

laminirostris 

niucronatus 396, 

planirostris 

planus 

tporcinus 

Ijygmaeus 

unidentatus 
Lepidocephalichthys thertnalis 
Lepidotrias 
Leptaulax bicolor .. 139. 

bicolor vicinus 

dentatus 
I/inmodrilus 
Lionotus . . 
Liosiphou stromphii 
Litiopidae 
Litonotus . . 

fascial a 

varsaviensis 
Littorina arboricola 
Littorinidae 
Loliginidae 
Loligo 

iudica 

pealii 

spectrum 
Loliolus investigatoris 
Lordites . . 

glabricula 
Loxophyllum 

fasciola 

fasciola punjab 
Lucanidae 
Lucanus 

alces 



saiga 
Ivuciiia semperiana 
Lucinacea . . 
Lucinidae . . 
Lumbricidae 
Lyphia pcicola 

tetraphylla 
Lysmata . . 
Lysmatella 

prima 



185, 218, 



38s 



Page 

399 

399 

397, 398 

396, 397 
399 

397, 398 

396, 398 

399 

251, 261 

10 

140. 144 

140, 145 

144 

299, 307 

182 

182 

30 

182 

181, 182 

181, 182 

30 

30 

218 

204. 222 

221, 222 

221 

221 

222 

• 113 
112 

181, 182 
t8i, 182 
181, 182 

• 145 

• 145 

• 145 
145 > 148 

146 
95 

• 37,95 

• 37,95 
299, 352 



402, 404 
385, 402 

402. 404 



Pas,e 



M 

Macrolinus 

andamanensis . . 
Macrones . . 

cavasius 

keletius 

vittatus 
Macropoduscupanus . . 

viridiauratus . , 
Mangilia gracilenta . . 
Mastacembelidae 
Mastacembelus armatus 

pancalus 
Mastigop rectus 
Mecistocerus 

corticeus 
Megalops. . 

cyprinoides 

kundinga 



139 

143 

265 

251, 264 

251, 265 

250, 251, 265 

251, 281, 282 

282 
.. 87 
.. 251 
251, 290 

250, 251, 290 
62,63, 83 

150, 151 
.. 150 
•• 253 

251. 252, 253 

252 



Megascolecidae 




299, 3" 


Megascolecinae 




299, 327 


Megascolex 




299, 327 


cingulatus 




329 


insignis 




329 


konkanensis 




. . 328 


tpentagoualis . 




•• 331 


tpumilio 




•• 333 


ratus 




•■ 327 


travaucorensis . 




333 


ftrivandranus . 




330 


Megascolides 299, 300, 


311, 327 


*oneilli inonarchis 


313 


*tenmaltU karakulameiisis 311 


Megeleates sequoiaruna 


. . 16.; 


Melanimon tibiale 


162 


Melanophila 


154 


Melia azadirachta 


109 


Melc/basis cupriceps . . 


154 


iridescens 


154 


Menephilus cylindricus 


170 


Meiiephilns (Tenebrio) ciirvipes 


170 


Meracantha coiitracta 


173 


Meracanthinae 


173 


Meretrix casta 


35 


ovum 


35 


zonaria 


35 


Mesalia 


32 


Metroliasthes lucida . . 


14 


Microchaetinae 


299 


Micromelo undatum . . 


93 


Micronynihha aurora . . 


131 


riifostigma 


.. 130 


senegalensis 


129 


Microphis . . . , 


270 


Microzoum tibiale 


162 


Mimoscorpius . . 62, 63, 7 


1,80, ^3 


pugnator 


71 


Mitophyllus irroratus. . 


147 


Modiola taprobanensis 


35 


Mollusca . . 


. . 27, 87 


Molurinae . . 


.. 158 


Moniligastcr deshayesi gravelyi 


309 


grandis 


353 


Mouiligastridae 


299, 307 


Mormula . . 


32 


Muricidae . . 


29^ 


Mus decumanus 


16, 295 


decumanus albino 


296 


rattus 


. . 16, 17 


Mytilacea . . 


•• 35,93 


Mytilidae . . 


•• 35,93 


Mytilus curvatus 




93 



N 

Naididae . . . . 299 , 300 

Naidium teniae nlatum . . 304 

Nais . . 301 , 302 

Nandidae . . . . . . 251 

Naiidus marmnratus . . . . 278 

nandus . . 251, 278 

Nassa . . . . . . 89 

denegabilis . . . . 28 

tkempi . . . . 88 

kieneri . . . . 28 

*orissaensis ennurensis . . 28 

tplioenicensis .. .. 88.8^ 



XI 11 



Nassa (Alectrion) uuicolor 
Nassa (Arcularia) cancellata 

golobosa 
Nassa (Hima) tindalli 
Nassa (Niotha) livescens 
Nassidae . . 
Nassodonta 

tgravelyi 

insignis 
Nassula stromphii 
fNatica kempi 

marochiensis 
Naticidae . . 
Nautilus 
Neaera 
Nectocraugon 
Nematotaenia dispar 
Neritidae . . 
Neritina 
Nigidius davvnae 

impressicollis 
Nitidulidae 
Notopteridae 
Xotoptcrus kapirat 

notopterus 
Notoscolex 

tgravelyi 

sarasinorum 
Nucula bengalensis 

tsemiramisensis 
Nuculidae . . 
Nuria danrica 

o 



p«i 



148, 



90 

89 
89 
89 



. 28. 



28 
29 

28, 29 

182 

88, 90 

32 

32,90 

i8s 

38,39 

383 

14 

32, 92 

93 

149, 150 

149 

109. 112 

• 251 
253 

251, 253 
299, 325, 327 
325 
327 
94 

• 93, 94 

93 
251, 259 



Obeliscus . . 




32 


Ochtochaetinae 




299 


Ocnerodrilinae 




299 


Ocnerodrilus 


299, 


348 


Ocnerodrilus (Ocnerodrilus) 


occi- 




dentalis 




348 


Octochaetus 


299 


338 


tbarkudensi-. . . 




340 


f ermori 




338 


surensi 




338 


Octopus 




204 


acitleatus 




191 


areolatiis 


193 


194 


bandensis 




201 


hoscii pallida 




189 


brocki 




193 


cuvieri 




192 


cvanea 




19s 


DeFilippe 




196 


Defilippi 




196 


defilippi 




196 


de-filippi 




196 


fusiformis 




203 


globosus 




202 


granulatus 


189 


190 


hongkongensis . . 




197 


januarii 




199 


kagoshimensis . . 




189 


lev is 




198 


macropus 




192 


micro phthalmiis 




205 


ocellatus 


193 


194 


pisiformis 




203 



Orlop us polyzenia 

punctatits 

rug OS us 

toyiganits 
Odonata . . . . 23, 2^ 

Oligochaeta 

Onchorhynchus tschawytscha 
Oniscidae . . 
Oniscinae . . 
Oiiicoidea . . 
Opatrinae. . 
Opatntm intermedium 

pus ilium 

sabulosum 

tibiale 

verrucosum 
Opatrum (Microzoum) tibiale 
Ophiocephali 
Ophiocephalidae 
Ophiocephalus .. 271, 

gachua 

punctatus 

striatus 



25. 



Page 
189 

197 
?, 202 

2CK) 
129 

299 
210 
117 
117 
117 
162 
162 
163 
163 
162 
62, 163 
162 
271 
21^1 
276, 289 



251, 273, 
249, 251 



/5i 



251, 275 
276, 284 
270, 271, 272. 
273, 274, 275 
Ophrygonius can tori convexifrons 141 
Opisthobran chia 
Opisthobranchiata 
Osphromenidae 
Osphromenus gourami 

olfa.v 
Ostracea . . 
Ostrea canadensis 

fmadrasensis . 
virginica 
Ostreidae . . 



92 

27 
251 

;i, 279 

279 
33 
33 
ae, 34 
33 
33 



Pachychile servillei 
Pachyschelus 
Palorus depressus 



Panchax 

dayi 

lineatum 
panchax 
tparvus 



270, 291 , 292 
291, 292. 
291, 292 
291, 292, 

250, 251, 268, 



rubrostigma 268, 291 
Panicum jumentorum 
Paracephala cyaneipennis 
Paracrangon 
Paramaecina 
Paramaecium 

caudatum 

putrinum 
Paraperiscyphis 

gigas 

tpulcher . . 115 

jscabrus 

stebbingi 
Parapontocaris 
Paratelphusa 
Paruterina 
Paruterinae 
Paruteiininae 
Passalidae 
Passalus . . 

cornutus' . . 13S, 



157 

IS5 

168 

293, 294 

293, 294 

- 293, 294 

293, 294 

269, 291, 

292, 293 

292, 293 

281 

155 

■■ 383 

• . 183 

■■ 183 

177. 183 

177 

115, 116 
116 

116, ti7 
115,117 
115, 116 
375, 378 

288 
14 
14 
14 

138, 139 

139, 140 



XIV 





Page 






Page 


Passalus distiiictus . . 




13 


Placuna placenta 






35 


interruptus 




138 


Plagiotomina 






183 


punctiger 




138 


Platybema pristis 






392 


Pavo nigripennis 




8 


yitgosum 






392 


Pectinibranchiata 




28 


Platyceru^ caraboides 


146, 


148, 


149 


Pedininae . . 




161 1 


Platydema ellipticum 






166 


Pediuus femoralis 


162, 


163 1 


euyopaea 






166 


Pelecypoda 




93 


europaeuni 






166 


Pentaphyllus testaceus 




167 


palliditarse 






167 


Pericephalus 




117 


violacea 






167 


Periclimenes hermitensis 




3«9 


violaceum 






167 


Pefilaiiipiis at pur 




261 


Platyscelinae 






161 


cachius 


251, 


261 


Platyscelis gages 






161 


Perimylops antarcticus 




173 


Pleurarius. . 






139 


Perionychella 




327 


brachyphyllus . . 




140, 


141 


Perionyx 299, 300, 317, 


323, 


327 


Pieurotoma fiisca 






87 


aboreusis 




320 


Pleurotomidae 






87 


annulatus 




327 


Poecilonota solieri 






153 


ceylonensis 




325 


Polyacanthus cupanns 






281 


excavatus 




317 


Polycesta californica . . 






152 


tfulvus 




322 


data 






152 


tinornatus 




320 


Polypodidae 






189 


tparvulus 




321 


Polypus . . 185, 209, 


210, 


211, 


212 


tpincerna 




319 


aculeatus 






191 


tpulvinatus 




317 


aranea 






197 


Periscyphis gigas 




I to 


arborescens 






107 


Petrosia testudinaria. . 




401 


areolatus 






193 


fPetroscirtes bhattacharyae 




107 


australis 






210 


Phaleria bimaculata . . 




164 


bandensis . . ■ 






201 


cadaverina 




164 


cyanea 






19s 


hernisphaerica . . 




164 


defilippi 




196, 


197 


Phaleriinae 




164 


elegans 






205 


Phenicopterus roseus. . 




12 


fontanianus 






197 


Pheretima 299, 300, 318, 321, 


327, 


331. 


fusiformis 




203, 


205 




334 


335 


globosus 






202 


bicincta 




335 


herdmani 






206 


feae 




335 


hongkongensis. . 




197 


198 


hawayana typica 




334 


lioylei 






207 


heterochaeta . . 


317 


334 


januarii 






199 


houlleti 




334 


levis 






198 


jkuchingen^ . . 




337 


macropus 






192 


lignicola 




335 


microphthalmus 






205 


posthuma 


334 


. 344 


pictus 






197 


"ftrivandraua . . 




335 


polyzenia-granulatus 






190 


Phialina vermicularis 




180 


pricei 




205 


209 


Philocheras 




355 


punctatiis 






198 


megalocheir 




372 


rugosus 


189, 


211 


213 


Philoscia . . 




127 


tonganus 






200 


coeca 




126 


vulgaris 






211 


Phortis 


•• 50, SI 


Pontocaris 






374 


gibbosa 




51 


■media 






378 


Phthora crenata 




168 


pennata 




376 


377 


it Phycocaris ■ -S^S, 391 


,392 


; 395 


propensalata 




377 


,378 


fsimulans 39 1 


,392 


. 393 


Pontodrilus 




299 


, 311 


Phylan abbreviatus . . 




161 


bermudensis ephippiger 




3" 


gibbus 




162 


Pontophilus 355, 


356, 


381, 


383, 


Pliylax littoralis 




162 








384 


picipes 




162 


abyssi 


356 


357 


,381 


Phylethus quadripustulatus 




167 


austi'alis 






38.1 


Pica rustica 




9 


bideutatus 






364 


Pimelia bipunctata . . 




159 


bispinosus 






382 


boyeri 




159 


brevirostris 






381 


grossa 




159 


fcandidus 356, 357. 


365, 


^ee, 


371. 


inflata 




159 








382 


pilifera 




159 


chiltoni 






381 


sardea 




159 


echinulatus 






382 


Pimeliinae 




159 


gracilis 


356 


357 


,381 


Pitaria 




94 


hendersoni 357 


, 368 


372 


,382 



XV 



Page 

fPoutophilus incisus 356, 357, 358, 360, 

361, 363, 364, 367, 371, 

38 X 

japonicus . . . . 364 

tlowisi 356,361, 362, 364, 367, 382 

norvegicus . . . . 381 

oocidentalis . . . . 381 

tparvirostris 357, 369, 372, 373, 

374, 382 

tpilosus 357, 367, 368, 369, 382 

tplebs .. 357,370,382 

sabsechota . . 356, 364, 382 

sculptus356, 359, 360, 361 , 363, 381 

spinosus . . . . 381 

trispinosus . . . . 382 

victoriensis . . . . 382 

Pontoscolex . . 299, 349 

corethrurus . . . . 349 

Potamides (Tympanotonos) fluvia- 

tilis . . . . 29 

Prionocrangon 355, 379, 383, 384 

ommatosteres . . . . 379 

Prioscelis serrata .. .. 171 

Pristina . . . . 299, 304 

aequiseta . . . . 304 

longiseta . . 301 , 304 

tentacitlata . . . . 304 

Prosobranchia . . . . 87 

Prosobranchiata . . . . 28 

Proteocephalidae . . . . 19 

Proteocephalus . . 16, 18, 19 

gallardi . . . . 19 

Protecocotyle . . . . 7 

Protozoa . . . . 177, 183 

Psammodes reichei .. .. 158 

Pseudagrion . . 2 1 , 24 , 1 34 

aureof rons . . . . 2 1 

australasiae . . 21, 22, 23 

azureum . . . . 22, 25 

bidentatum . . 21, 22, 25 

decorum . . 21, 22, 24 

hypermelas . . 21, 22, 25 

microcephalutn 21. 22, 23, 24, 

25 

rubriceps .. .. 22, 24 

Pseudeutropius atherinoides 251, 264 

Pterochlorus . . . . 4 

ftropicalis . . . . 3, 4 

Ptychobothriidae . . . . 5 

Ptychobothriinae . . . . 5 

Pycnocerinae . . . . 171 

Pyramidella (Mormula) . . 32 

Pyrgulina humilis . . . . 32 

humilis chilkaensis . . 32 

Pyrrhosoma tenellum .. 131 

R 

Rasbora buchanani . . . . 259 

daniconius .. 251,259 

rasbora . . . . 259 

fRetusa ennurensis . . . . 27 

estriata . . . . 27 

Rhinoceros sondaicus . . 18 

Rhipidandrinae . . . . 165 

fRhopalosiphum indicum .. 1,2 

Rhyncobdella aculeata 251, 289, 290 

Rissoidae . . . . . . 30 



Sabinea 
Saccobranchus fossilis 

singio 
Salmo sebago 
Saron 

marmoratus 
Scalaria 
Scalidae . . 
Scaphandridae 
Scaphidema aeneum ' . 

metallicum 
Scaurinae . . 
Scaurus atratus 

tristis 
Schistocephal us 
Sclerocrangon 
Scombresocidae 
Scrobiculariidae 
Sepia 



Page 

383, 384 

251, 262, 263 

262, 263 

6 

385, 387 

385 

91 

91 

92 

166 

166 

159 

159 

159 

272 

383 
251 

38, 99 



185, 228, 229, 231, 236, 237 
aculeata . . 223, 226 



farabica 

blainvillei 

elliptica 

esculenta 

indica 

microcheirns 

plangon 

rouxii 

fugosa 

sinensis 

singalensis 

singaporensis . 
Sepia (Doratosepion) 

oides 

kobiensis 
Sepiella 

curta 

inermis 

ocellata 

ornata 
Sepiidae . . 
Sepiola bursa 
Sepiolidae. . 
Sepioteuthidae 
Sepiotouthis arctipinnis 
Septaria crepidularia. . 
Serranidae 



228 
224 
226 

225, 226, 231 

224 

23] 

225 

227, 228 

189 

231 

227, 228 

.. 225 

andrean- 

229 

. . 230 

231, 236, 237 

232, 234 

185, 231, 232, 234, 235 

232, 234 

234,235,236 

223,237 

..216 

215,217 

237 

237 

si 

251 



tSigaretus (Eunaticina) calaraphe 90, 91 

Siluridae . . . . . . 251 

Silvanus surinamensis . . 150 

Sinodendron .. 147, 149 

cylindricum . . 147, 149 

Sinoius colliardi ,. .. 163 
Slavina .. .. 299, 301, 302 

appendiculata . . . . 302 

punjabensis . . . . 302 

tSolariella deliciosa . . . . 33 

Solen . . . . • • 95 

fonesi . . . . 2i7 

Solenidae . . . . . . t,7 , 95 

Solifugae . . . . . . 84 

Sphenoptera arachidis .. 153 

gossypii . . 153, 155 

lamellata . . . . 153 

neglecta ,. 153 

Spinoniformia . . . . 54 



XVI 



Spirobolidae 
Spirobohis thii: stoni 

uroceros 
Spirogyra . . 
Spirontocaris . . 386, 

pandaloides 

rectirostris 
Spirostomum ambiguum minor 
tStenothyra perpumila 
Stenotrachelus aeneus 
Sterna bergii 
."^tigmatoteuthis 

japonica 
Stigmodera rufipennis 
Stilesia 
Slrongyliinae 
Strongylium sobrinum 

tenuicolle 
Stylaria . . . . 299, 301 

fkempi 

lacustris 

lomondi 
Swietenia 
Syngnathidae 
vSyngnathus 
Syrnola attenuata 



41 

41 

. . 41, 42 

250, 283 

387, 402 

386 

.. 386 

.. 183 

31 

169 

7 
243 
242 

. . 154 
14 
174 
174 
174 
303 
303 

303. 304 
304 

156 

251 

270 

32 



T 

Taenia agama 

cesticillus phasianonim 

collo-longissimo 

crassicollis 

digonopora 

dispay 

echinohothrida 

erostris 

fosteri 

friedbergeri 

gracilis 

immerina 

infundib uliformis 

infundibiiliformis phasic 

macropeos 

miirina 

nana 

solium 
Tapes textrix 

turgida 
Tectibranchiata 
ITellina bertiniana 

tbrunneo-flavida 

jennurensis 

■finnocens 

micans 

tpersimplex 

tpervitrta 

tphoenicensis 

tsoror 

tunguis 

fvadorum 

vestal is 

viator 
Tellinacea. . 
i'cUinidae. . 
Tenebrio molitor 

obscurus 

opacus 



8 

8 

12 

17 

8 

14 
9 
7 
7 

8 
12 

7 
9 

um 8 

13 

297 

297, 298 

16 

95 

36. 

27 
95, 96 

38 
38 
96 
96 
96 

96,97 
97 
97 

97,98 



90, 99 

38.95 

38,95 

70, 171 

171 

171 



62.63, 7^, 82 

■ .79,81 

.. 79,81 

*.. 5.7 

7 

93 

33 

16 

390 

15 



45 



Page 

Tenebrio picipes ,. .. 171 

transversalis . . . . 171 

Tenebrionidae 157, 158, 164, 174 

Tenebrioninae . . . . 169 

Tentyria miicronata .. .. 157 

interrupta . . . . 157 

Tentyriinae .. .. 157 

Terebra . . . . . . 32 

Tetrabalius 

nasutus 
seticauda 
Tetrabothriidae . . * 

Tetrabothrius erostris 
Tetrabranchia 
Tetrabranchiata 
Tetracotyhis 

Tetradrachmum trimaculatum 
Tetraphyllidae 
Teuthowenia (Hensenioteuthis) 

joubini 
Thais carinifera . . . . 29 

Thelyphonellus .. 61,63,83 

Thelyphonidae 59, 62, 63, 65, 80, 82, 84 

Thelyphonus 62, 63, 73, 75, 77, 78, 80, 

81, 82, S3. 84 

angustus . . . . 63 

anthracinus .. 75,76,81 

asperatus . . . . 78, Si 

assamensis . . . . 71 

boneensis . . . . 76, Si 

burchardi . . .. 77, 81 

caudatus . . . . 75, Si 

celebensis . . . . 76, 81 

cristatus . . . . 73, 74 

doriae . . .. 77, 81 

doriae hosei . . . . 77 

hanseni . . . . 78, 81 

insulanus . . .. 77, 81 

klugi .. .. 76, 81 

leucurus . . . . 78, Si 

linganus . . 75, 76, 81 

lucanoides . . . . 63 

manilanus . . . . 74, 81 

manilanus halmaheivae . . 74 
nigrescens . . . . 73 

pococki . . .. 77, Si 

schimkewitschi 72, 77 

schnehageni 
semperi 

sepiaris . . 60, 73 

sepiaris indicus 
sepiaris muricola 
seticauda 
spinimanus 
sucki 

sumatranus 
wayi 
Theodoxus oualauensis 

sowerbyana 
fTheora hindsiana 
iridescens 
opalina 
ttranslucens 



Thor 



tdiscosomatis 38 

maldivensis 
paschalis 



7^, Si 
74, 82 

77, 81 
74,82 

74 
74 
63 
^>3 
77,81 

78, Si 

75 

92 

32 

98, 99 

39 

3^. 99 

3^ 

387, ^92. 394 

5, 387,388, 389, 

390 

385, 387, 391 

387, 388, 389 



XVll 



Thysanosoma 

actinioides 

garabianum 

giardii 
Tiara (Platia) scabra 
Tiaridae . . 
Tima 

Tornatina . . 
Tornatinidae 
Tozeuma . . 

armatum 
Trachelina 
Trachycaris 

rugosus 
Tribolium castaneum 

confusum 

ferrugineuin 
Trichoda pura 
Trichoniscidae 
Trichosiphum 

tminutum 
Trigastrinae 
Triorchis . . 
Trochidae . . 
Tubificidae 
Turritellidae 
Typopeltis 62, 63 

amurensis 

crucifev 

dalyi 

harmandi 

kasnakowi 

niger 

stimpsoni 

tarnani 



Page 
17, 18 
17, 18 
17, 18 

17 
29 
29 
50 
27 
27 
3Q9, 400 
398, 399- 400, 401 
181 
392 
392, 398 
168 
168 
168 
182 
126 
3 

299 

10 

33. 92 

299, 307 

32 

70, 80. 82, 83, 85 
70, 80 

71 
70 

71 
70 
70 

71 
70 



u 



Uleiota iiidica 
Ulonia culinaris 
perroudi 
Ulominae . . 
Upis ceramboides 
Urogonoporus 
Uroproctus 60, 6 



assamensis 
Urotricha globosa 



63 
66, 71,7 



7', 78 



V 

Vallisneria 
Vanesia rambhaensis 
Varanus bengalensis 
tVelorita delicatula 
Veneridae . . 
Venus 

excavata 
Vercoia 



35. 36. 



Page 
150 

168 

168 

167 

169 

'9 

79,81, 

82,83 

74< 7S- 82 

179 



250 

32 

35, 94 

94, 95 

94 

384 



w 



Wallago attii 
Woodwardia 



Yoldia tenella 



Ziziphus jujuba 



251, 263 
327 



94 



I ON SOME UNDESCRIBED APHIDES FROM 

THE COLLECTION OF THE INDIAN 

MUSEUM. 

By P. VAN DER GooT, Salatiga, Java. 

During the course of the years 1913 to 1915, Mr. F. H, 
Gravely had the kindness to submit to me for investigation and 
determination some 60 tubes of Aphididae from the collections of 
the Indian Museum. Some of the specimens contained therein 
had already been determined by Mr. Buckton; many others proved 
to be well-known species, already described either from Europe or 
from other tropical countries. Three of them however, appeared 
to me to be new to science. With the kind permission of the 
Superintendent of the Indian Museum I am giving here the descrip- 
tions of these new species, 

Rhopalosiphum indicum, sp. nov. 

Apterous viviparous female. 

Measurements. 



Length of body 


. . 4-40 mm 


Breadth of body 


.. 270 ,, 


Length of antennae 


•• 4-30 ,, 


Length of siphunculi 


.. 1-03 ., 


Length of cauda 


• • 0-47 ,, 



Colour. — Body light reddish-brown. Eyes black. Antennae 
black. Legs brownish-black, the base of the femur more 3^ellovvish. 
Siphunculi dark brown. Cauda light reddish-brown. 

Morphological characters^. — Body ovate, slightly arched; dor- 
sum with only a few very short hairs, integument with distinct 
reticulation. 

Antennae nearly as long as the body, with a few short hairs ; 
relative lengths of the last antennal joints about as : 70. 45. 34. 
12. 58. The third antennal joint bears at its base some 5 small 
circular sensoriae. Frontal tubercles fairly large, distinctly protrud- 
ing and rounded on the inner side. 

Rostrum reaching to the second pair of coxae. 

Siphunculi relatively short, only slightly swollen, considerably 
constricted near the tip, with a fine reticulation only at the 

' Notes from specimen in alcohol. 



Records of the Indian Museum. 



[Vol. XII, 



extreme top-end. Cauda short, club-shaped, about hah" as long as 
the cornicles. 

Legs fairly long, with a few short hairs. 

Biology. — Collected in large numbers on the shoots of an 
unknown plant. Only wingless females and numerous larvae 
were captured. 

Locality. — Kurseong, Darjeeling (4700 feet), 24-xi-i9io. 

Types in the collection of the Indian Museum, Calcutta ; 
labelled no. 9602/19. 




Fig. I. — Rhopalosiphiim indicuni, sp. nov. 
Hind part of body of apterous female (dorsal view) X 50. 

Trichosiphum minutum^ sp. nov. 

Alate viviparous female. 

Measurements. 



Length of body 
Breadth of body 
Length of antennae 
Length of siphunculi 
Expanse of wings 



2*07 mm. 
0-86 ,, 
1-98 „ 

770 ,, 



Colour. — Head and thorax brown, abdomen brownish-yellow. 
Eyes red. Antennae black. Legs yellowish. vSiphunculi yellowish- 
brown. Wings hyaline. 

Morphological characters^. — Body elongate, with the forehead, 
the prothorax and the sides of the body clothed with long bristles. 

Antennae nearly as long as the body, with numerous bristles, 
seven- jointed; relative lengths of the five last antennal joints 
about as: 40. 13. 15. 12. 16. The third antennal joint bears on 



1 Notes from specimen in alcohol. 



T916.] p. VAN DER GooT : New Indian Aphides. 3 

its whole length about 20 sensoriae ; these are broadlj' oval and 
occupy nearly half of the antennal circumference. 

Rostrum slender, reaching to the third pair of coxae, 

Siphunculi very long, about f- of the whole length of the 
body, cylindrical, thin, with numerous fine bristles. Cauda obso- 
lete, the last abdominal segment broadly rounded, without a small 
point at the apex. Rudimentary gonapophyses apparently 3. 

Wings with the same venation as in the genus Greenidea, with 
the media II curved. Hooking-hairs 2. 

Biology. — The aphids described above were collected on a 
jungle creeper. Only a number of nymphs and a few winged indi- 
viduals were caught. 

Locality. — Kurseong, Darjeeling (4700 feet). 

Types in the collection of the Indian Museum, Calcutta ; 
labelled no. 9620/19. 

Note. 

In the genus Trichosiphum (Perg.), v. d. G. I include those 
species that differ from Greenidea, Schout., in having the caudal 
segment broadly rounded, not protruding into a small point like 
the species of the genus Greenidea. 

Pterochlorus tropicalis, sp. nov. 
Apterous viviparous female. 
Measurements. 

Length of body . . 5*40 mm. 

Breadth of body .. 2*90 ,, 

Length of antennae . . 270 ,, 

Siphunculi (diam.) .. 0"i4 ,, 

Colour. — Head and prothorax brownish- black ; the rest of the 
body greyish, with four longitudinal rows of minute black dots 
on the dorsum. Eyes, antennae and legs black. vSiphunculi sur- 
rounded by a broad black ring ; caudal segment brownish-black. 

Morphological characters '. — Body broadly oval, slightly arched, 
clothed with numerous fine, short hairs. 

Antennae half as long as the body, six-jointed, with numerous 
short hairs; relative lengths of the last four joints about as : 55. 
23. 18. II. 

Distribution of sensoriae on the different joints mostly as fol- 
lows : III9 IVe Vi VIi ( +i). The secondary sensoriae are round 
and small. Processus terminalis fairly long, about \ of the length 
of the entire sixth joint. 

Rostrum long, nearly reaching halfway to the ventral part of 
the abdomen. 

Siphunculi only very slightly protruding, nearly reduced to 
pores. Caudal segment not constricted at the base, nearly obso- 
lete. Rudimentary gonapophyses 3. 

' Notes from specimen in alcohol. 



4 Records of the Indian Museum. [V^ol. XII, 1916.] 

Legs long, especially the hind shins, with numerous short fine 
hairs. 

Alafe viviparous female. 

Measurements. 

Length of body . . 5 05 mm. 

Breadth of body . . 2 07 ,, 

Length of antennae . . 2*52 ,, 

Siphunculi (diam.) . . 0'I3 ,, 

Expanse of wings .. I2'70 ,, 

Colour. — Head light brownish, thorax black, abdomen grey- 
ish. Eyes black. Antennae and legs black. Siphunculi sur- 
rounded by a broad dark ring ; caudal segment black. 

Forewings beautifully tinged with brown ; the following parts 
only are h^^aline : the basal part of the radial cell, a small stretch 
from the base of the media I to the first furcation, a larger one 
from the first furcation point of the media I to the top of the 




Fig. 2. — Pterocliloinis fropicalis, sp. nov. 
Forewing of alate female, X 60. 

media II, the tips of all veins except the cubitus and the base of 
the forewing itself. The hind wings are uniformly light brownish. 

Morphological characters '. — Body clothed with numerous fine, 
short hairs. 

Antennae about half as long as the body ; relative lengths of 
the four last antennal joints about as: 50. 25. 24. 15. The distri- 
bution of sensoriae on the different joints is as follows: IIIi2-ie 
IV 5-7 Vi VI 1 (+6). The secondary sensoriae are circular and 

moderately small. 

Rostrum , siphunculi, etc. as in the apterous female. 

Wings with the normal Pterochlorus-YonoXion, the media II 
distinctly curved. Hooking-hairs 6 in number. 

Foodplant. — Unknown. 

Locality. — Dibrugarh, N.-E. Assam (Abor Exped.), 20-xi-i9ii. 

Types \nt\\Q: collection of the Indian Museum, Calcutta; la- 
belled no. 4695/20. 



' Notes from specimen in alcohol. 



II. ON SOME INDIAN CESTODA. 

PART II. 

5>'T. vSouTHwEi.iv, A.R.C.Sc. {Lond.), F.L.S., F.Z.S., Dy. Director 

of Fisheries, Bengal, Bihar and Orissa ; Honorary 

Assistant, Indian Museum, Calcutta. 

The object of the present paper is merely to record a number 
of parasites for the most part found commonly in certain Indian 
birds. The characters given for the members of the family Ptycho- 
bothridae are after Liihe. Those of the families Tetrabothridae, 
Davaineidae and Hymenolepidae are after Ransom. The writer 
hopes in succeeding papers to confine his attention to the ana- 
tomical details of a series of families. 

Family PTYCHOBOTHRIIDAE, Liihe, 1910. 
Scolex unarmed, or rarely armed, and always with two sepa- 
rate", more or less perfectly-developed suckers, which may excep- 
tionally be replaced by a pseudo-scolex. Neck absent. Outer dif- 
ferentiation of segments always present, but very often imperfect, 
or partly obliterated by secondary formation of folds. Genital 
organs numerous, but single in each proglottid. Genital aper- 
tures single. Cirrus devoid of spines, but with a striated cuticle. 
Apertures of the cirrus and vagina behind that of the uterus, ar- 
ranged on the surface, or on the edge. In the first instance, the 
openings of the cirrus and vagina are on the opposite surface to 
that of the uterus, and are approximately median. No muscular 
bulbus in connection with the inner extremity of the cirrus sac. 
Usually, the receptaculum seminis is missing, but, if present, it 
has the shape of a small caecum, placed internal to, and in close 
connection with, the vagina. Ovary and shell-gland median ; 
testes in two side fields. Uterus never takes the shape of a 
rosette, but usually exists as a wide, uniform cavity. Eggs with 
a thin shell, without operculum ; embryonic development takes 
place in the uterus, and, on account of the cessation of the egg- 
production, all the eggs of the tapeworm are ultimately in the 
same stage of development. The cessation of egg-production 
however, appears, in some species, to have a relation to the 
season of the year. Mature in the intestine of fish. Development 
of larva unknown. There are two sub-families. 

Characters of the sub-families. 

(ij Apertures of cirrus and vagina arranged on the sur- 
face ... ... ... ... Ptychobothriinae 

(2) Apertures of cirrus and vagina arranged on the edges... Amphicotylinae. 



6 Records of the Indian Mttseum. [Vol,. XII, 

Sub-family AMPHICOTYLINAE, Liihe, 1910. 

Scolex unarmed. Mouth of cirrus and vagina marginal, 
irregularly alternate, with a more or less strongly pronounced 
partiality for being unilateral. The deferens strongly coiled. 
Mouth of uterus median ; aperture of uterus large. In the in- 
testines of fishes. In fresh water there are two genera. 

Characters of the genera. 

(i) Yolk-gland follicles numerous, Irregularlv formed, in 
loose coils, and situated, at least partly, between the 
muscle bundles ... ... ... ... Abotliritim. 

(2) Yolk-gland follicles in small numbers, on each side, 
pressed together very closely, on the outer edge of the 
nerve strands, between the main longitudinal nerves 
and the muscles ... ... ... ... Bathybothriitm. 

Abothrium (Van Ben.), 1871. 

Scolex unarmed, not very long, with two strong (but not 
specially deep) suckers. Segmentation of the posterior part of 
the strobila is often indistinct on account of the superficial wrinkUng 
of the skin. The ripe segments are considerably wider than long. 
Nerve strands lateral, dorsal to the cirrus sac and vagina. 
Vesicula seminis lies exclusively between the two nerve strands, 
in the two lateral fields. Yolk-glands irregular in shape, in two 
broad lateral fields, situated partly between the bundles of the 
longitudinal muscles. The yolk-glands of each proglottid do not 
appear to be distinctly separated. Ovary somewhat bean or 
kidney-shaped, median, and situated, along with the aperture of 
the uterus, ventrally. Shell-gland dorsal to ovary. Aperture of 
uterus, in mature proglottides, is a uniform sac, almost filling the 
whole of the nerve areas. 

The uterine apertures appear as a more or less distinctl}^ 
marked median, longitudinal, furrow, running the length of the 
proglottides. There are three species. 

Characters of the species. 

(i) Yolk-glands partly internal to the longitudinal muscles. 

Parasitic in Gadoid fishes ... ... ... A. nigosiim. 

(2) Yolk-glands only between the longitudinal muscles. 

Parasitic in Salmonidae ... ... ...A. crassum. 

(3) Yolk-glands partly external to the longitudinal muscles. 

'Pavai^\i\c \n Chi'pea fijiia (Cuvxer) ... ... A. fragile 

(After T.uhe) 

Abothrium crassum (Bloch, 1779) Ivuhe, 1910. 

ZEV ^-V"- Pyloric caeca of Sebago Lake, H. B. Ward. 
Salmo sebago. Maine, U.S.A. 

One specimen named and presented by Professor H. B. Ward 
of the University of Illinois. 
Literature: — Liihe, 1910. 



1916.] T. Southwell : Indian Cestoda. 7 

Family TBTRA.BOTHRIIDAE, Linton, 1891. 
= Tetrabothridae, Diesing, 1850 (in part). 

Family diagnosis: — Taenioidea. Scolex unarmed, without 
rostellum. Suckers with an outwardly projecting auricular 
appendage on the anterior border. Neck short. vSegments of 
the strobila, with the exception of the hindermost segments, 
always much broader than long. A single set of reproductive 
organs in each segment. Genital pores unilateral. Genital cloaca 
deep. Cirrus pouch small, and nearly spherical, united with the 
genital cloaca by a muscular cloacal canal. Yolk-gland in front 
of ovary. Eggs with three transparent envelopes. Adult in birds 
and mammals. 

Tj^pe-genus : — Tetrabothrius, Rudolphi, 1819. 

Genus Tetrabothrius, Rudolphi, 18 19. 

= Ampliotercotyle, Diesing, 1863 (type, A. elegans, Diesing, 1863). 
= Frosthecocofvle, Monticelli, 1892 (type, Taenia fosteri, Krefft, 1871). 
=: Bothi'idiofaenia, Lonnberg, 1896 (type. Taenia erosti'is. Lonn., 18891. 

Generic diagnosis : — Tetrabothriidae. With the characters of 
the family. 
Type-species: — Bothriocephalus jnacrocephalus , Rudolphi, 1810. 

Tetrabothrius erostris, Lonnberg, 1889. 

ZEV ^'ii? Sterna bergii. Tamblegam, T. Southwell. Ten specimens. 
(Tern). C-eylon. 

This parasite has previously been recorded from Ceylon by 
Shipley. 

Synonym: — Taenia immerina, Abildg., 1790. 

Literature: — »Shipley, 1903; Johnston, 1912 ; Ransom, 1909; 
Fuhrmann, 1908 ; Monticelli. 1892. 

Family DAVAINEIDAE, Fuhrmann, 1907. 
(See Rec. hid. Miis., Vol. IX, Part V, Dec. 1913). ' 

Sub-family DAVAINEINAE, Braun, 1900. 

Sub-family diagnosis : — Davaineidae. Suckers armed around 
periphery with several rings ol booklets which are unstable or 
persistent. Uterus breaks down into numerous egg capsules, each 
containing one or more eggs. Para-uterine organs not present. 
Adult in mammals and birds. 

Type-genus: — Davainea, Blanchard and Railliet, 1891. 

Genus Cotugnia, Diamare, 1893. 

Generic diagnosis: — Davaineinae, Segments broader than 
long. Several layers of longitudinal muscles, alternating with 
layers of transverse muscle fibres. A double set of reproductive 



8 Recoyds of the Indian Museum. [Vol. XII, 

organs in each segment, close to the longitudmal excretory canals. 
Genital canals pass dorsal of longitudinal excretor}'- vessels and 
nerve. Testicles numerous, filling the median fields, and extend- 
ing dorsal of the female organs and excretory vessels to the 
extreme edge of the medullary parenchyma. Uterus breaks down 
and the eggs become enclosed singly in egg capsules. Adult in 
birds. 

Type-species: — Cotugnia digonopora (Pasquale 1890) Diamare^ 
1893. 

Cotugnia digonopora (Pasquale, 1890) Diamare, 1893. 

ZKV ^-if-" Covviis niacroyhyucluis. Calcutta. T. Southwell. Two speci- 

(Crow). mens. 

ZEV ^-V-^ Galliis galliisl Berhampur, Major Lane, I. M.S. Five spe- 
(Hen). Bengal. cimens. 

Length 70 mm. Greatest breadth 6 mm. Length of last 
segment i"2 mm. Head i'4 mm. broad. Suckers '45 mm. broad, 
globular and prominent. Spines on rostellum exceedingly minute. 
Neck absent. Genital pores double and situated about the middle 
of the segment. Calcareous corpuscles large. 

Synonym: — Taenia digonopora, Pasquale, 1890. 

Literatuie: — Pasquale, 1890; Diamare, 1893; Stiles and 
Hassall, 1896; Ransom, 1909. 

Genus Davainca, Blanchard and Railliet^ 1891. 

= Botliriotaeiiia, Railliet, 1892, 
(type, Dibothriiim lo>igicolle, Molin, 1858). 

Generic diagnosis : — Davaineinae. A single set of reproductive 
organs in each segment. Genital pores unilateral or occasionally 
irregularly alternate. Uterus breaks down into egg capsules each 
containing one or several eggs. Adult in mammals and birds. 

Type-species: — Davainea proglottina (Davaine i860) Blan- 
chard, 1891. 

Davainea friedbergeri (Von Linstow, 1878) R. Blanchard, 

1891. 

ZEV ^-"/-i Pavo nigripennis. Berhampur, Major I,ane, I. M.S. One 

(Black shouldered Bengal. specimen, 

peacock). 

I very doubtfully refer a single damaged specimen to the 
above species. It measured 140 mm. long and the greatest 
breadth was 5 mm. The genital pores were unilateral. 
Synonyms: — Taenia friedbergeri, Von Linstow, 1878. 
Taenia agama, Megnin, 1878. 
Taenia infundibuliformis var. phasianorum, Meg- 
nin, 1878. 
Taenia cesticillus var. phasianorum, Neumann^ 
1878. 
Literature: — Stiles and Hassall, 1896. 



1916.] T. vSouTHWEix : Indian Cestoda. ^ 9 

Davainca cchinobothrida (Megnin, 1881) R. Blanchard, 

1891. 

ZEV -"Y-^ Galliis baiikjvd. Berhampur, Major Lane, I. M.S. Over thirl)- 
(Hen). Bengal. specimens. 

Synonyms: — Taenia infundihuliforniis, Megnin (part.), 
1880. 
Taenia echinobothrida, ]\legnin, 1880. 
Literature: — Stiles and Hassall, 1896; Ransom, 1905. 

Davainea corvina, Fiihrmann, 1905. 

/EV ^y-'-i Pica riistica. Zoological Gardens, Two specimens. 
(Magpie.) Calcutta. 

Our specimens agree exactly with the description given by 
Fiihrmann. 

Synonym: — Davainea polycalcaria, von Linstow, 1906. 
Literature : — Fiihrmann, 1905 ; von Linstow, 1906. 
Examples of this parasite were also obtained as under: — 

Nine specimens, Corvns niacrorliyn- Chilka Lake, Orissa. T. Southwell, 

clius. 
Twenty-one ,, Corvns macrorliyii- Sabour, Bihar. T. Southwell. 

chiis and Corvns 

splendens. 
Twelve ,, Corvns splendens. Calcutta. T. Southwell. 

Six ,, Corvns macrorhyn- Colombo, Ceylon. T. Southwell. 

chns and Corvns 

sp!endei?s. 

Davainea cesticillus (Molin, 1858) R. Blanchard, 1891. 
ZEV ^y.s Small intestine of chick. ? H. B. Ward. 

One specimen named and presented by Professor H. B. Ward 
of the University of Illinois. The locality is not given ; presum- 
ably it is from the United States (Nebraska ?). 

Literature: — Molin, 1858; R. Blanchard, 1891. 

Family HYMENOLEPIDIDAE, Railliet and Henry, 1909. 

For characters of famil)'^ see Rec. Ind. Mus., Vol. IX, Pt. V, 
December 1913. 

Sub-family HYMENOLEPIDINAE, Ransom, 1909. 

= Hymenolepinae, Perrier, 1897. 

Subfamily diagnosis: — Hymenolepididae. Rostellum armed 
with a single crown of hooks, or more rarely rudimentarj^ and un- 
armed. Segments always broader than long. Longitudinal mus- 
cles in two layers. A single set of reproductive organs in each 
segment. Genital pores unilateral. Genital canals pass on the 
dorsal side of the longitudinal excretory vessels and nerve. Vas 
deferens always short, with seminal vesicle. Uterus persistent, 
sac-like. Eggs with three transparent shells. Adult in mammals 
and birds. 

Type-genus: — Hymoiolepis, Weinland, 1858. 



lo Records of the Indian Museum. [Voiv. XII, 

Genus Hymenolepis, Weinland, 1858. 

= Diplocantliiis, Weinlnnd, 185S ; = Lepidotrias, Weinland, 1858 ; = Di-e- 
panidotaenia, Railliet, 1892 ; ^ Dicranotaenia, Railliet, 1892 ; = Echinocotyle, 
Blanchard, 1891 ; =: TriorcJiis, Clerc, 1903. 

Generic diagnosis: — Hymenolepidinae. Rostellum generally 
well developed, and armed with a single crown of hooks, or more 
rarely, rudimentary and unarmed. Suckers in adult rarely 
armed with hooklets of fine spines ; are generally unarmed. 
Testicles three in each segment. Vas deferens with internal {i.e. 
inside the cirrus pouch) as well as external seminal vesicle (out- 
side the cirrus pouch). Sacculus accessorius generally absent. 
Adult in mammals and birds. 

Type-species: — Hymenolepis flavo punctata^ Weinland, 1858, 

r^ Hymejiolepis diminjita {^.udo\\ih\, i8iq) Blanchard, i8gi. 

Sub-genus Hymenolepis, Weinland, 1858. 

Sub-generic diagnosis : — Hymenolepis. Rostellum generally 
well developed, and armed with a single crown of hooks, or more 
rarely rudimentary and unarmed. Suckers in adults generally 
unarmed, or, rarely, their entire surface may be covered with 
rudimentary spines. Sacculus accessorius generally absent. Adult 
in mammals and birds. 

Type-species : — Hymenolepis -fiavop^mctata, Weinland, 1858. 

=i Hymenolepis diiuiniitd (Rud., iSlQ) Blanchard, 1891. 

Hymenolepis capillaroides ? Fiihrmann, 1906. 

ZEV -^y-i Corvus macroyhynchus. Calcutta. T. Southwell. Twenty-eight 
(Crow). specimens. 

The specimens under consideration are placed in the above 
species with a little uncertainty. The rostellum in every specimen 
was slightly damaged and the exact size and number of spines 
could not be determined. If not absolutely identical, our speci- 
mens are closel}" related to Hymenolepis capillaroides , Fiihrmann. 

The specimens measured 25 to 30 mm. long. The last seg- 
ments were "22 mm. long, '22 mm. broad, and the edges were 
slightly salient. In one specimen, only, which was more mature 
than the rest, and which had contracted to a greater degree, the 
greatest breadth was -58 mm. The head is -14 mm. long, and -2 
mm. broad. As far as could be ascertained, there was a single 
row of 10 hooks, '021 mm. long, on the rostellum. The suckers 
were '098 mm. in diameter. Neck -4 mm. long. The genital 
pores unilateral. The testes are three in number, and have a 
diameter of 'ob mm. Two were situated posteriorly, one on each 
side, and the third was lateral and somewhat anterior. The vari- 
able disposition of the testes noted by Fiihrmann ( 1906 ) was not 
seen in our specimens. The cirrus bulb measured '12 mm. long, 
and was situated anteriorly. The internal extremity abutted on 
the posterior edge of the preceding segment. It will be noted 



1916.] T. SouTHWEix : Indian Cestoda. il 

that the last segments in our specimens are square. The segments 
figured by Fiihrmann for this species are broader than long, but 
possibly those figured were not the posterior gravid segments. 
Literature : — Fiihrmann, 1906. 

Hymenolcpis sp. 

ZRV <^-<y-" Chenopns atrafa. Berhampur, Major I .anc, I. M.S. Numerous 
(Black Australian Bengal. specimens, 

swan I . 

Our specimens are without heads and were badly preserved. 
They measured 17 mm. long and "6 mm. broad. The segments 
are all much longer than broad, the genital pores are all on one 
side and are situated anteriorly. The cirrus pouch is enormous. 
It is placed at the anterior end and lies transversely across two- 
thirds of the segment. It is one-third the length of the segment. 
The penis is also very long and covered with exceedingh" minute 
spines. As far as could be ascertained, the testes were three in 
number, and posterior and median in situation. Near them, and on 
the side opposite to that on which the genital pore occurs, was a 
darkish mass, which appeared to be the ovary. No further ana- 
tomical details could be determined. 

Hymenolepis sp. 

Two specimens from Chrysophlegma flavinucha (woodpecker) , 
Zoological Gardens, Calcutta. The specimens, which have been 
permanently stained and mounted, were so badly preserved that, 
although they appear to be new species, I have been obliged to 
defer a careful description until more material can be collected. 
They measure 25 mm. long and are thin and filamentous. The 
last few segments were gravid. Tlie rostellum is comparatively 
long, and, owing to contraction, appears wrinkled. There appears 
to be a single row of ten hooks, Suckers unarmed. There is no 
neck. The first segments are much broader than long and the last 
few are slightly longer ('26 mm.) than broad ('19 mm.). The 
reproductive apertures are almost, but not quite, unilateral. The 
testes are very large and are three in number, two being posterior, 
(one on each side of the middle hue) and the third being anterior 
to one of the former. The genital cloaca is large, and the cirrus 
small The ovary and vittelarium appear to be situated between, 
and anterior to the two posterior testes. The receptaculum 
seminis (?) was enormous, and situated anteriorly, in the middle 
of the segment. The uterus occupied the whole of the last seg- 
ments, and appeared to be divided into two, by a dorso-ventral 
septum running from the anterior to the posterior end of the 
segment. 

Sub-genus Drepanidotaenia, Railliet, 1892. 

Head provided with a single row of uniform hooks, few 
(8-20) in number, with dorsal root much longer than ventral root, 



12 Records of the Indian Museum. [Vol.. XII, 

the latter always small, with prong directed posteriorly when the 
rostellum contracts. 

Type-species: — Drepaiiidotaenia lanceolata (Bloch, 1782) 
Railliet, 1892. 

Larval stages have been found in small crustaceans. 

This genus does not appear to differ from Hymenolepis, 
Weinland, 1858. 

Drepanidotaenia gracilis (? Zeder, 1803) Krabbe, 1869, 
Railliet, 1892. 

ZEV ii-9=-*-^- Phenicopfenis Zoological Gardens, T. Southwell. About two 
rosens. (Flamingo). Calcutta. hundred 

specimens. 

Synonyms : — Taenia coUo-longissimo , Bloch, 1782 ? 

Taenia gracilis (Zeder) Rudolphi, 1810 ? 
Halysis gracilis, Zeder, 1803 ? 

Literature: — Stiles and Hassall, 1896; Fiihrmann, 1908. 

Stiles gives the following description of this worm : — 

"About 270 mm. long, by i"5 to 2 mm. broad. Head sub-glob- 
ular. Rostellum cylindrical, obtuse, armed with a simple crown 

of 8 hooks, 77-80/' long. Neck very short, genital pores 

unilateral. Receptaculum pyriform ; penis unarmed. Genital sinus 
provided with large spines." Our specimens, although extremely 
small, undoubtedly are of the same species. They measured only 
3 mm. long and '5 mm. broad. The posterior segments measured 
•15 mm. long and '6 mm. broad, and were not fully mature. They 
showed a tendency to become square. The genital pores are uni- 
lateral. The rostellum is cyHndrical and measures "3 mm. long. 
It is marked by transverse wrinkles. The hooks are eight in 
nutnber and they measure '08 mm. long. These hooks are attached 
to the extreme end of the rostellum. There is no neck. The 
testes are three in number, and are situated posteriorly, two being 
lateral and one median. The vas deferens rtms nearly straight to 
the anterior aporose corner of the segments and swells into a very 
large vesicula seminalis. The cirrus is long. The penis was not 
observed. Unfortunately the female reproductive organs did not 
appear to be sufficiently developed to admit of description. 

For notes on the systematic position of this genus see 
Fiihrmann, 1908. 

Genus Diorchis, Clerc, 1903. 

Generic diagnosis : — Hymenolepidinae. Rostellum with a 
single crown of ten hooks with long dorsal and short ventral roots, 
or exceptionally, with very short dorsal root and with ventral root 
nearly as long as the blade. Surface of the suckers may be armed 
with minute spines. Inner longitudinal muscular layer consisting 
of 8 bundles, 4 dorsal and 4 ventral. Two testicles in each seg- 
ment. Adult in birds. 

Type-species: — Diorchis acuminata (Clerc 1902) Clerc, 1903. 



1916.] T. Southwell : Indian Cesloda. 13 

Diorchis americana, Ransom, 1909. 

ZEV ^^^^ Deiidi'ocitta sp. Zoological Gardens, T. Soulhwcll. Eigliteen 
(Tree pie). Calcutta. specimerib. 

In our specimens the surface of the suckers was armed with 
very minute spines, but the longitudinal bands of muscles were 
not well defined . The segments were mature, but not gravid, 
and were extremely short. Three fairly well defined sizes were 
noticed, for which the following are the dimensions : — 

I. II. III. 

Length of specimens 9 mm. 12 mm. 16 mm. 

Extreme breadth -y mm. '5 mm. "9 mm. 

Breadth of head 'i mm. -i mm. "i mm. 

Literature: — Ransom, 1909. 

Sub-family DIPYLIDIINAE.StW^s, 1896. 
Genus Gryporhynchus, Nordman, 1832. 

^ Acanthociri'us, Fiihrmann, 1907. 
(type, Acanthocirmis macrorostratiis, Fuhrmann, 1907). 

Generic diagnosis : — Dipylidiinae. Rostellum armed. Genital 
pores unilateral. Genital canals pass between the longitudinal 
excretor^^ vessels. Root of cirrus with one or two pairs of power- 
ful spines lying in special pockets. Testicles few (6-8). Uterus 
sac-like. Adult in birds. 

Type- species : — Gryporhynchus pusillus, Nordman, 1832. 

= larva of Acanthocirrus macropeos (Wedl, 1856). 
Gryporhynchus (Acanthocirrus) macropeos, Wedl, 1855. 

ZEV ^^^ Ardeola gi'ayi. Zoological Gardens, T.Southwell. Over one 
(Pond heron). Calcutta. hundred 

specimens. 

Our specimens measured 4 mm. long, and each consisted of 
about 30 segments. The last segments measured "3 mm. long, and 
■3 mm. broad. The neck is i mm. long. The number of hooks 
could not be satisfactorily counted as many of them were missing. 
They measured 03 mm. long. The genital pores are unilateral, and 
are situated in the anterior ^ of the segment. The penis is •13 mm. 
long, '018 mm. broad, and covered with exceedingly minute spines. 
There are six testes. The cirrus sac is situated transversely at the 
anterior and extends two-thirds the distance across the segment. 
The uterus, in gravid segments, consisted of two circular sacs, one 
on each side, which appeared to communicate with each other. 

Synonyms: — Taenia macropeos, Wedl, 1856. 

Acanthocirrus macropeos, Fiihrmann, 1908. 

Literature: — Fiihrmann, 1907; Fiihrmann, 1908; Ransom, 
1909 ; Liihe, 1910. 

For a discussion of the synonomy of this species the reader is 
referred to Ransom and Fiihrmann (above). 



14 Records of the Indian Museum. [Vol. XII, 

Sub-family PARUTERININAE, Ransom, 1909. 

=: Paruterinae, I^'iihrmann, 1907. 

Sub-family diagnosis: — Hymenolepididae. Scolex usualh' 
aimed, rarely without rostellum. A single (double in Stilesia 
provisionally placed in the sub-family) set of reproductive organs 
in each segment. Uterus simple or double, with a single para ute- 
rine organ, or multiple with several para- uterine organs, into which 
the eggs pass in the final stage of development of the segment. 
Adult in birds and Amphibia. [Stilesia in mammals). 

Type-genus: — Paruterina, Fiihrmann, 1906. 

Genus Metroliasthes, Ransom, 1900. 

Generic diagnosis : — Paruterininae, Scolex unarmed, without 
rostellum. Genital pores irregularly alternate. Genital canals pass 
between dorsal and ventral longitudinal excretory vessels and dorsal 
of the nerve. Testicles rather numerous (20 to 40) in posterior 
portion of segment. Uterus single in origin and consisting, when 
fully developed, of two spherical sacs touching in the median line 
and more or less fused with one another. A para-uterine organ, 
developing in front of the uterus, and into which the eggs pass, 
becomes transformed finally into a spherical egg capsule, Adult 
in birds. 

Type-species : — Metroliasthes lucida, Ransom, 1900. 

Mctroliasthes lucida. Ransom, 1900. 

^EV ^-V-^- Galliis bankival Angul, Orissa Vety. Asstt., Twenty-one 
(Hen). Angul, Orissa. specimens. 

Our specimens measured 12 cms. long and I'J mm. broad. 
Literature: — Ransom, 1905. 

Genus Nematotaenia, lyiihe, 1899. 

Generic diagnosis: — Paruterininae. Scolex unarmed, without 
rostellum. Segmentation of strobila distinct only at posterior end. 
Strobila circular in cross section. Genital pores alternate. Geni- 
tal canals pass dorsal of longitudinal excretory vessels and nerves.- 
Uteius horse-shoe shaped, disappears early. Eggs, through the 
action of numerous para-uterine organs, become inclosed in egg 
capsules, 3 or 4 in each capsule. Adult in Amphibia, 

Type-species: — Taenia dispar, Goeze, 1782. 

Nematotaenia dispar (Goeze 1782) lyiihe, 1910. 

ZEV ^V*^ Bufo sp. Lucknow. Capt. F. H. Stewart, I. M.S. 

(toad). 

A few fragments are referred to this species with some hesita- 
tion. Only one damaged scolex was available. The anterior 
extremity was unsegmented, and the worm was circular in cross 
section. Segmentation was distinct only towards the posterior 
extremity. The fragments in no case measured more than 7 mm. 

Literature: — Ltihe, igio ; Ransom, 1909. 



1916.] T. Southwell : Indian Cestoda. 15 

Family ICHTHYOTAENIIDAE, Ariola, 1899. 

Head with four unarmed suckers. Genitalia as in other Tetra- 
phyllidae. The uterus does not open to the exterior by a 
pore. The openings of the cirrus and vagina are situated at the 
side. Yolk-glands double, situated laterally and consisting of 
numerous follicles. Ovary situated behind the shell gland. Adult 
in reptiles and birds. 

Genus Ichthyotacnia, IyOnn.,1894. 

Scolex armed with four suckers and often a fifth apical sucker. 
Genital pores marginal, irregularly alternate. Testes numerous. 
The vagina forms coils at the posterior margin of the proglottides 
in the middle, which replace a receptaculum seminis. Parasitic in 
fishes, birds and reptiles. 

Ichthyotaenia (Acanthotaenia) nilotica, Beddard, 1913. 

ZEV -e-^yt^ Varanus bengalensis. Balugaon, T. Southwell. Numerous 

Orissa. specimens. 

Our specimens agree in every detail with the excellent descrip- 
tion given by Beddard of this species in the P.Z.S., London, 
March 1913, and to this paper the reader is referred for a discus- 
sion of the relationship of the genus. 

The lizard was caught near a small freshwater ditch 8 miles 
north of Balugaon, and about 3 miles from the west shore of the 
Chilka lake. 

Ichthyotaenia (Protcocephalus) pusillus, Ward, 1910. 

ZEV ^-^ Cristovomer namaycush. Lake Temnogami, H. B. Ward. 

Ontario, Canada. 

One specimen named and presented by Professor H. B, Ward 
of the University of Illinois. 

Literature: — Benedict, 1900; George La Rue, 1909; George 
La Rue, 1911; Johnstone, 1911 ; Beddard, 1913. 

Ichthyotaenia (Proteocephalus) ambloplitis (Leidy, 1887) 

Benedict, 1900. 

ZEV ^*^^ Stomach of ^w/« Put-in-Bay, Ohio, H.B.Ward. 
calva. l^S.A. 

Two specimens, named and presented by Professor H. B. Ward 
of the University of Illinois. 

Literature: — Benedict, 1900; George La Rue, 1909; George 
La Rue, 1911 ; Johnstone, 1911 ; Beddard, 1913. 

Considerable confusion exists with reference to many of the 
genera included in the family Ichthyotaeniidae, Areola, 1899. It 
is not proposed in the present paper attempting to review the 
anatomical relationsiiips of the various genera in question. 
Details relating thereto are given in the papers cited. La Rue 



1 6 Records of the Indian Museum. [Vol. XII, 

(1911), as a result of a prolonged investigation of the three 
genera ProteocephaUts, Weinland, Ichthyotaenia, Lonnberg, and 
Tetracotyliis, IMonticelli. stated that "■ the genera Proteocephalus , 

Weinland, and Ichthyotaenia, Lonnberg, are synonyms. 

The name Proteocephalus, being the older should be retained to 
designate the species". 

Unfortunately I have not the material before me for the 
proper discussion of the question, and I have therefore left the 
species in the nominal genus to which they were referred by their 
authors. 

ADDENDUM. 

Professor Albert Hassall of the United States Department of 
Agriculture (Bureau of Animal Industry) has called my attention 
to certain remarks I made in my report " On some Indian Cestoda, 
Part I" {Rec. Ind. Mus., Vol. IX, Part V, December, 1913) 
regarding the occurrence of certain cestode parasites in particular 
hosts. 

As a result, I have examined the material again and now 
wish to make the following remarks and corrections. 

Cysticercus cellulosac (pp. 292 and 293 of above paper). 

I remarked upon the fact that it was unusual to find this 
larva in the muscles of Bos taurus. The armature on the head 
led me to the above identification. Professor Hassall, referring 
to this identification remarks that " we have been in the habit of 
determining the armed larval form in the sheep as a larval stage 
of Taenia solium {i.e. as C. cellulosae) , but on closer examination 
Dr. Ransom determined that it was an entirely different form, 

and experiment proved this to be a fact. Perhaps you may 

find that these forms represent new species." 

Unfortunately, I have been unable to obtain a copy of Dr. 
Ransom's paper (Occurrence of Cysticercus of Taenia solium in 
sheep. Amer. Ass. Adv. Sc. N.Y., U.S. (703), June 19, 1908). 
My material consists of three cysts only. The further elucidation 
of the exact nature of these larval forms will depend on my being 
able to obtain more and fresh material. 

I was in error with regard to the identification of Cysticercus 
fasciolaris and C. pisiformis (page 292). The data with reference 
to the above species should read as follows : — 

Hymcnolcpis murina (Duj., 1845) R. Blanchard, 1891. 

ZEV ^V-^ Mus decnma- CAcxxna.''. Col. A. Alcock, I.M.S. 

mts. 

ZEV ^V-- Mus raftusi Lahore, Punjab, Punjab Civil Vety. Dept. 
ZEV A^P No history. 

ZEV -^V^^ Mus rattusl Berhampur, Major Clayton Lane, I.M.S. 

Bengal. 

ZEV 8|^ Musratfusl Calcutta. Major R. Milne, LM.S. 



iqi6.] T. vSouTHWRLL : Indian Cestoda. 17 

Cysticercus fasciolaris, Rudolphi, 1808. 
(Larval form of Taenia crassicollis, Rudolphi, 1810). 

ZEV A^-'f-^ [AveroiAfiis Amritsar, Capt. G. I. Davis, I. M.S. 
rattiis. PunJMb. 

Large numbers of larval forms of C. fasciolaris were removed 
from their cy^ts. The error aro^e in consequence of the above 
two forms being mixed in the same bottle. 

Thysanosoma sp., Diesing, 1835. 

The specimens referred to T. actinioides on page 286 were 
two in number. One specimen consisted of a scolex and about 
12 seg'Tients only ; the other was a mature worm. The measure- 
ments of the latter were as follows : — 

Entire length of worm ... ... ... ... 90 mm. 

Greatest breadth ... .. ... ... 13 mm. 

Length of longest segment ... ... ... i mm. 

Breadth of head ... ... ... 19 mm. 

Scolex unarmed. Rostellum absent. There was no neck. The 
suckers are four in number and sym netrical. They face slightly 
forward. Proglottides numerous and always much broader than 
long throughout the entire length of the worm. The posterior 
flap of each segment markedly overhangs the succeeding seg- 
ment both dorsall}^ and ventrall3^ As I had only one complete 
specimen, sections were not prepared but I concluded from an 
examination of the external character that the specimen was Thy- 
sanosojiia actinioides. 

A more careful examination which I have just made has, 
however, conclusively proved that the specimen, although prob- 
ably belonging to the genus Thysanosoma, does not agree with 
any known species of that genus. 

The followih.5 details have been definitely established: — 

The head is unarmed. There are four symmetrical sucker^ 
directed slightly forward. Th°re is no utisegmented portion suc- 
ceeding the head, but the neck portion is flattened dorso-ven- 
trally. The posterior ed^e of each segment very markedly over- 
laps the succee ling segment both dorsally a id ventrally, but the 
free edge of this flap is puckered or frilled and not broken up 
into fimbriae. The gonads appear in the nth segment, on one 
side only, and the genitil pores are absolutely unilateral. Details 
with reference to the reproductive organs could not be made out 
satisfactorily as the miteiiil was badlv prese:ved, but sections of 
the terminal segment lei m? to the definite conjlu-ion that many 
para-uterine organs were present surrounding small clusters of 
embryos. 

It is clear that the^e characters distinguish this worm both 
from T. actinioidss and from T. giardii. The only other known 
species of this genus is T. aamhianum, Beddard (Contributions to 
the anatomy and systematic arrangement of tVie Ces'oidea, b_v 



i8 Records of the Indian Museum. [Vol. XII, 

F. E. Beddard, F.R.S., P.Z.S., September 1911, London). Our 
specimens agree with T. gamhianum in all the anatomical details 
which I have been able to elucidate, particularly with reference to 
the unilateral genital pores, the probable presence of numerous 
para-uterine organs, the absence of armature on the head and the 
absence of a " neck. " At the same time, judging from Beddard's 
figures, I am of opinion that our specimens are not T. gamhianum. 

Beddard's specimens were from the Gambian Pouched Rat 
(Cricelomys gamhianus). Our specimens are recorded as being 
obtained from Rhinoceros sondaicus, but no locality or date is 
given, nor is the name of the collector known. The absence of 
armature on the head, the absence of a neck, together with uni- 
lateral genital pores and the presence of para-uterine organs leads 
me to place our specimens in the genus Thysanosoma. A determi- 
nation of the species will not be possible until more material is 
available. 

In view of the preceding facts, the details given on page 286 
of my report {vide ante) under " Thysanosoma actinioides , Diesing, 
1835 " should read as follows: — 

Thysanosoma sp. 

ZEV -^j-- R/iinocei'us soinininis. '.' 

Literature :— Beddard, 191 r. 

LITERATURE CITED. 

Beddard, F. E. — Contributions to the Anatomy and systematic 
arrangement of the Cestoidea. VII. On six species 
of tape-worms from reptiles, belonging to the genus 
Ichthyotaenia. P.Z.S., London, March 1913. 

Benedict, H. M. — On the structure of two fish tapeworms of the 
genus Proteocephalus, Weinland, 1858. Studies from 
Zool. Lab. University of Nebraska. No. 33, 1900, 

Blanchard, R. — Notices Helminthologiques (Deuxieme serie). 7. 
Cestodes du groupe des Anoplocephalinae. Mem. Soc 
Zool. France, 1891. 

Braun, M. — Vermes (Cestodes), in Bronn's Thierreich, Bd. IV, 
Abt. I a., 1893. 

Clerc. — Contribution a I'etude de la faune helminthologique 
de I'Oural. Rev. Suisse Zool., Geneva, Vol. II, No. 2, 
pp. 241-368, fig. 1-6, pis. viii-xl, 1903. 
As above. Comm.unication preliminaire. Pts. i and 2. 
Zool. Anz., Leipzig. No. 678, Vol. xxv, pp. 569-575, 
figs. 1-5; No. 681, Vol. xxv, pp. 658-664, 1902. 

Diamare, V. — Note su' cestodi. Boll. Soc. Nat. Napoli, Ser. I, 
Vol. VII, Fasc. I-II, Naples, 1893. 

Fiihrmann, O.— Cen/y//j. Bakt. Par. Infek.,1 Abt. , Bd. XXXII, 1902. 
Zool. Anz., Bd. XXVII, Liepzig, 1904. 



igi6 ] T. vSouTHWKij, : I iidian Cesloda. 19 

Fiihrmann, O.—Zool. Jahyb., Bd. XX, Heft 2, Jena, 1904. 

Die Hvnienolc pis- Arten der vogel. Cenlrlb. Bakt. Par. 

Infek., Band XLI, Jena, 1906. 
Bekannte und neue Orter und Genera von Vogeltanien. 
Cenirlb. Bakt. Par. Infek , I Abt , Bd. XLV, Heft 6, 
Jena, 1907 
Die Cestoden der vogel. Zool. Jahrb., 1908, Supplement- 
band X, Heft I. ' 
Neue Davaineiden. Centrlb. Bakt. Par. Infek., I Abt., Bd. 

XLIX. Heft I, 1909. 
Sitzungsb. Kais. Akad. Wiss. Wien, Math.-naturw. Klasse, 
Bd. CXXI, Abt. I, P. I, 1912. 
Johnston, T. Harvey. — Proteocephalus gallardi, a new cestode 
from the black snake. Annals of the Queensland Mu- 
seum , Nov. igir. 
On a re-examination of the types of Kreffts species of ces- 
toda in the Australian Museum, Sydney. Part 1, 19 12. 
Liihe, M. — Urogonoporus, etc. Archives de Parasitologic, T. V, 
Paris, 1902. 
Die Susswasserfauna Deutschlands, Heft 18, Cestodes, 
Jena, 1910. 
Molin, R. — Prospectus helrainthum, quae in prodroma fauna hel- 
minthologicae Venetiae continuentur. Sitzungsb. Kais. 
Akad. Wiss. Wien, Math.-naturw. Klasse, Vol. xx. No. 
14, 1858, pp. 127-158. 
Monticelli, F. vS. — Appunti sui Cestodaria. Napoli, 1892. 
Pasquale, A. — Le Tanie dei polli di massaua (descrizione di una 
nuova specie). Giorn. Internaz. Sci. Med., Anno XII, 
Fasc. 23, 1890. 
Ransom, H. B. — Tapeworms of American Chickens and Turkeys. 
U. S. Dep. of Agric'., Bureau of Animal Industry. Circu- 
lar No. 85, Washington, 1905. 
Taenoid Cestodes of N. American birds. Smith. Inst. U. S. 
Nat. Mus., Bull. 69, Washington, 1909 
Rue, George R. La — On the morphology and development of a 
new Cestode of the genus Proteocephalus, Weinland. 
Studies from the Zool. Lab. University of Nebraska. No. 

95, 1909- . 
A revision of the family Proteocephalidae. Contributions 

from the Zool. Lab. University of Illinois. Zoologischen 

Anzeiger, Bd. XXXVIII, Nos 22 & 23, 191 1, 

Shipley, A. K. — In Willey's Zoological Results, Part V, Cambridge, 
1900. 
Some Parasites from Ceylon. Spolia Zeyl., Vol. I, pt. 3, 
Colombo, Nov. 1903. 

Southwell, T.— Ceylon Marine Biological Reports, Part VI, 
Colombo, January 1912, 

Stiles, C. W.— A revision of the adult tapeworms of Hares and 
Rabbits. Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus., Vol. XIX, Washing- 
ton, 1897. 



20 Records of the Indian Museum. [Vol. XII^ 1916.] 

Stiles and Hassall. — A revision of the adult Cestodes of cattle, 

sheep and allied animals. Bull. No. 4, U.S. Dep. of 

Agric, Washington, 1893. 
Tapeworms of poultry. Bull. No. 12, U.S. Dep. of Agric, 

Bureau of Animal Industry, Washington, 1896. 
Von Ivinstow. — Helminths from the Collection of the Colombo 

Museum. Spolia Zeyl., Vol. Ill pt. 2, Januar}' 1906. 



III. NOTES ON ORIENTAL DRAGONFLIES 
IN THE INDIAN MUSEUM. 

No. 4.— The genus PSEUDAGRION. 

By F. F. Laid LAW. 

Genus Pseudagrion, de Selys. 

A genus showing the essential features of the dominant section 
of tha Agrioninae both as regards venation and in other respects. 
It ranges from S. Africa through the tropical regions of the old 
world to Australia (I can find no record for Ceylon). It is charac- 
terized especially by the following characters : — 

(i) Extent of petiolation of the wing This ceases at the 
level of the basal post-costal nerve; this latter lies at a 
level between the first and second antenodal nerves, 
(ii) Presence of post-ocular spots, and by certain sexual char- 
acters : — 
{a) Pterostigmata of all four wings of males alike. 
{b) Shape of superior anal appendages of males. 
(0 Structure of hind margin of prothorax of femaie. 
(d) Absence of a spine on the ventral surface of the eight 
abdominal segment of the female. 

Morton has published admirable figures of the anal append- 
ages of three species, viz. P. deconsm (Ramb.), P. hypenmlas, Selys, 
and of P. bidentaticm, Morton {Trans. Ent. Soc. London^ 1907, pl- 
xxiv). Tilly ard has figured the anal appendages of a male P. 
ausiyalasiae , Selys, horn Queensland, the base of the wing of the 
same species, and the prothorax of the female of an allied form P. 
aureofrons, Tillyard, the latter exhibiting the characteristic generic 
features {Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S. Wales, X.'KX.V 11,^, pis. xlviii,xlix). 
The anal appendages of P. mic^rocephalum (Ramb.) have been 
figured by myself in a recent paper {Mem. Ind. Mus., V, p. 179). 
In the Museum collection examples of four Indian species are pre- 
served. 

I give below a table which will, I hope, be of service in facili- 
tating the recognition of the Indian species. 

Characters of Males. 

A. Abdominal segments 1-7 with black or bronze black markings. 
i. Segments 8, g, lobUck. 

a. Thorax black with olive-coloured ante- 
humeral band, superior anal appendage 
bifurcate in profile, with a single large 
internal tooth ... ... ... P. hypernielas, Se\ys. 



22 Records of the Indian Muse-nm. [Vol. XII, 

/>. Thorax blue with a black line on either 
side of carina. Superior anal append- 
age falcate in profile with a large in- 
ternal two-pointed tooth ... ... P. biiioifatiiui, Morton, 

ii. Segment-s 8-9 blue,l 10 black dorsally. 

r. Dorsum of thorax with three narrow 
black stripes, Superior anal append- 
ag'es as long as segment 10 ; marked 
with white internally ... ... P. microcephnlum (Ramb.). 

(/. Dorsum of thorax with three broad black 
bands. Superior anal appendages onlj' 

half as long as segment 10 ... P. niistralnsiae, Selvs. 

iii. Segments 8, 9, 10 blue.' 

c. Upper lip and head largelj' blue, anal 
border of segment 10 moderately exca- 
vate, spines on border very small, Su- 
perior anal appendages unequally bifur- 
cate in profile, black above, whitish be- 
low ; lower pair truncate, much shorter 
than upper pair ... ... P. deconim {Ka.mh.). 

f. Upper lip and head largely orange-brown : 
anal border of segment 10 deeply exca- 
vate, beset with strong black spines. 
Upper anal appendages not bifurcate in 
profile. Lower pair nearly as long, 
pointed ... ... ... P^ nibriceps, Selys. 

P» .\bdominal segments all blue except 9, 

which is black above ... ... P. aziiyeitin, Selys. 

To suppl}- any key for discrimination between the females of 
these species is a much more difficult matter. 

In the first place the Museum material includes female speci- 
mens of two species only, viz. of P. microcephnlum in some abun- 
dance, and a solitary female of P. decorum. Secondly the females 
of P. hypermelas and of P. hidentatum are quite unknown and 
thirdly it is evident that characters which can be used for pur- 
poses of identification are much harder to find than in the case of 
the males. 

In a general way the female of P. azureum can be contrasted 
with those of the other species that have been described by the 
absence in it of any black markings on the abdomen, which ac- 
cording to Selys is bluish (bleuatre) in colour, paler beneath. 

The remaining species of which any account is available all 
have black markings on the abdomen on segments 1-9. 

P. microcephalum has the post-ocular spots of a fairly bright 
blue colour with blue on the thorax, P. decorum, which is a rather 
larger insect, has green post-ocular spots and the ground colour of 
the thorax is distinctly green. That of P. australasiae is also 
larger than P. microcephalum and according to Selys the black 
marks on segments 8 and 9 are more extensive than in the smaller 
species. 

Lastly P. rubriceps is described as having the upper lip of an 
orange colour, the rest of the head yellowish with blue post-ocu- 
lar spots, the thorax orange yellow. 



' The sutures of these segments are ringed with black. 



igi6. 



F. F. r.AiDLAW : Oriental Dra^onHies. 



23 



P. australasiae, Selys. 

/'. australasiae, Kirby, Cat. Odonata, p. 18^ ; Tilljvird, Proc. Linn. Soc. 
N, S. Wales, XXXVII, 3, p. 469, pi. xlviii, fig's. 23-2.^ ; pi. xlix, fi_o-. 15. 

Range: — India to Australia. 

Recorded Stations: — Pulo Besaor (S^/ys), Queensland (5g/ys), 
Cape York to National Park, N.S.W. {Tilly ard). 

The males of this species are exceedingly like those of P. 
microcephalum. The build is a trifle more robust than in that 
species, and the three black bands of the thorax are much broader, 
whilst the black marking on segment lo of the abdomen is more 
extensive. Examination of the anal appendages of the males will 
facilitate the distinction of the two species. 

I believe the Calcutta specimens can be further differentiated 
from Australian forms by the characters of the anal appendages, 
but have no specimens for comparison. Tillyard, loc. cit. , describes 
the superior anal appendages as having the upper lobe shorter 
than the lower ; in the Calcutta specimens both lobes appear equal 
in length, whilst the lower appendages in the latter seem to me to 
be rather more conical and tapering. The specimens are, however, 
not in the best of condition and study of further material is neces- 
sary for a satisfactory determination of possible differences. A 
priori I am inclined to expect the two forms to be moderateh^ 
distinct. 

The Museum collection contains an old specimen of the male 
labelled by Selys. I have found also a single male from Calcutta , 
amongst specimens of Ischnura senegalensis. 

Approximate dimensions : 

cf» abdomen 31-32 mm., hind-wing 21 mm. 
9 ,, 2930 mm., ,, 21 mm. 



P. microcephalum (Ramber). 

P. mici'ocephal/nn, Ivirby, Cat. Odonata, p. 153 ; Selys, Ann. Mas. Geiwva, 
(2) X, p. 83 (1891) ; Martin, Mission Pavie (sep.), p. iS ; Ris, Arcliiv. 
f. Naturgesch ., lyoo, p. 198. 

Range: — India, Burma, Tonkin, Malaya to the Bismark 
Archipelago. 

I have recently dealt with this species 
in an account of Odonata found about 
Lake Chilka in Orissa(Mem. /w^. Mws., 
V, p 178, 1915). In the accompan5nng 
diagrammatic text-figure I show the 
colour pattern of the thorax of the 
female viewed from above The dotted 
areas are brown in colour, the imshaded 
spaces blue. The immature male has 
the same colouring ; in mature males the 
brown is entirely replaced by black on Pig- i 




-Dorsum of thorax 



the three stripes. 



of p. microcephalum $ 



24 



Records of the Indian Museum. 



[Vol. XII, 



P. microcejyhalmn is evidently one of the commonest of 
dragonflies in the low-lying parts of Bengal. 
Approximate dimensions : 

& abdomen 27-20 mm., hind-wing 17-18 mm. 



27-28 mm. 



18-19 ^"^• 



P. decorum (Ramb.). 

P. decoyiim, Kirby, Cat. Odonata, p. 153 ; Kruger, Stettin Evt., Zeit., i8q8, 
p. 119; Morton, Trans. Ent. Soc. London, 1907, p. 307, pi. xxiv, fig-.s. 

7,8. 

2SS Calcutta, 4-i-i5 HF)- 

I ^ Calcutta (^-Y~). Labjiled by de Selys. 

1 1^ Sar Lake, Pari District, Orissa, 9-iv-i5 (-ttt-)- 

Range : — Peninsular India, Sumatra. 

Recorded Stations : — 'Qom.h^y [Ranibur), Deesa {Morton), 
Soekranda, Sumatra {Kruger). 

The adult male closely resembles the newly-emerged male of 
the closely allied P. microcephalum in colour, so far as the thora- 
cic pattern is concerned. 

Approximate dimensions : 

cf abdomen 28-30 mm., hind- wing 19 mm. 
2 ,, 25-27 mm., ., 18 mm. 

P. rubriceps, Selys, 

P. nibricefjs, Kirby, Cat. Odonata, p. iS^ : Selys, Ann. Mas. Geneva, (2) X, 

p. 83(1891). 
I (^ imnaturo, witli larval skin. Museum Tank, Calcutta (-f§-). 

Range: — India, Burma, Java. 

Recorded Stations :—Fa\on {Selys), " India" {Selys), " Java" 
{Selys). 

The specimen was preserved shortly after emerging, conse- 
quently it is not possible to make any examination of the wing 
characters. 

Fortunately the anal appendages are well shown. The 
colouring of the thorax resembles closely that of an immature 

P. decorum. In general the insect both 
as regards colour and the structure of the 
anal appendages is a typical Pseudagrion. 
Segments 9-10 of the abdomen are (appa- 
rentl}') blue ; 8 would appear to have a 
longitudinal bronze band dorsally, narrc^w- 
ing in front. The upper pair of anal 
appendages are tinged with brown, the 
lower pair are white. The curious series 
of spines developed along the border of the 
excavation of segment 10 are black (see 
text-fig 2). 
vSelys' accounts of tiie colouring of the abdomen are contra- 
dictory. In the synopsis he states that segment 10 is black 




Fig. 2 — Apex of abdo- 
men of P. rttbi'iceps seen 
from the side obliquely. 



1916.] F. F. Laidlaw : Oriental Dragonfiies. 25 

above; in the " Odonates de Birmanie" that segments 8-10 are 
light blue. The present specimen is too young to show colours 
satisfactorily, but so far as one can iud^e segment 10 is blue. 

The larval skin, which is lacking the. gill lamellae, shows a close 
general resemblance to that of P. microcephalum described by me. 

Approximate dimensions : 

& abdomen 29 mm., hind-wing 18-20 mm. 
9 ,, 27-29 mm., ,, 19-20 mm. 

P. bidcntatum, Morton. 

P. bidentatiim, Morton, Trans. Eiit. Soc. Lo)ition. IQ07, p. .^u8, pi. xxi\-, fiys. 
11-12. 

Recorded Stations : — Deesa, Gujerat. 

Dimensions: cf abdomen 23*75 mm., hind-wing r6"5 mm. 

P. hypcrmelas, Selys. 

P. hy{)ermelas, Kirby, Cat. Odonata, p. 183 ; Kruger, Stettin Ent. Zeit., 
1898, p. 119 ; Morton, Trans. Ent. Soc. London, 1907, p. 307, pi. xxiv, 
figs. g-io. 

Range: — India, Sumatra. 

Recorded Stations: — Deesa (Morton), Sambong, Sumatra 
{Krug r). 

Approximate dimensions: & abdomen 15-18 mm., hind-wing 
24-26 mm. 

P, azureum, Selys. 

P. azureum, Selys, Ann. Mus. Genovn, (21 X, pp. 81-83 (1891). 

Range : — Burma. 

Rxoried Stations : — Karin Hills in June; Cobapo in Septem- 
ber (Selys). 

Dimensions: cf abdomen 30-36 mm., hind-wing 21-23 mm. 
9 ,,36 mm , ,,23 mm. 



IV. R f: P O R T ON A COLLECTION OF 

MOIvLUSCA FROM THE COCHIN AND 

ENNUR BACKWATERS. 

Bv H. B. Preston. F.Z.S. 



Class GASTROPODA. 

Order OPISTHOBRANCHIATA. 

Suborder Tectibranchiata. 

Family Tornatinidae. 

Retusa estriata (Preston). 

Rec. Ind. Mils. X, 1914, p. ,^03 (as Toriiatiua). 

Cochin backvx^ater, near Ernakulam {F. H. Gravely). 

Mr, T. Iredale having pointed out to the author that the 
name " Tornatina'" is antedated by Retusa, the latter must take 
precedence. 

Retusa ennurensis, sp. n. 

Shell cylindrical, whitish in the median part, painted with a 
broad pale red band above, and 
having the base also painted red, 
but of a deeper hue than that on 
the upper part of the shell, sculp- 
tured throughout with fine, closely 
set, revolving striae which the mi- 
croscope reveals to be also of a red- 
dish colour, transverseh^ marked 
with microscopic growth striae ; 
apex deeply sunken ; columella 
margin white, polished, calloused, 
sloping, scarcely curved ; labrum 
acute, slightly inwardly bent over 

the aperture in the lower median part ; aperture narrow, straight- 
ish, broadening above and especially below ; interior of shell 
tinged with lilac. 

Alt. 55, diam. 225 mm. 

Hab. — Ennur backwater, Madras. 





Fig. I, 



Fig. lb. — 



Retusa eniiiii'eiisis, 
sp. n. X 4. 

du., sculpture, 

X 8. 



28 



Records of the Indian Museum. 



[Vol. XII, 



Order PROSOBRANCHIATA. 

Suborder Pectin ibranchi ATA. 

Family Nassidae. 

Nassa denegabilis, Preston. 

Rec. Ind. Mits. X, 1914, pp. -•q7-2C)S. 
Ennur backwater, Madras ; Cochin backwater, near Krna- 
kulam. 

Nassa kiencri, Desh. 

Moll. He Boiirbo)!, 1863, p. I2y. 

Cochin backwater, near Ernakulam ; a single young specimen 
{F. H. Gravely). 



Nassa orissaensis,' Preston var. ennurensis, var. n. 

Shell differing from the type in its much larger size, it having 

6 whorls, and in its more exag- 
geratedly fusiform shape, more- 
over both the canal and aper- 
ture are narrower. 

Alt. 10*25, diam. maj. 4"5, 
diam. min. 4 mm. 

Aperture : alt. 4*25, diam. 
2 mm. 

Hah. — Hnnur backwater, 
Madras {Type) ; Canal near 
Fig. 2.— Nassa orissaensis var. emiur- Chingrighatta, outskirts of 

Fig. 2a.- do., '"'"' 'Sculpture; Calcutta (a single specimen 

X 6. only). 





Alectrion unicolorata, Kiener. 

Monog. Biiccinnm, p. 60, pi. xix, fig. 69. 

Cochin backwater, near Ernakulam ; a single young specimen 
(F. H. Gravely). 

Nassodonta insignis, H. Ad. 

Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1866, p. 445. 

Cochin backwater, near Ernakulam (F. H. Gravely). 

In the Proc. Malac. Soc. London, vol. I, 1^95, pp. 257-258, 
Mr, Edgar A. Smith doubted the validity of the genus Nassodonta, 
this view however the author is unable to accept, hence its rein- 
statement in the present paper. 



' Rec. hid. Mits. X. p. 299. 



i9t6.] 



H B. Preston : South Indian MoUusca. 



2Q 




Fig. 



-Nassodoiita gravely i, 
sp. n. X 4. 



Nassodonta graveiyi, sp. n. 

Shell allied to A^ imignis. H. Ad.^ with which it occurs, but 
differing from that species in its nar- 
rower form, external dark blackish 
brown colour and internal dark livid 
violet tinge. 

Alt. 7"5, diam. maj. 4 "25, diam. 
min. 3"5 mm. 

Aperture: alt. 3'5, diam. i'5 mm. 

Hab. — Cochin backwater, near 
Ernakulam ; Type {F. H. Gravely) ; 
Ennur backwater, Madras. 

At first sight this might be taken 
for a variety of A^ insignis, the author 
has, however, been able to examine a 
fairly large series of both forms, and as they never seem to blend 
he is of opinion that the one above described is quite worthy of 
specific rank. 

Family Muricidae. 

Thais carinifera, Lamark. 

Aiiivi. sai/s Vertebres, VII, 1822, p. 241. 

Cochin backwater, near Ernakulam ; a single very immature 
specimen [F . H. Gravely). 

Family CerithiidaE. 
Bittium graveiyi, sp. n. 

Shell minute, fusiform, purplish-brown, encircled by a spiral 
band of a darker colour ; whorls 
6, spirally lirate, not convex; 
suture impressed ; columella 
margin curved; labrum acute, 
3'ellowish ; aperture sub-cir- 
cular. 

Alt. 2-25, diam. maj. 1-25 
(nearly) mm 

Hab. — Cochin backwater, 
near Ernakulam (F. H . Gravely). 




F"iG. 4. — BittiiDii gyavelyi, sp. n. X 8. 
F'iG. 4«. — do., sculpture, 

X 16. 



Potatnides (Tympanotonos) fluviatilis, Pot. and Mich. 

Cat. Moll, de Dottni, p. 363, pi. xxi, figs. 19-20. 
Cochin backwater, near Ernakulam {F. H. Gravely). 



Family Tiaridae. 
Tiara (Platia) scabra (Miiller). 

Hist. Venn. II, p. 136 (as Bucci iijiiu). 

Ennur backwater, Madras. 



30 



Records of the Indian Mnsem 



[Vol. XII, 



Family lyiTTORiNiDAE. 
Littorina arboricola, Reeve. 

Conch. Icon. pi. vi, Hgs. 27, a and b. 

Ennur backwater, Madras. 



w« 



Family Fossariuae. 
Conradia cancellata, sp. n. 

Shell perforate, small, turbinate, in dead condition whitish ; 

whorls 4, the first two smooth, the 
remainder cancellately sculptured with 
spiral lirae crossed by slightly ob- 
lique, transverse riblets, the last whorl 
convex ; suture impressed ; perfora- 
tion narrow, smooth within ; columel- 
la margin descending in a curve, lab- 
rum continuous : aperture rather ob- 
lique, ovate. 

Alt. 3, diam. maj. 2*5, diam. min. 
I '75 mm. 

Aperture: alt, i'25, diam. i mm. 

Hah. — Ennur backwater, Madras. 




W» 



5 a 



Fig. 5. — Coiiradia cancellata , 

sp. n. X 6. 

Fig. 5fl. — tU).. sculpture, 

X 12. 



Family Litiopidae. 
Alaba rectangulata, Craven. 

Ann. Soc. Mai. Belg. XCM, 18S0. 

Ennur backwater, Madras. 



Family Rissoidae. 
Iravadia funcrea, sp. n. 

Shell small, ovately fusiform, covered with a grayish-black 

periostracum ; remaining whorls 3, 
sculptured with coarse, spiral lirae 
and showing traces of transverse stria- 
tion ; suture impressed ; columella 
margin vertically descending, diffused 
above into a very restricted, well 
defined, parietal callus which joins 
it with the upper margin of the 
labrum ; labrum acute, angled by 
the terminations of the spiral lirae ; 
aperture slightly oblique, elliptical. 

i\lt. 2"75, diam. maj. 2, diam. min. 
i"25 mm. 

Hab. — Cochin backwater, near Ernakulam 




<o<3u. 



F"xG. (^. — Iravadia funerea, sp. 

n. X 8. 

Fig. 6,7.— do.. sculpture, 

X 16. 



1916. 



H. B. Preston : South Indian Mollnsca. 



31 



Iravadia cnnurensis, sp. n. 

Shell imperforate, small, cylindrically fusiform, in 
condition yellowish- white ; whorls 5, 
sculptured with regular, revolving 
lirae. crossed by fine, transverse striae ; 
suture impressed, finely lirate above ; 
columella margin slightly oblique, dif- 
fused above into a thick, restricted 
and well defined, parietal callus which 
unites it with the upper margin of the 
labrum ; labrum varicosel}^ thickened 
behind, outwardly bevelled, angled 
at each point of termination of the 
revolving lirae ; aperture rather ob- 
lique, ovate. 

Alt. 4, diam. maj. i'75, diam. jnin 

Aperture : alt. i. diam. '75 mm. 

Hab. — Ennur backwater, Madras. 



dead 




biG. 7.- 

FlG. J(1. 



i"5 mm. 






Iravadid eiDiiireiisis, 

sp. n. X 6. 

sculpture, 

X 18. 



do. 



jv^ 




Iravadia annandalei, sp. n. 

Shell aUied to T. ennurensis, but differing from that species in 
its more slender form, more acute 
lirations and obsolete, transverse striae, 
these latter being only indistinctly 
visible with the aid of the micro- 
scope ; the aperture moreover is much 
smaller than in that species and the 
labrum is quite continuous, while it 
is possessed of an extra whorl, making 
6 in all 

Alt. 375, diam. m.aj. 1-5, diam. 
min. i*3 mm. 

Aperture: alt. i, diam. -5 mm. 

Hab. — Ennur backwater, Madras 
{Type); Cochin backwater, near Ernakulam {F. H. Gravely) 




Fig. 8.- 
FiG. 8«.- 



^ct. 



Iravadid aniiandalei , 

sp. n. X 6. 

do., sculpture, 

X 1 8. 



Family Hydrobiidae. 
Stenothyra perpumila, sp. n. 

Shell perforate, minute, shortly fusiform, semi-transparent, 
polished, shining, milky white; whorls 
4, the last convex; suture well im- 
pressed; umbilicus narrow; labrum 
continuous, opaque white, a little 
projecting in front; aperture almost IV 

circular. 

xA.lt. i'5, diam. 75 mm. 

Hab. — Cochin backwater, near 
Ernakulam (F. H. Gravely) ^la.ii.— Stenothyra pevpumila, 

^ ^ '' sp. n. X 16. 




32 Records of the Indian Museum. [Vol. XII, 

Family Naticidae. 
Natica marochiensis, Gmelin. 

Syst. Nat. p. 3675, No. 15. 
Cochin backwater, near Ernakulam (F. H. Gravely) ; Ennur 
backwater, Madras (a single yoang and dead specimen from each 
localit}^). 

Family Turritellidae. 
Vanesia rambhacnsis (Preston). 
Rec. Ind. Miis. X, 1914, p. 297 (as Terebya). 
Cochin backwater, near Ernakulam ; a single specimen only 
{F. H. Gravely). 

The author is again indebted to Mr. T. Iredale for the above 
generic rectification ; the genus Vanesi<i was described by A. Adams 
in the Annals and Maga/.ine of Natural History, ser. 3, vol. VIII, 
i85i, p. 242, in whose opinion it might be allied to Mesalia and 
here the present writer is inclined to leave it ; it certsinly is far 
removed from the Opisthobranch genera among which it has found 
a resting place in the British Museum collection. 

Syrnola attcnuata (A, Ad.). 

Sovverby, Tlies. Condi., II, p. Si i, pi. clxxi, fig. 22, 1S55 {^as Obeliscus). 
Cochin backwater, near Ernakulam : a single dead and worn 
specimen {F. H. Gravely). 

Pyrgulina humilis (Preston). 

Journ Malac. XII, 1905, p. 6, pi. ii, fig. 27 (as Pyyamidella{^Mor inula) ) , 
Rec. Ind. Mits. XI, 1915, pp. 294.-295 as Morinula). 

Cochin backwater, near Ernakulam {F . H . Gravely). 

Mr. T. Iredale has again kindly assisted the author to a 
correction of former errors, he having very rightly pointed out 
that the present species should not remain in the genus Mormula 
but should be removed to Pyrgulina . 

var. chilkacnsis (Preston), 

Rec. Ind. Miis. XI, 1915, p. 295 (as Mormula). 
Cochin backwater, near Ernakulam ; found with the type 
from [F. H. Gravely). 

Family Neritidae. 
Theodoxus sowerbyana (Recluz). 

Pi'oc. Zool. Soc. London, 1S42, |3. 174. 

Ennur backwater, Madras. 



1916.] 



H. B. Preston : South Indian Mollusca. 



33 



Scptaria crepidularia, Lamarck. 

Anim. s. Vert., VI, 2, 1822. 

Cochin backwater, near Ernakulam (F. H. Gravely). 




Family Trochidae. 
Solariella dcliciosa, sp. n. 

Shell small, rather depressedly conic, pale brownish-green, 
somewhat iridescent above, 
highly so on the base ; whorls 
4, carinately nngled above the 
last volution also strongly 
carinate at the periphery, the 
upper carination being tuber- 
cled throuo;hont, sculptured 
with very minute and closely- 
set microscopic, oblique, trans- 
verse striae ; suture impressed ; 
umbilicus o^'namented round 
its margin with a broad ridge 
cros^^ed by regular trans\'erse 
costulae, moderately wide ; columella margin rather sharply 
curved, outwardly expanded above into a white win^-like projec- 
tion ; labrum acute, sharply angled at the base and at the point of 
tenninati -n of the periph ral carina; aperture depressedly dia- 
mond shaped. 

Alt I 5, diam. mai ^'25, diam min. 2 75 mm. 

Aperture: alt. i 25, diam i mm. 

Hab. — Ennur backwater, Madras. 

Family Cyclostrematidae. 
Cyclostrema niicans, A. Ad. 

Proc. 7ool. Soc. London, 1850, p. 44. 

Ennur backwater, Madras. 



Figs. 10, loa, 10^. — Solariella delictosa, 
sp. n. X 6. 



Class LAMELLIBRANCHTATA. 

Order TEIRAHRANCHIATA. 

Subo-der OSTRACEA. 

Family Ostreidae. 

Ostrea madrasensis, sp. n. 

This species may be compared to 0. virginica, Gmel. (= 
0. cana'!ensi<>, Lk.) from the E Coast of N. America, it is however 
of a straighter form and thinner texture and is much more 
foliaceous externally, the left valve is more concave and the 



34 



Records of the Indian Museum. [Vol. XII, 





Figs, ii, iii?. — Ostrea ^nadrasensis, sp. n. i nat. size. 



1916.] H. B. Preston : South Indian Mollusca. 35 

inner margins of both valves, as well as the muscular scars, are of 
a deep purplish-black colour. 

Long. 140, lat. 56-5 mm. 

Hab. — Ennur backwater, Madras. 

Placuna placenta, Ivinnaeus. 

Syst. Nat. ed. 12, p. 1154. (as Anomid), 

Ennur backwater, Madras (a single very juvenile specimen). 

Suborder Mytilagea. 

Famil}' Mytilidae. 

Modiola taprobanensiSt Preston. 

Anil. Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 8, XVI, p. 84. 

Ennur backwater, Madras. 

Suborder Arcacea. 

Family ArcidaE. 
Area granosa, Lin. 

Syst. Nat. ed. 12, p. 1142. 
Ennur backwater, Madras. 

Area (Fossularca) lactea, Lin. 

Syst. Nat, ed. 12, p. 1141. 
Ennur backwater, Madras. 

Suborder Conchacea. 

Family Veneridae. 
Meretrix casta, Chem. 

Conch. Cab. VI, p. 349, pi. xxxiii, fio-. 346 (as J^enus). 

Ennur backwater, Madras ; Cochin backwater, near Eina- 
kulam ; juvenile specimens (F. H. Gravely). 

Meretrix ovum, Hanley. 

Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1845, p. 21. 

Cochin backwater, near Ernakulam. ' 

Meretrix zonaria, Lamki 

Anim. s. Vert. VI, p. 299. 

Ennur backwater, Madras ; Cochin backwater, near Ernaku- 
lam (young specimens only from both localities). 



36 



Records of the Indian Museum. 



[Vol. XII, 



Chionc itnbricata, Sow. 

Tlies. Conch. II, 1855, p. 71 "5, pi. clvi, figs. 81, 82. 
Ennur backwater, Madras. 

Chionc marmorata, Lamarck. 

Aiiim. s. Vert. VI, p. 261 (as Venus). 

Cochin backwater, near Ernakulam. 

Anomalocardia squamosa, Lin. 

Syst. Nat. ed. 12, p. 1133. 
Ennur backwater, Madras (young "Specimens only). 

Tapes turgida, Lamk. 

Anim. s. Vert. VI, p. 355 (as Venns). 

Cochin backwater, near Ernakulam. 



Family Cyrenidae. 
Corbicula cochincnsis, sp n. 

Shell small, trigonal, covered generilly and in type specimen 

with a dark olive periostra- 
cuni and showing traces of 
radiate painting; umbones 
not very prominent ; both 
valves somewhat contracted 
in the posterior median part 
and coarsely and somewhat 
distantly, co'icentrically 
ridged towards the umbonal 
region, the ridges becoming 
suddenly finer and more 
closelv-set and continuing 
thus to the margin ; dorsal 
mirsin narrowly and strong- 
ly arched : ventral margin 
gently anteriorly rounded, 
elongited and very slightly 
contracted posteriorly ; pos- 
terior i-ide steeply sloping 
above, rounded below ; anterior side also sloping above, rostrate 
below ; inteiior of shell dark livid brownish- violet. 

Long. 4, lat. 4 5 mm. 

Hab. — Cochin backwater, near Ernakulam. 




-Corbt'czila cochinensis sp. n. 

X 6. 

do., hinge, x 9. 



I9i6.] 



H. B. Preston : South Indian Molhisca. 



37 



The colour of the shell varies from pale yellowish-green in 
certain specimens to the dark olive of the type, the paler speci- 
mens showing a number of narrow, transverse, radiate, reddish 
or purple bands. 

Vclorita delicatula, sp. n. 

Shell small, trigonal, dark olive gray; both valves sculp- 
tured in the umbonal rt-gion 
with fine, distant, concentric 
ridges which suddenly be- 
come much more serried and 
numerous, continuing thus 
throughout the remainder of 
the shell; umbones small, 
inwardly bent ; doisal mar- 
gin sharply arched ; ventral 
margin slightly rounded, a 
little contracted posteriorly ; 
anterior side rather sharply 
rounded; posterior side slop- 
ing above angularly round- 
ed and a little rosirate below. 

Long. 5, lat. 6 mm. 

Hab. — Cochin back- 
water, near Ernakulam 
{F. H. Gravely). 




Figs. 13, 130. — Velorita delicatula, 

sp. n. X 4. 

Fig. 136. — do., hinge, X 8. 



Family Solenidae. 
Cultellus subellipticus, Dunk. 

Proc. Zool. Soc- London, 1861, p. 421. 

Knnur backwater, Madras (two young specimens). 
Solen fonesi, Dunk. 

Proc. Zool. Soc. Londo)i, 1861, p. 419. 

Cochin backwater, near Ernakulam (F. H. Gravely). 



Order DIBRANCHIA. 

Suborder LuciNACEA. 

Family Lucinidae. 

Codokia fischeriana, Issel. 

Mai. del Mar. Rosso, 1869, p. 83. 

Ennur backwater, Madras. 



38 



Records of the Indian Museum. 



[Vol.. XII, 



Suborder Tellinacea. 

Family Tellinidae. 

Tellina ennurcnsis, sp. n. 

Shell small, ovate, whitish, faintly tinged with pink, irides- 
cent, polished, shining, marked 
with fine, concentric growth lines 
and indistinct, closely-set, trans- 
verse striae, these latter being 
only visible with the aid of the 
microscope ; umbones small, not 
prominent ; dorsal margin gently 
sloping anteriorly, rather steeply 
sloping posteriori}^ ; ventral mar- 
gin anteriorly, and in the median 
part, gently rounded, a little 
contracted posteriorly ; anterior 
side rounded , somewhat produced ; 




Figs. 14, 14^. — Tellina einnire/zsis. 
sp. n, X 4. 



posterior side shortly and bluntly rostrate. 
Long. 475, lat. 7 25 mm. 
Hab. — Ennur backwater, Madras. 



Tellina brunneo-flavida, sp. n. 

Shell convex, rather small, thin, roundly trigonal, pale 

yellowish-brown ; both valves 
sculptured with slightly distant, 
concentric striae ; umbones small, 
not very prominent ; dorsal mar- 
gin strongly arched, steeply des- 
cending on both sides ; ventral 
margin rounded, posteriorly exca- 
vated ; anterior side rounded ; 
posterior side bluntly and abrupt- 
ly rostrate, angled from the 
umbone downward. 

Long. 7, lat. 7*5 mm. 

Hab. — Ennur backwater, 
Madras. 




Figs. 15, 15a. — Tellina brunneo 
flavida, sp. n. X 3. 



Family Scrobiculariidae. 
Theora opalina (Hinds). 

Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1843, p. 78 (as Neaera). 

Ennur backwater, Madras ; Cochin backwater, near Ernaku- 
1am (F. H. Gravely). 



I9i6.] 



H. B. Preston : South Indian Mollusca. 



39 



Theora translucens, sp. n. 

Shell allied to T. iridescens (Hinds) * from the Philippines, 
but much smaller and of a trans- 
parent yellowish- white colour, it 
having none of the milky semi- 
opaque appearance of that species ; 
it also differs in the somewhat 
more prominent concentric lines 
and in being of a generally more 
regularly oval form, lacking as 
it does, the posterior ventral ex- 
cavation and both the anterior 
and posterior dorsal curves of T. 
iridescens. 

Long. 5, lyat. 8*25 mm. 

Hah. — Bnnur backwater, Mad- 
ras. 




16a. 

Figs. 16, i6a. — Theora translucens 
sp. n. X 4. 



Suborder Anatinacea. 

Family Cuspidariidae. 

Cuspidaria annandalei^ Preston. 

Rec. Ind. Mus. XI, 1915, p. 308, 

Ennur backwater, Madras ; Cochin backwater, near Ernaku- 
1am {F. H. Gravely). 



Cuspidaria cochinensis, sp. n. 

Shell small, thin, oblong, grayish- white, inequi valve, the left 
valve being slightly the smaller, both 
valves finely concentrically striate ; 
umbones small, rather prominent; 
dorsal margin sloping anteriorly in a 
very slight curve and rather strongly 
curved and elongate posteriorly ; ven- 
tral margin very gently and elon- 
gately rounded; anterior side sharp- 
ly rounded ; posterior side produced, 
strongly angled from the umbone 
downwards, very abruptly and square- 
ly' truncate. 

Long. i'5, lat. 3 mm. 

Hab. — Cochin backwater, near Ernakulam {F. H. Gravely). 




Figs. 17, ija. — Ctispidarta co- 
chinensis, sp. n. X 8. 



I Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1843, ?• 7^ (as Neaera). 



V. FOUR NEW vSPECIES OF A U LA COBO LU S 

POC. (DIPLOPODA: SPIROBOLIDAE) 

FROM INDIA. 

By F. SiLVESTRI. 

The genus Aulacoholus was pioposed by Pocock ' for Sbimho- 
lus uroceros, Poc , from Madras and up to the present comprises 
in addition only Spimhnlus thurstom, Poc, also from Madras. 
Mr. F. H. Gravtdy has sent me specimens of two species collected 
at Kavalai and Mr. L. Newton specimens of two more collected on 
the Pulney Hills. Examination of this material his shown that 
the four species received by me are distinct among themselves 
and from the species named by Pocock, they are therefore des- 
cribed here as new. 

It is worthy of record that the species of Aulacoholus are all 
from Madras and South India, as are also the two species of 
Eucentroholus, Poc, a genus distinguished from Aulacoholus only 
by the very strange sculpture of the body. 

Aulacobolus excellcns, sp n. 

9 Corpus niger capite, antennis pedibusqne rubro-testaceis , 
vel testaceo-latericiis 

Caput sulco mediano in fronte, inter antennas, interrupto 
instructum, sublaevigatum, striis tantum nonnullis transversis per 
faciem inferiorem exaratum, clypei depressione later li sat pro- 
funda ; oculi subrotundi, ocellis c. 38 compositi ; antennae (fig. 
I, 3) accomodatae mandibulatum stipites baud superantes. Col- 
lum (fig. I. 1) margine antico ad oculorum latum externum 
rotundatim vix producto. lateribus sat angustatis trunci segmenti 
primi latcra brevi spatio haud attingentibus, angulo antico acnto, 
rotundato, angulo postico exciso, obtuso. late rutimdato, superficie 
sublaevigata. 

Truncus. Segmentum primum lateribus quam colli latera 
deorsum aliquantum magis productis, carinain longitudinalem 
angulo antico acuto antror.^um aliquantum vergente, postico 
obtuso. margine infero integro formantibus; segm* nti secundi 
latera ad segmenti praecedentis carinae libellam margine postico 
incrassalo et retrorsum paullum producto ; segmenta ceteia cylin- 
dracea. Segmentorum omnium praezona sublaevigata, vix coria- 
ria tantum subtus et postice sub poris striis n«mnullis instructa, 



' Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (y) XII (1903). 



42 



Records of the Indian Museum. 



[Vol. XII, 



metazona gradatim magis elevata ita ut segmentorutn margo 
posticus supra segtnenti sequentis praezonatn aliquantutn altior 
sit, parum coriaria et longe sub poris longitudinaliter striata; 
sutura ut linea tenuis, supra poros evanescens, tnanifesta est ; 
pori magni ; sterna transverse et profunde striata. Segmentum 
praeanale (fig. I, 2) in processum longum, gradatim attenuatum, 
aliquantutn arcuatum (convexitate supera), acutum, valvulas 
anales spatio longo superantem productum. Lamina infraanalis 
lata, brevis. Valvulae anales marginibus bene compressis, depres- 
sione praemarginali parva. 

Pedes (fig. I, 5-7) sat longi et crassiusculi, ungue terminali 
longo . 




Fig. I. — Aiilacobolus excellens : i. corporis pars antica lateraliter inspecta ; 
2. ejusdem pars postica ; 3. antenna; 4. hypostoma ; 5. pedes primi paris , 6. 
pedes secundi paris; 7. pes segmenti decimi : A. lamina ventralis ; S. pera 
stigmatica. 



Segmentorum numerus 51-54. 

Long Corp. 160 mm., lat. 12, long, antennarum 8, pedum 
paris decimi 9. 

& Corpus quam idem feminae parum magis attenuatum 
pedibus parum longioribus et crassioribus et articulo sexto soleato. 

Organum copulativum vide fig. 11. 

Habitat.— Qochin State: Kavalai, 1300-3000 ft. (F. H. Gravely 
legit). 

Observatio. — Species haec caudae forma ad Aulac. uroceros 
(Poc.) proxima est, sed magnitudine, sculptura et metazonarum 
forma, facillime distinguenda. 



i9i6.] 



F. SiLVESTRi : New Indian Diplopoda. 



43 



Aulacobolus gravelyi, sp. n. 

9 Corpus niger capite, antennis pedibusque rubro-testaceis 
vel latericiis. 

Caput laevigatum, medium sulco subcontiiiuo (tantum inter 
antennas subevanescente exaratum), clypei depressione laterali 




FiG. II. — Aulacobolus excellens : i. organi copulativi par anticum antice 
inspectum ; 2. idem postice inspectum ; 3. organi copulativi paris postici dimidia 
pars a latere externo inspecta ; 4. eadem a latere interno inspecta ; 5. ejusdem 
pars cum pseudoflagello magis ampliata : A. lamina ventral is ; B. pedum arti- 
culus basalis ; C. articulus secundiis ; F. pseudoflagellum ; S. pera stigmatica. 



parva; oculi ocellis c. 32, longitudinaliter 7-seriatis compositi ; 
antennae (fig III, 3) breves, accomodatae stipitum mandibula- 
rum apicem baud superantes. Collum (fig. Ill, i) margine antico 
ad oculorum latera externa pauUum convexo, lateribus trunci 
segmenti primi latera brevi spatio baud attingentibus, angustatis 



44 



Records of the Indian Museum. 



[Vol. XII, 



et postice aliquantum magis quara antice rotunda'is, superficie 
laevigata 

Tnincus Segmentum primura lateribus quam colli latera 
deorsum aliquantum magis productis, carinam longitudinalem 
margine integro formantibus, angulo antico acuto, antrorsum et 
deorsum aliquantum producto ; segmenti secundi latera ad seg- 
menti praecedentis carinae libellam incrassata et retrorsum paullum 
producta; segmenta cetera cvlindracea. Segmentorum omnium, 
piaezona supra pororum libellam longitudinaliter et creberrime 
stiiata, sub poroium libella vix coriaria, mesozona supra poros 
pu- ctis parvis impressa sub poris oblique striata, metazona laevi- 
gata, pone poros vix striata, longe sub poris longitudinaliter 




Fig. III. — A ulacobolus gravely i : i. corporis pars antica lateral iter inspecla ; 
2. ejusdem pars postica ; 3. antenna; 4. pedes secundi paris ; 5. pes stgmenti 
decimi ; 6. organi copulativi par anticum antice inspectum ; 7. idem postice 
inspectum ; 8. <'rgari copulativi paris postici dimidia pars a latere externo in - 
specta ; 9. ejusdem pars apicalis magis ampliata : litterae ut in fig. II. 



striata ; pori maeni ; sterna transverse et pro^unde striata. Seg- 
mentum praeanale (fig. Ill, 2) in processum sat longum, sub- 
rectum crnssum, parum attennatum, in apice obtusum productum, 
val-ulas anales spatio sat longo superans Lamina infraanalis 
bievis, lata, postice vix arcunta. Valvulae anales marginibus com- 
pressis praesertim postice, depre^sione praemarginali sat evoluta. 

Pede-^ (fig. Ill, 4-5) breves, parum crassi. 

Segmentorum numerus 51. 

Long. Corp. 120 mm., lat. 11, long, antennarum 6, pedum 
pari'; decimi 6 5. 

a" Corpus quam idem feminae parum magis attenuatum; 
pedes aliquantum crassiores, articulo sexto soleato. 



I9i6.] 



F. SiLVESTRi : New Indian Diplopoda. 



45 



Oreanum copulativum vide fig. Ill 6-9. 

Habitat.— Qoch'm State: Kavalai, 1300-3000 ft, (F. H. Gravely, 
cui species erato animo dicata est, legit). 

Observatio. — Species haec a ceteris omnibus mihi notis seg- 
mentorum numero, metazonis baud elevatis, laevigatis, organi 
copulativi forma distinctissima est. 

Aulacobolus newtoni, sp. n. 

9 Corpus nigrescens capite et antennis latericiis, pedibus 
rufescentibus vel fulvo-ferrugineis. 




Fig. IV. — Aulacobolus newtoni : I. corporis pars antica lateraliter inspecta ; 
2. ejusdem pars postica; 3. antenna; 4. pedes secundi paris ; 5. pes paris 
decimi ; 6. org'ani copulativi par ^inticum antice inspectum ; 7. idem postice in- 
spectum ; 8. organi copulativi paris postici dimidia pars a 'atere externo inspecta; 
9. eju.-^dem pars apicalis magis ampliata; 10. maris pes segmenti decimi : litterae 
ut in fig. II. 



Caput totum minute et sat crebre punctatum, per fac'em 
mediara ab antennarum lihella ad laVjrum sulcatum et transver-^e 
striatum, vertice sulco sat profundo; clypei (lepre^^sione laterali 
parum profunda; oculi ocellis c. 55, longitndinalit'^r 7 seriatis, 
iiistructi ; antennae (fig IV, 3) breviores, accomodatae ap;ce u 
mandibularum stipitum baud superantes. Co'lnm (fig. \\\ 1) 
pone oculorura marginem externum paullum emarginat jrn et ab 
hoc puncto usque ad angulum externum linea postmarginali 



46 Records of the Indian Museum. [Vol.. XII, 

perparva instructum, angulis lateralibus postice quam antice 
magis excisis et rotundatis, saperficie leviter coriaria. 

Truncus, Segmentum primum lateribus quam colli latera 
deorsum aliquantum magis productis, carinam longitudinalem 
formantibus angulo antico acuto antrorsum et deorsum aliquan- 
tum producto ; segmenti secundi latera ad segmenti praeceden - 
tis carinae libellam deorsum et retrorsum vix producta, segmenta 
cetera cylindracea ; segmentorum omnium praezona supra pororum 
libellam longitudinaliter striata, sub pororum libella sublaevigata, 
vix oblique striata, mesozona punctato rugosa, sub poris gradatim 
magis distincte oblique striata metazona quam mesozona paullum 
magis elevata coriaria pone poros longitudinaliter sulcata et longe 
sub pororum libellam longitudinaliter striata ; pori magni ; sterna 
transverse striata. Segmentum praeanale (fig. IV, 2) in proces- 
sum sat longum, crassiusculum, paullum arcuatum (convexitate 
supera), in apice obtusum, valvulas anales spatio parvo superan- 
tem productum. Lamina infraanalis brevis, lata, postice subrecte 
truncata. Valvulae anales sat longae, marginibus, postice quam 
antice magis compressis, depressione praemarginali sat magna. 

Pedes (fig. IV, 5) breves, sat tenues, ungue longo. 

Segmentorum numerus 49. 

Long. corp. 80 mm., lat. 7*6, long, antennarum 3'8o, pedum 
segmenti decimi 4' 70. 

cf Corpus quam idem feminae aliquantum longius (ad 90 
mm.) et angustius (ad 7*2 mm ) metazonis parum magis elevatis 
et sutura profundiore. Pedes (fig. IV, i) aliquantum longiores 
et crassiores, articulo sexto bene soleato. 

Organum copulativum vide fig. IV, 6-9. 

Habitat. — Vicinity of Kodaikanal, Pulney Hills, 5000-7000 
ft. (L. Newton, cui species grato animo dicata est, legit). 

Observatio. — Species haec ad Aul. thurstoni (Poc.) proxima 
est, sed corporis sculptura et organ! copulativi forma saltern 
distincta est. 

Aulacobolus variolosus, sp. n. 

$ Corpus nigro-castaneum capite et antennis latericiis, pedi- 
bus rubrotestaceis. 

Caput ver ice sub coUo obtecto, faciei superficie coriaria et 
media parum longe ab antennarum libella ad labrura sulco grada- 
tim magis manifesto sulcata, verticis sulco sat prof undo, clypei 
depressione lateral! sat profunda; oculi sat magni, subovales, 
ocellis c. 30, longitudinaliter 7-seriatis, compositi ; antennae (fig. 
V, 3) breviores, accomodatae mandibularum stipitum apicem 
baud superantes. Collum (fig. V, i) magnum, lateraliter inspec- 
tum mandibularum stipites omnino obtegens, margine antico pone 
oculos parum sinuato, margine antico lateral! quam postico 
lateral! multo magis exciso, rotundato, angulo lateral! acuto, 
rotundato, trunci segment! prim! marginem inferum parvo spatio 
hand attingente, superficie tota punctata et parum rugosa. 



I9i6.] 



F. SiLVESTRi ; New Indian Diplopoda. 



47 



Truncus. Segmentum primum lateribus latis quam colli 
latera deorsum parum magis productis, carinam longitudinalem 
formantibus angulo antico acuto antrorsum et deorsum aliquan- 
tum product©, margine infero obtuse 3-5 dentato ; segmenti 
secundi latera ad segmenti praecedentis carinae libellam deorsum 
et retrorsum vix producta ; segmenta cetera cylindracea. Seg- 
mentorum omnium praezona leviter striata, mesozona supra poros 
coriaria-reticulata, sub poris oblique striulata, metazona quam 
mesozona aliquantum magis elevata, variolosa, pone poros pro- 




FiG. V. — Aulacobolus variolosus: i. corporis pars antica lateraliter in- 
specta ; 2. ejusdem pars postica ; 3. antenna; 4. pedes paris secundi; 5. pes 
paris decimi ; 6. organi copulativi par anticum antice inspectum ; 7. idem postice 
inspectum ; 8. organi copulativi paris postici dimidia pars ex latere externo in- 
specta ; 9. ejusdem pars distalis magis ampliata : litterae ut in fig. II. 



funde sulcata et longe sub poris longitudinaliter profunde striata ; 
pori magni, sterna segmenti secundi (fig, V, 4) infra triangulariter 
producta, sterna coalita transverse striata. Segmentum praeanale 
(fig. V, 2) in processum sat longum, crassum, paullum arcuatum 
(convexitate supera), in apice obtusum valvulas anales spatio 
parvo superantem, productum. Lamina infraanalis brevis, lata, 
postice subrecte truncata. Valvuiae anales punctatae, marginibus 
partem posticam versus gradatim magis compressis et depressione 
praemarginali bene evoluta. 



48 Records of the Indian Museum. [Vol. XII, 1916,] 

Pedes (fig. V, 4-5) breves, sat tenues. 

Segmentorum numerus 45. 

Long. Corp. 85 mm., lat. 9, long, antennarum 4*30, pedum 
segmenti decimi 6 25. 

(f Corpus quam idem feminae paullo angustius pedibus ali- 
quantum robustiorihus et longioiibus, articulo sexto soleato. 

Organum copulativum vide fig. V, 6 9. 

Habitat. — Vicinity of Kodaikanal, Pulney Hills, 5000-7000 ft. 
(L. Neivton legit). 

Ohservatio. — Species haec ad A. newtoni, Silv. proxima est, 
sed colli forma, corporis sculptura et segmentorum numero, cauda 
crassiore, nee non organi copulativi forma facile distinguenda est. 



VI. ON THE HYDROZOON C A M P ANU- 
LI N A CEYLONENSIS (BROWNE). 

By R. E. IvLOYD, M.B., D.Sc, Major, I.MS., Professor of Biology, 

Medical College, Bengal, and N Annandale, D.Sc, F.A.S.B., 

Superintendent, Indian Museum. 

I. — The Systematic Position and Synonymy of the 

Species. 

By N. Annandai^E. 

The medusa of this species was described by Browne ^ in 1905 
under the name Irene ceylonensis, while the hydroid was discovered 
by myself * in 1906. In a recent paper ^ I have referred the species 
to the genus Campanulina, van Beneden, and this attribution is 
fully borne out by a detailed examination since made of the living 
hydranth. 

Medusae that agree, so far as structure is concerned, in every 
respect with Browne's figures and description of /. ceylonensis 
have made their appearance in great numbers in a canal of brack- 
ish water in Calcutta in July, 1915, the water having, at the place 
and time at which specimens were taken, a specific gravity of 
1-0085 (the reading corrected to a standard temperature of I5°C.), 
and no great difficulty has been experienced in rearing young 
colonies of hydroids in a bell jar. The development is rapid. 
Medusae were placed in the bell-jar, which was filled with water 
from the canal, on July 5th; on July 7th numerous planulae and 
single minute hydranths, many of which had attached themselves 
to the cast skins of Copepods, were found, with intervening 
stages ; while two days later young colonies were observed with a 
single perfect hydranth and a short rhizome bearing at least two 
hydranth-buds. The buds had the capitate form of those of 
C. acuminata (Alder) as figured by Hincks.* The hydranth figured 
here was sketched from life on July loth, by Babu D. N. Bagchi ; 
only the part exserted from the hydrotheca is shown. The column 
was capable of great elongation, but the tentacles seemed to be 
less extensile than in the adult and the whole organism was less 
sensitive. 



1 In Herdman's Rep. Ceylon Pearl Fish., IV, p. 140, pi. iii, figs. 9-1 1 (1905)- 

2 Rec. Ind. Mus., I, p. 142, fig. 4 (1907). 

3 Mem. Ind. ilJns., V, p. 105 {1915). 

•* Brit. Marine Hydroid Zoophytes, pi. xxxvii (18681. 



50 Records of the Indian Museum. [Voi,. XII, 

This hydranth though immature in several respects, already 
exhibits the generic characters of that of Campanulina, being 
webbed at the base of the tentacles, which are surrounded by 
regular circles of nematocysts, and having a short conical hypo- 
stome. The hydrothecae of the adult hydroid only differ from 
those of more robu-t species of the genus in that each grows on a 
short stalk that arises directly from an adherent stolon while the 
gonothecae closely resemble those of C. repens, Allman, in outline. 
Major Lloyd* tells me that a short stem bearing a gonotheca as 
well as a hydranth is sometimes produced and that more than one 
medusa is often produced in a single gonotheca. 

If it is necessary to place the medusa as distinct from the 
hydroid in a recognized genus, greater difficulty is experienced. 
It agrees with Phortis, McCrady, and differs from Eirene and 
Tima, Eschscholtz, in not possessing marginal cirri, but the ten- 




FlG. I. — Young hydranth of Campamilina cejdoneiisis (highly magnified). 

tacles have a narrow longitudinal band of muscle on the velar sur- 
face and the gonads are less restricted in position than in most 
species of PhortiSy though they do not until very fully ripe extend 
along the manubri:il peduncle as in Tima. On the whole, there- 
fore, the medusa may be said to occupy a position intermediate 
between Tima and Phortis, but to be nearer the authentic species 
of the latter, to which it should probably be assigned, as Meyer * 
suggests. 

The name Campanulina (1847) has priority over Phortis 
(1857) by ten years. 



' 1 regret that, as I am about to leave India for some months, I have not 
been able to read Major Lloyd's paper printed below. He has, however, kindly 
informed me as to the results of his observations, and shown me his preparations. 

* Medusae of the W'luld, 11, p. .^x) i TQio). 



1916.] N. Annandale : Campanulina ceylonensis. 51 

The only species of Phortis, that has been traced to its hy- 
droid, if we except '' Irene cevlonensis," is P. gibbusa (McCrady), the 
hfe-cycle of which was worked out by Brooks ' in North America, 
His description, which is brief and unaccompanied by figures, 
does not conform to Campanulina in that it makes no mention of 
an operculum to the hydrotheca or of a webbing of the tentacles, 
but both these points are difficult to detect unless attention is 
specially directed to them and the general conformation of the 
colony is not unhke that of the species found in the Gangetic 
delta. 

Some of the medusae from Calcutta lived in captivity for a 
week, though all of them had apparently shed their gonads at 
least three days earlier. Those that remained alive at the end 
of the week were, as was shown by the asymmetrical form of 
their bells and their feeble and irregular pulsations, in a degene- 
rate condition. They had, moreover, assumed completely the 
peculiarities regarded by Browne {op. ciL, p. 141, pi. iii, figs. 12- 
16) as diagnostic of his Irene palkensis. When the gonads first 
reach or approach maturity the tentacles alternate with sense- 
organs round the margin of the bell ; the former are capable of 
great elongation and all are complete in structure ; the otocysts 
are small and each contains a single otolith or sometimes a pair of 
otoliths. The shedding of the sexual products apparently takes 
some days. When it commences the gonads do not extend down 
the manubrial peduncle, but as it proceeds and approaches com- 
pletion they do so to some extent. Meanwhile considerable 
changes take place on the margin of the bell. Numerous addi- 
tional tentacles begin to bud out, but as a rule only the basal 
bulb is completed and the filamentous part is altogether abortive. 
At the same time the otocysts increase greatly in size, becoming 
three or four times as large as hitherto; the otoliths multiply, so 
that there may be as many as eight in a single sense-organ, and 
finally the whole structure divides into two otocysts. Details as 
to the process of division have not yet been worked out either in 
the cysts or in their contained concretions. 

These changes in the tentacles and sense-organs prove that 
Browne's two species, Irene ceylonensis and Irene palkensis, are 
identical or rather that the latter represents merely a degenerat- 
ing phase of the former. 

Before the sexual products are completely shed the upper 
part of the bell often becomes constricted, the constriction involv- 
ing not only the jelly but also the upper part of the subumbrellar 
cavit}'. The tentacles then degenerate, and finally both they and 
the sense-organs disappear. The bell shrinks to a half or a third, 
and finally to about a sixth of its original size and at last ceases 
to pulsate. The manubrium, however, though also shrunken, still 
exhibits languid movements, which persist for some days after 
the complete disappearance of the marginal structures and even 



i Sfiid. Biol. Lab. John Hopkins Univ., II, p. 470 (1883). 



52 Records of the Indian Museum. [Vol. XII, 

of the radial canals. Death is thus extremely gradual. All these 
points are clearly important in considering the systematic position 
of any medusa that exhibits the slightest signs of degeneracy. 

II. — Life History of the Hydroid and Medusa. 
By R.U. LivOYD. 

In July 1915, Dr. Annandale informed me of the occurrence 
of the Medusa, Irene ceylonensis (Browne), in the brackish water of 
a canal in the neighbourhood of Calcutta and suggested that I 
should enquire into its life-history as his own observations on the 
subject had to be discontinued. He also kindly lent me a stained 
permanent preparation showing several planulae, some with bud- 
ding hydroids and stolons. This preparation was made by Mr. 
F. H. Gravely from material gathered from the bottom of a glass 
bowl in which a number of the medusae with ripe gonads had been 
confined for observation. 

About the middle of July, the medusae were plentiful 
throughout the canal so that I was able to obtain a large number, 
varying in diameter from about 2*5 mm. to 2*5 cm. By the end 
of the month however none were to be found. No doubt they 
were killed by the heavy monsoon rain, which greatly diminishes 
the salinity of the water. 

I was unsuccessful in again raising the planulae in captivity 
but was fortunate in obtaining some colonies of the hydroid grow- 
ing in the canal attached to stones. Some were kept alive for ten 
days, affording good opportunity for observation. Several gono- 
somes were obtained from these colonies. These were stained and 
mounted in Canada balsam. They show certain stages in the 
development of the medusa, especially the early and late stages, 
in a satisfactory manner. 

The Hydroid Colony. 

The hydroid was defined by Dr. Annandale from material 
taken in brackish water at Port Canning, but as I had the oppor- 
tunity of examining the living animal from day to day in the 
laboratory a few further remarks on its structure will be made. 

The hydroid varies considerably in size Only the larger and 
older individuals can be discerned by the naked eye. The colony 
as a whole is much less conspicuous than most hydroid colonies. 
The stolon seldom divides, so that it is easy to strip off as much 
as an inch from the substratum without meeting any outgrowths 
except the hydrothecae. The stolon however does occasionally 
branch, the growing point dividing in a simple dichotomous 
manner. 

The coenosarc of the stolon has a different appearance from 
the coenosarc of the hydroid, due principally to the fact that the 
endoderm cells of the stolon are granular and opaque while those 
of the hydroid are clear, vacuolated and much larger. The hy- 



19 16.] R. E. Li-OYD : Campamilina ceylonensis. 53 

droid is not set directly upon the stolon but u])on short inter- 
mediate branches which have the same structure as the stolon. The 
line of attachment of the hydroid to these intermediate branches 
is most conspicuous when the hydroid is contracted, but it is 
visible at all times as a sudden change in the character of the 
endoderm cells. 

The intermediate branch as well as the hydroid lies in the 
hydrothecae. 

The Hydrotheca. 

As a rule the hydrothecae arise directly from the perisarc of 
the stolon. Occasionally, however, they arise from short lateral 
branches which are common to them and to a gonotheca. They 
measure "45 mm. by "15 mm. {Annandale). They terminate in a 
conical pointed operculum consisting of a number of acute con- 
verging projections of the perisarc which together closely resem.ble 
the peristome of a moss capsule. The number of these processes 
is about twelve but they are difficult to count owing to their 
transparent delicac5^ 

The method of the opening and closing of the hydrotheca is 
simple and effective, depending as it does upon the elasticity of 
the marginal projections and upon a slight upturning of their 
points. Because of their elasticity they tend to converge so that 
they are always in contact with the stalk of the hydroid even 
when it is fully extended. At first sight it seems that in this con- 
dition the converging points would hinder the withdrawal of the 
hydroid by catching in rugosities projecting from the surface of 
the stalk during contraction, and it also seems likely that the 
points would strangle the neck and so prevent the entry of the 
head into the theca. Such possibilities are prevented by the 
slight upturning of the points. The act of withdrawal is not 
easy to observe. Low degrees of magnification are insufficient for 
the purpose , but when using the high power it is of course neces- 
sary to cover the object which causes immediate and lasting con- 
traction of the hydroid. The difficulty was overcome by using an 
ocular of very high power with a low power lens. Ocular No. 18 
such as is supplied with Zeiss' oil immersion lens combined with 
an objective 2/3 in. focus gave good results. A portion of a colony 
living undisturbed in a capsule of water was thus magnified about 
200 times so that the act of withdrawal could be observed. 

The Hydroid. 

The principal features of the hydroid are well known. The 
web or membrane uniting the bases of the tentacles being the 
chief characteristic. The fully extended stalk of a large individual 
measures about 2 mm. in length by '06 mm. in thickness. In the 
living animal the ectoderm of the stalk is a very thin layer devoid 
of cell outlines or nematocysts. The outlines of the endoderm 
cells on the other hand are plainly visible even under the low 
power of the microscope In the expanded state each endoderm 



54 Records of the Indian Museum. [Vol.. XII, 

cell appears to contain a single vacuole, so large that the proto- 
plasm is reduced to a delicate peripheral layer in which nuclei 
are scarcely visible. Except for the granular contents of the gut 
cavity the stalk is transparent. The appearance of transverse 
lines in it is due to protoplasmic septa composed of the peripheral 
layers of adjacent endoderm cells which separate the vacuoles. 

Since the diameter of the hydrotheca is not much more than 
twice the diameter of the extended stalk, it is evident that the 
cubic content of the stalk must be very much reduced before it 
can be accommodated by the hydrotheca during contraction. 
This reduction must be brought about by evacuation of fluid from 
the vacuoles of the endoderm cells. The process however was not 
observed. As mentioned before, the endoderm cells of the stalk 
present a very different appearance from those of the stolon and 
intermediate branches, the latter being granular and not vacuo- 
lated. The transition from the one to the other is sudden. When 
extended the stalk is straight and stiff. It usually appears to be 
motionless but on attempting to draw the outline with the Camera 
lucida, it becomes evident that the animal is seldom quite motion- 
less. In the largest individuals the tentacles are constantly six- 
teen in number. When extended they measure about '5 mm, in 
length and they are usually held in two series, eight of them 
springing from the base of the hypostomc at an angle somewhat 
less than a right angle, while the other eight which alternate with 
them project more downwards. When the tentacles are in this 
position the margin of the web forms a characteristic zig-zag out- 
line. The web measures about '06 mm. from its margin to the 
angle between adjacent tentacles The tentacles are as usual in 
the Calyptoplastica devoid of a central cavity, the outline between 
the endoderm cells being plainly visible in the living animal. 
That part of the base of the tentacles which lies in the web usually 
includes three endoderm cells and bears a few scattered nemato- 
cysts. Throughout the length of the tentacles the nematocysts 
are disposed somewhat irregularly in rings, one ring corresponding 
roughly to each endoderm cell. 

Hahiis. 

The hydroid first found at Port Canning was living in as- 
sociation with the protozoon Folliculina and this organism also 
occurred among the colonies taken from the canal. A species of 
small Polychaet worm (Spioniformia), however, was found more 
plentifully in association with the hydroid at Calcutta. The deli- 
cate sandy tube of the Polychaet was frequently interwoven with 
the stolon of the hydroid. On one occasion I was able to observe 
the hydroid preying upon the worm. Three fully expanded hy- 
droids which happened to be adjacent were under observation in a 
capsule of water. An immature worm measuring about a milli- 
metre in length came within reach of their tentacles and was soon 
fast entangled and paralysed. One hydroid attached itself to the 
mouth of the worm another to the anus, while the third which 



1916,] R. E. Lloyd: Campanulina ceylonensis. 55 

apparently obtained no nourishment helped to subdue the strug- 
gles of the victim. A yellowish granular stream, the blood and 
coelomic fluid of the worm was seen pouring slowly into the two 
hydroids which were attached terminally. The enteroii of the 
hydroids became considerably expanded for a short distance below 
the tentacles and this expansion was no doubt the means of suction. 
A lesser expansion at this point is frequently visible even in the 
resting condition (plate v, fig. i). The nourishment was not re- 
tained by the hydroids but passed on rapidly into the general 
coenosarc of the colony. Within five minutes from the com- 
mencement of the operations, the stems of the hydroids which 
remained extended throughout had regained their usual glassy 
appearance. The body of the worm, motionless and shrunken, 
was released in less than five minutes after capture. 

The Gonosome . 

The gonosome was found in various stages of development 
(plate vi). Although the series illustrated is not complete the 
earliest and later stages are well represented. In the latest the 
young medusa can be seen lying within the gonotheca provided 
with tentacles and sense vesicles. Although the manubrium is 
still imperforate, the medusa is evidently almost ready to be liber- 
ated. As estimated from the drawing to scale, the convexity of 
the bell of the medusa lying within the gonotheca measures about 
•7 mm. in the specimen figured The diameter of the bell in the 
smallest medusa caught swimming freely was at least 2 mm. 
There is therefore an interval in the life-history including the liber- 
ation of the medusa and the first part of its free life which was 
not observed. 

There are usually two medusae in each gonosome, a proximal 
and a distal, the latter being always the more developed. Some- 
times only one medusa occurs which probably represents the prox- 
imal member of the pair after the liberation of the distal mem 
ber. About i in 5 of the mature gonosomes were in this con- 
dition. 

The gonosome of Campanulina was described by Hincks as 
growing from the stolon and containing one medusa. In this 
species, however, the gonosome usually grows from the base of a 
hydrosome and contains two medusoid buds. 

In its earliest pnase the gonosome appears as a tubular out- 
growth from the coenosarc which sometimes arises from the main 
stolon but more often from the intermediate branches near the 
base of the hydrosome. This tubular outgrowth is a blastostyle 
which gives rise to the two medusae by budding. Before an^^ 
buds have appeared upon it, the blastostyle has a characteristic 
appearance. It is, we have seen, a tubular outgrowth of the 
coenosarc and throughout most of its length it appears to have 
the same structure as the coenosarc of the stolon, the cells of both 
ectoderm and endoderm being opaque and finely granular. Close 
to the extremity, however, the cells have a different appearance, 



,=)6 Records of the Indian Museum. [Vol. XI I ^ 

being translucent and vacuolated, having indeed the same appear- 
ance as the cells of the hydrosome. It has been mentioned that 
the change in the appearance of the cells at the base of the hydro- 
some is characteristic and sudden. The junction between the 
translucent end of the blastostjde and the opaque proximal por- 
tion has exactl}^ the same appearance (plate vi, fig. i). The trans- 
lucent end of the blastostyle therefore perhaps represents a reduced 
hydrosome. Be that as it may, it is a conspicuous feature of 
the gonosome visible from first to last, forming in the later stages 
a kind of lid closing in the gonotheca. It may be referred to as 
the operculum. 

The medusae arise from buds which spring from the stem of 
the blastostyle below the operculum. They appear to arise in the 
usual manner by the sinking in of an entocodon. A conspicuous 
feature of the development is the early formation of four large 
lappets, placed radiall}^ on the margin of the bell. Upon these 
the tentacles appear at a later stage. 

At the time when the first bud appears upon the blastostyle, 
it is evident that the cavity of the operculum is in open communi- 
cation with the cavity of the cylindrical stem But later when 
the development of the medusae is more advanced, the stem of 
the blastostyle becomes flattened out and can scarcely be traced. 
But even at a comparatively late stage the endodermal cavity of 
the two growing medusae may be seen communicating with one 
another through the cavity of the blastostyle. One specimen 
shows a similar communication between the cavity of a medusa 
and that of the operculum. Though much compressed and 
rendered inconspicuous by the growing medusae, it is probable 
that the stem of the blastostyle preserves its status until the end. 
Thus, in the oldest gonosome met with, the stem of the blastostyle 
can plainly be seen between the two medusae, and its communica- 
tion with the cavity of the operculum may be inferred owing to 
an interesting circumstance. The cavity of the stem of the blasto- 
style contains a number of irregular nucleated cells which have 
much the appearance of phagocytes and the same kind of cells are 
to be seen in the cavity of the operculum. This fact indicates 
that the communication between the stem of the blastostyle and 
the operculum persists to a late stage. Little seems to be known 
of phagocytesis among the Coelenterata but it is unlikely that a 
process so general in the animal kingdom should not occur in this 
group. It is possible that the presence of these cells, which, as 
I have said, have the appearance of phagocytes, indicate the 
approaching dissolution of the distal part of the gonosome and the 
liberation of the mature medusa. 

The Gonotheca. 

In the early stages of its development the gonosome is com- 
pletely enclosed by a dehcate perisarc. The later history of this 
layer, as to how and when it allows the liberation of the medusae, 
was not ascertained. 



1916.] R. E. Lloyd : Campanulina ceylonensis. 57 

The Free Medusa. 

The medusa was described by Browne from specimens taken 
in the sea off Ceylon, and its systematic position has been dis- 
cussed by Dr. Annandale in the first part of this paper. It is 
therefore unnecessary to say much more beyond reference to the 
pecuh'ar condition under which the organism was found in Calcutta. 
The unusual and sudden appearance of a swarm of medusae in a 
brackish canal — far removed from the sea though connected at one 
point with the tidal waters of the Hooghly — make it most likely 
that the medusae were all of one species. An examination showed 
beyond doubt that the many hundreds of specimens taken by the 
tow-net were indeed of one species though varying very much in 
appearance according to age and state of activity. Plate vii, 
fig. I gives some idea of the appearance presented by a number 
of the medusae at the time of capture. At first sight one might 
suppose that they included several distinct species. The largest, 
bearing ripe gonads, measured about 2'5 cm. in diameter, the 
height of the bell during relaxation being about two-thirds of the 
diameter, but specimens preserved in formalin are usuall}^ flatter 
than this. Half-grown specimens, especially when swimming 
actively, appear higher than the}'^ are broad and in this condition 
the tentacles may stream out to a length two or three times 
greater than the height of the bell. When resting they assume a 
flatter shape and the tentacles are considerably contracted. In 
this condition the peduncle and manubrium together can often be 
seen revolving about the fixed base. While so engaged the mouth 
and lips appear to clean the tentacles and search the groove 
between the velum and inner wall of the bell for adherent food 
particles. 

The smallest specimens, measuring 2-3 mm., show certain differ- 
ences from the mature form. The peduncles of the manubrium, 
which is a characteristic feature of the adult, is scarcely repre- 
sented. The sense vesicles are less numerous than the tentacles, 
nor are they so regular!}' disposed in alternation with the tentacles 
as in the adult ; but this is only to be expected at a time when 
the tentacles are rapidly increasing in number. Plate vii, fig. 4 
shows a young medusa with eight tentacles, six sense vesicles and 
a number of tentacular buds. At this time the primitive germ 
cells are distinctly visible and they can be seen even before the 
medusa has left the gonosome. 

In the mature condition the generative cells are disposed along 
the radial canals from the base of the peduncle to the margin of 
the bell. They form prominent ridges with a somewhat contorted 
edge which projects from the lower surface of the bell, A sec- 
tion across one of these ridges shows the radial canal lined by 
attenuated columnar cells between which and the very delicate 
ectoderm the generative cells lie. 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE V. 

Campanulina ceylonensis (Browne). 

Fig. I. — A portion of the stolon bearing three hydrosomes in 
different states, expanded, retracted and retracting, 
the last bearing a gonosome. 

^, 2. -A very young hydrosome attached to the cast skin of a 
Copepod (drawn from a preparation by Mr. F. H. 
Gravely). 

,, 3. — Optical section of a portion of the stem of a fully ex- 
panded hydrosome, protruding from the perisarc, 
showing the everted points of the marginal processes 
of the hydrotheca. 

, , 4. — A portion of the living hydroid showing the web. 

,, 5. — Three planulae reared in captivity, one with a stolon, 
another with a hydrosome and stolon (preparation by 
Mr. F. H. Gravely). 

All figures drawn to scale with the Camera lucida. 



Raclnd MuB.,Vo].XI],19]6. 



Plate V. 





Sc-aU 05 
for ISfZ. 





R.E I.loyd, del. 



3. 



Sca-!e-OI rrx . 
for 3, 'I' & 5. 

A. C . Chowdhary.lit-h. 



CAMPANULINA C E YLO N E N S 1 S (Browne ) . 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE VL 

Campanulina ceylonensis (Browne). 

Fig. I. — Optical section of the young gonosome growing from the 
base of a hydrosome, before the formation of any 
medusoid buds. 

Figs. 2, 3, 4. — Similar views of gonosomes at somewhat later 
stages showing the early formation of the first bud. 

Fig. 5. — A gonosome with one medusoid. 

^j 6. — Upper part of a gonosome showing communication be- 
tween the cavity of the operculum and the enteron of 
the medusoid. 

,, 7. — Gonosome at a later stage, showing the marginal lappets. 

,, 8. — Gono.some at a slightly earlier stage than fig. 7, in opti- 
cal section. 

,, 9. — Gonosome, probably mature: a, marginal tentacles: b, 
velum: c, sense vesicle. Cells resembling phagocytes 
can be seen in the operculum and in the lower part of 
the blastostyle. 

All fii^ures drawn to scale with the Camera lucida from stained preparations. 



Hec, Ind.Mus., Vol. XII, 1916. 



Plate VI. 







iS' coA-e-fof O'lL -Ol m . 
R.E. Lloyd, del. 



A . C . GhowdJiary, lith 



CAMPANULINA C E Y LO N E N S I S (Browne ) . 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE VII. 

Campanulina ceylonensis (Browne). 

Fig. I. — Medusae of different ages in different attitudes, from life, 
natural size. 

,, 2. — The mature medusa, from life, X5. The sense vesicles 
are not shown. The marginal lappets are somewhat 
exaggerated in this figure. 

,, 3. — Section of the generative ridge of a ripe female medusa. 

,, 4. — Young medusa, found swimming freely. From a stained 
preparation, x about 35. 



Rec. Ind. Mus ., Vol.XII, 19ie. 



Plate VII. 



m 



/ 














1. 






R.E, Lloyd, del. 



A. C . Chov/dhar/,lith 



CAMPANULINA C E Y LO NE N S I S CBrown e ) . 



S'« 



VII. THE EVOLUTION AND D I vS T R I B U T I O N 
OF THE INDO-AUSTR ALIAN THELYPHONI- 
DAE, WITH NOTEvS ON THE DIS- 
TINCTIVE CHARACTERS OF 
VARIOUS SPECIES. 

By F. H. Gravely, M.Sc, Assistant Superintendent, Indian 

Museum. 

(Plates I— IV.) 

It has recently been shown {J.A.S.B. [n.s.] X, 1914, pp. 201- 
210, pi. xxiv) that in several groups of animals the extraordinarily 
rich fauna of the Malay Archipelago is composed of highly spe- 
cialized species, whose more primitive ancestors are represented 
by species found at the present day mainly in the surrounding 
countries. And it has been suggested that this is due to the 
conditions found in the Archipelago favouring the rapid evolution 
of highly specialized species, these replacing the less SDeciahzed, 
and tending to force them outwards towards, or even beyond, the 
borders of the combined Oriental and Australian Regions. In 
this way it is possible to explain the fact that primitive species 
found in Ceylon are sometimes more closely related to species 
found in Australia than to their allies found in the intervening 
countries. 

The groups specially referred to were Passalid Coleoptera, 
Crinoids, and Thelyphonids. But the reference to Thelyphonids 
was based only on a short preliminary note published in the 
Proceedings of the Asiatic Society of Bengal for August 191 1. 
The object of the present paper is to supplement this note by 
gathering together all available information bearing on the sub- 
ject. 

An excellent account of the Thelyphonidae was written by 
Kraepelm and published in '■ Das Tierreich" in 1899. Although 
several new species have since been described a complete synony- 
mic revision of the group is as yet uncalled for, and would be 
largely a repetition of Kraepelin's work. 

In many species, however, the distinctive characters are most 
difficult to describe with precision and determinations have to be 
based largely on comparison with authentically named specimens 
or accurate figures. Opportunity has therefore been taken of 
publishing with this paper a number of figures which seem to be 
required. 

The numerous specimens of certain of the commoner species 
of Thelyphonidae possessed by the Indian Museum have shown 
that the characters supposed to be distinctive of different species 
F 



6o Records of the Indian Museum. [Vor,. XII, 

are sometimes variable within the limits of a single species, and 
have enabled me to obtain some idea of the extent of this varia- 
tion. 

The number of teeth on the trochanter of the arm is one 
such character, and it sometimes happens that the variation is not 
uniform on the two sides of the body (see text- figs. 1-4, pp. 64, 72, 
74 and 76), 

The structure of the modified joints of the antenniform legs 
of the fem-^les of certain species, which Kraepelin has found to 
afford useful specific characters, is almost certainly connected 
with the mating habits of the group (Gravely 1915&, p. 522, 
pi. xxiv, figs. 25-26) ; and I have reason to think that it may pos- 
sibly vary, not only according to the degree of maturity of a speci- 
men, but also according to the proximity of the mating period. 
As, however, none of the species in which the structure in question 
is developed occur in the Indian Empire, I have been unable to 
make special collections bearing on this point, and the material at 
present in the Indian Museum is insufficient for its settlenient. 

Iwakawa (1908, pp. 287-291, pi. xi, figs. 1-4B) has shown 
that the form of the genital segment may vary considerably 
according to age, even when adult characteristics appear to be 
present. 

Kraepelin' s classification is based mainly on the presence or 
absence of a keel between the median and lateral eyes and of a 
tooth on the inner side of the gnathobase of the arm, the number 
of vitreous spots (" ommatoids ") on the third caudal segment, 
and the form of the tibial apophysis of the male. It is now known, 
however (Gravely, igi2a, pp. loi and ro6), that the keel between 
the lateral and median eyes, and the tooth on the gnathobase of 
the arm, may either of them be present in the genus Hypoctonus . 
which Kraepelin believed to be characterized mainly by the ab- 
sence of both. In this connection it is perhaps noteworthy that 
Hypoctonus stoliczkae, the only known species of the genus as 
hitherto defined in which there is a tooth on the gnathobase of the 
arm, occurs in the excessively damp region at the base of the 
DarjeeHng hills together with the genus Uroproctus, which is 
also characterized by the possession of such a tooth ; and that the 
remaining genus Labochirus, which is similarly characterized, is 
found in the excessively damp jungles of the Western Ghats and 
of the hills of Ceylon.^ There seems, therefore, to be some con- 
nection, at present unaccountable, between the presence of this 
tooth and the degree of moisture characteristic of the natural habi- 
tat of the species possessing ic ; and its value as an indication of 
phylogen^^ is unlikely to be great. 



1 That the S. Indian species inhabit excessive' y damp jungles is an assump- 
tion based on the habits of the Ceylon species. I failed to find any Thelyphonids 
in the damp jungles of Cochin. In Cochin, as in Ceylon, Thelyplwniis sepiaris 
lives in comparatively hot dry places. Places suited to the existence of both forms 
are often found in close proximity to one another. 



1916.J F. H. GRAVKI.Y : I ndo- Australian Thelyphonidae. 61 

In my preliminary note on the evolution and distribution of 
the Thelyphonidae it was suggested that the distinction between 
the genera with and without keals between the median and lateral 
eyes was extremely ancient, and consequently of fundamental 
importance. The discovery of species, clearly allied not to the 
keeled but to the keelless group, in which this ridge, though not 
very strong, is quite distinct, renders this hypothesis less probable 
than it previously appeared. The fact, however, that the species 
of the keelless group which have the tibial apophysis of the male 
least specialized appear, so far as is known, to agree in having 
tibial spurs on the fourth pair of legs only, no matter from what 
part of the world they come, seems to imply that the group 
may really be an old one which once had a more continuously ex- 
tensive distribution than it has a't present. The only known ex- 
ceptions to this rule are Hypodonus oatesi and one or two other 
species leading up to the most specialized section of the latter 
group — a section confined to the neighbourhood of Burma and 
Assam. Nothing is, however, known of the male of the single 
African keelless species hitherto recorded ; nor is anything known 
of the tibial spurs of the American keelless genus Thelyphonellus , 
in which the male appears to have retained its primitive form 
more nearly than has that of any Oriental species yet described. 

The distinction between the keeled and keelless groups may 
therefore be accepted as being in all probability of fundamental 
importance, with the reservation that weak keels may occasionally 
be developed in species whose other characters, especially the 
form of the tibial apophysis of the male, show them to belong to 
the latter and not to the former group. 

The keelless group is at present divided into an Indian genus 
Labochirus, in which a tooth is present on the inner margin of the 
gnathobase of the arm, and a (mainly) Burmese genus Hypoctonus, 
which is ordinarily without this tooth. But in view of the fact 
that the tooth is now known to be present in at least one species 
whose other characters show it to be a member of the latter genus, 
a revised definition seems necessary. 

The number of legs bearing tibial spurs, a character which is 
correlated with the form of the tibial apophysis of the male^, 
supplies an excellent basis for this definition. It is probable, 
however, that as yet the group is very imperfectly known. For it 
inhabits country which has for the most part been very imperfectly 
explored zoologically, and the range of most at least of its species 
seems to be somewhat circumscribed. For the present, therefore, 
it will probably be best to transfer to the genus Labochirus, 
hitherto restricted to Indian species, the African and Burmese 
species in which only the fourth legs bear tibial spurs, although it is 

1 The tibial apophysis of the male has much the same form in the simpler 
members of both groups defined according to the presence or absence of tibial 
spurs on the third pair of legs ; but in the more specialized species without these 
spurs the upper ridge of the tip of the apophysis is most strongly developed, 
while in those with these spurs the lower ridge is larger. 



62 Records of the Indian Museum. [Vol. XII, 

by no means unlikely that ultimately these African and Burmese 
forms will have to be separated under distinct generic names. It 
may be pointed out here that no two species, either of Hypoctonus 
or Lahochirus as redefined, have ever been found together; but 
that several localities are known in which both genera are repre- 
sented by a single species. 

The keeled group can be split into three sections : — one in 
which the tibial apophysis of the male is strongly modified as in 
the Oriental species of the keelless group, one in which the hand is 
strongly modified, and one in which both tibial apophysis and hand 
are unmodified in the male and resemble more or less closely those 
of the female. The first, which includes only one genus, Typopeltis, 
may conceivably have been derived from the keelless group by the 
development of keels, and not from genera with keels and with the 
tibial apophysis of the male unmodified, as is here assumed. No 
proof is available for either hypotheses All species of the genus 
Typopeltis , however , are stated bv Kraepelin to have tibial spurs on 
all three pairs of walking legs, not on the last one or two pairs 
only as in the keelless genera The spurs of Mimoscorpius, the only 
genus in which the hand is strongly modified, have n it yet been des- 
cribed. In the larger genera, at least, of the section of the keeled 
group with unmodified or almost unmodified hands and tibial apo- 
physes in the male, the number of legs with tibial spurs i-^ va iable. 

The most primitive genus of the last-mentioned section of the 
keeled group appears to be the American Mastigo'br actus, in which, 
according to Kraepelin, the sexes are scarcely distinguishable 
superficially. In all Oriental genera, except Uroproctus . the genital 
sternum of the male has a strong median groove, and the posterior 
margin of the following segment beirs a strong med'an tubercle. 
Uroproctus differs, however, from M astigoproctus in having the 
tibial apophysis of the male markedly slenderer than that of the 
female, and differs from this and from all other genera of the group 
in the presence of a tooth on the inner side of the gnathobase of the 
arm. The three remaining genera, Thelyphonus. Ahaliwi and Tetra- 
halius^ are distinguished from one another sol ly by the number of 
vitreous spots on the third caudal segm^^nt. Nothing whatever is 
known as to the function of these spots ' ; and their tixonomic 
significance apnears to me to be equally uncertain. Provisionally, 
however, the distinctions which they afford may continue to be 
regarded as generic. 

The genera of Thelyphonidae may now be redefined thus : — 

Keels between median and lateral eyes almost 
al\va}'s absent, never very strong" ; tibial apo- 
physis of male strongly modified in Oriental 
genera ... ... ... ... 2. 

Well developed keels always present between 
median and lateral eyes ; tibial apophysis of 
male often unmodified ... ... ... 4« 



' See Bonier, 1904, pp. 25-26. Concerning- improbability of their being 
aminous organs see Gravely, IQI.S^. p. 523. 



19 t6.] F. H. Gravely : I ndo- Australian Thelyphonidae. 63 

Tliircl caudal scgmcnl without vitreous 5;pots ; 

tibial apophysis of male slender, but otherwise 

not very different from that of female ... TJielyphonelhis (American). 
Third caudal segment with the usual vitreous spot 

on either side ; tibial apophysis of male more 

strongly modified ... ... .,, -^. 

Tibial spurs confined to the fourth pair of legs; 

tibial apophysis of male strongly modified ... Labochiriis, p. 64. 

Tibial spurs present on (and confined to) the 
I third and fourth pairs of legs ; tibial apophysis 
I of male often still more strongly modified ... Hypoctoiiiis, p. 67. 

( Tibial apophysis strongly modified in male; modi- 
fication of tarsus of antenniform legs of female, 
when present, affecting one or both of the eighth 
and ninth (terminal) joints ... ... Typopeltis, p. 70. 

4. { Tibial apophysis of male not strongly modified ; 
modification of tarsus of antenniform legs of fe- 
male, when present, affecting the seventh joint 
with or without one or more joints on one or 
both sides of it ... ... ... 2- 

Genital sternum of male without median groove, 
posterior margin of following sternum without 
median tubercle ... ... ., 6. 

Genital sternum of male with strong median groove, 
posterior margin of following sternum with me- 
dian tubercle ... ... ... 8. 

Hand flat, twice as broad as the long slender 

femur; unjointed finger strongly curved at apex Mimoscorpius. p. -ji. 
Hand normal ... ... ... __ y. 

Tibial apophysis of male like that of female ; no 

tooth on inner side of gnathobase of arm Mas fi'gopyoct 11 s {Amerxcan). 
Tibial apophysis of male much slenderer than that 
of female ; a tooth on inner side of gnathobase 
of arm in both sexes ... ... ... Uroprocftis, p. 71. 

/'Third caudal segment with the usual single vitreous 
^} spot on each side ... .. ... ThelvpJwniis, p. jt,. 

' ■ j Third caudal segment without or with two such 

^ spots on each side ... ... ... q. 

Third caudal segment without vitreous spots ... Abaliiis. p. 78. 
Third caudal segment with two vitreous spots on 

each side, one above the other ... ... Tetrabalius, p. 78. 

Before considering the connection between the phylogeny of 
different forms of Indo-Australian Thelyphonidae with their dis- 
tribution, it is necessary to summarize the zoogeographical informa- 
tion with regard to the family at present available. 

In addition to the species mentioned in the summary of this 
information given below, " Thelyphorms'' spinimanns, Lucas, 
angustus, Lucas and lucanoides, Butler, from unknown localities, 
appear to belong to Indo-Australian genera. The identity of the 
first two appears to have been lost beyoad recall.' The third is 
stated by Butler (1872, p. 205) to be closely related to " Thelypho- 
nus " seticauda, Doleschall. The latter species has now, however, 
been made the type of a distinct genus {Tetrahalius), to which, 



' Lucas states that the types were in the Natural History Museum in Paris ; 
but there is no mention of them in Kraepelin's catalogue of the Pedipalpi of that 
collection (igoi). 



64 



Records of the Indian Museum. 



[Vol. XII, 



according to Pocock (1894, pp. 122-3), the former does not belong. 
The type is in the British Museum and must be redescribed before 
the species can be recognized. Pocock believes it to have come 
from Borneo. 

Localities mentioned below are marked with an asterisk (*) 
when represented in the Indian Museum collection. References to 
descriptions are only given in the case of species not mentioned by 
Kraepelin in " Das Tierreich,'" where descriptions of and references 
to other species will be found. 

Genus Labochirus, Pocock. 

This genus is found in western Africa, western India, Ceylon, 
Burma and the north of the Malay Peninsula ; perhaps also 
Borneo. 







Fig. I. — Abnormalities in the gnathobase and trochanter of the arm of 
Labochii'us proboscideus, X 4. 



Labochirus africanus (Hentschel). 
Western Africa : Senegal. 
? Northern Africa: Algeria. 

This species was described by Hentschel from female speci- 
mens only in 1899. It was unknown to Kraepelin when the family 
was revised in '' Das Tierreich." 

Labochirus proboscideus (Butler). 

(PI. i, figs. 1-4.) 

Ceylon: Central Province — *Kandy, 1500-2000 ft.; *Pera- 
deniya, 1600-1800 ft.; Haragama, ca. 1200-1400 
ft. ; *Galagedara,ca. 800-2000 ft. ; *Nalanda, ca 
900-1000 ft. ; Matale; * ? Sigiri. 
? Western Province — Kalutara. 



1916.] F. H. Gravely : Indo- Australian Thelyphonidae. 65 

The Kalutara record is based on a young and indeterminable 
specimen in the Colombo Museum. The Sigiri specimens, which 
are also young, have remarkably red fore-arms and hands. 

In young specimens of this, as of other species of Thelypho- 
nidae, the abdominal sterna are all much alike. The genital 
sternum begins, however, to extend backwards at a very early 
stage. Unfortunately the material at my disposal does not show 
all stages of its development. Two early stages, and the final stage 
in both sexes, are figured (pi. i, figs. 1-4). 

Among the five males and three females of this species in the 
Indian Museum collection one male bears an extra tooth on the 
gnathobase of the left arm, and three females show abnormalities 
in the armature of the trochanter of one arm. These abnormali- 
ties are illustrated in text-fig. 1. Among three young specimens 
one shows a slight abnormalit}" in the trochanter. 

Labochirus tauricornis, Pocock. 

South India: Kanara. 

Malabar— Mahe. 

By an oversight this species was given the same name as the 
next when originally described (Pocock, 1899a, p. 745). 

Labochirus cervinus, Pocock. 
South India: South Kanara — Mangalore. 

Described by Pocock in 1899, and not included in '' Das 
Tierreich. ' ' 

Labochirus gastrostictus (Kraepelin). 

(PI. i, %• 5-) 
? Borneo. 

This species is known only from a single female in the Vienna 
Museum. A figure of its anterior abdominal sterna, kindly sup- 
plied to me by Dr. Penther, is reproduced on pi. i, fig. 5. 

Labochirus kracpelini (Simon). 

(PI. i, fig. 6; pi. ii, fig. 14.) 

Malay Peninsula: *Lankawi Island. 
Perak— *Grik. 

E. Siamese Malay States — Biserat in 
Jalor ; Bukit Grab in Nawng-Chik. 

The anterior abdominal sterna of the female are shown in pi. i, 
fig. 6, a figure prepared from the type from Bukit Grah, kindly 
lent me by the Zoological Museum of Cambridge University. The 
" Tierreich" revision does not include this species, which was des- 
cribed by Simon from the female sex only in 1901. 



66 Records of the Indian Museum. [Vol. XII, 

Mr. B. H. Buxton recently presented specimens of both sexes 
to the Indian Museum. The male, which was previously un- 
known^ may be described as follows : — Length of carapace S-y-io'o 
mm. ; maximum breadth of same 5"0-58 mm. Closely allied to 
L. dawnae, from which it differs only in the following particulars : — 
the distance between the median eyes is perhaps scarcely as 
great ; the ridge in front of the lateral eyes is indistinct ; the 
coarser granules on the carapace are somewhat more clearly defined 
and more regularly rounded ; the arm and hand show more fre- 
quently a slight rugosity ; the spine on the lower surface of femur 
of the arm is sometimes obsolete; the tibia and hand are somewhat 
slenderer ; the tibial apophysis (pi. ii, fig. 14) is slenderer and is not 
expanded distally — from above it seems no more strongly modified 
than that of Uroproctus assamensis, but it is triangular in section 
with the side nearest the hand strongly grooved. 

Labochirus dawnae (Gravely). 

(PI. i, fig. 7; pi. ii, fig. 15.) 

Lower Burma: Amherst District— *Dawna Hills, from Misty 
Hollow near top of western slope {ca. 
2200 ft.) to Thingannyinaung at base of 
eastern slope {ca. goo ft ). 

This species was described in 1912, and is not included in 
Kraepelin's revision. The tibial apophysis of the male (pi. ii, 
fig. 15) is shorter than in the preceding species, but is of the same 
general form. In both these species this apophysis is very like 
that of the Ceylonese ( ? and Indian) species of the present genus, 
and Hke that of Hypoctonus oatesi, which appears to be the least 
highly specialized form yet known in the next genus. 

Labochirus browni (Gravely). 
(PI. i, fig. 8.) 

Upper Burma : Hsipaw (N. Shan) State— *Parni near Mong- 
long. 

Also described in 191 2. Only the female is known, 

Labochirus andcrsoni (Gates). 
(PI. ii, fig. 16.) 

Upper Burma: Bhamo District — *Second Defile of Irrawady. 
? Ruby Mines District^ — *Pudupyu Mountain. 

The latter record is that of a mutilated and immature speci- 
men that Gates described as the female of this species. 

The tibial apophysis of the male (pi. ii, fig. 16) is somewhat 
highly modified, as in the following species. 



iqi6.] F. H. Gravely : I ndo- Australian Thelyphonidae. 67 

Labochirus cllisi (Gravely). 

(PI. i, fig. 9; pi. ii, fig. 17.) 

I^ower Burma : Tharawady District — *Zigon Division. 
Described with L. dawnae, etc., after the appearance of " Das 
Tierreich." 

Labochirus spp. juv. 

S. India: Mysore — *Koppe. 

Upper Burma: *Pum-Ga-Taung, 13 miles east of Wan- 

hsaung, 3600 ft. (half way between 

Sadon and Myitkyina). 

Genus Hypoctonus, Thorell. 

The genus Hypoctonus, as here restricted, is found mainly in 
Burma, but is known to extend to Penang, Western Siam and 
Southern China, and through Chittagong and Western Assam to 
the base of the Darjeeling hills. 

Hypoctonus oatesi, Pocock. 
(PI. ii, fig. 18.) 

Assam : Sylhet — *Shamshernager, ca. 100 ft. 

The male was first described in the Arachnid volume of the 
" Fauna of British India " series (1900). The female was described 
in 1912 {a). 

The tibial apophysis of the male is very like that of the sim- 
pler members of the preceding genus. There is no lamina either 
on the upper or the lower border of the grooved surface, but the 
apical angle of the latter is somewhat swollen. 

The genital sternum of the female has the same form as in the 
preceding genus, instead of being strongly produced backwards in 
the middle as it is in most species of Hypoctonus. 

Hypoctonus carmichaeli, n. sp. 
(PI. ii, fig. 19.) 

Chittagong : *Rangamati. 

Three specimens, all mature males, were obtained by the 
Museum collector who accompanied H.E. Lord Carmichael to 
Rangamati in July of last year. 

The species is closely allied to H. oatesi, from which it differs 
only in its smoother and much slenderer arms, and in its more highly 
modified tibial apophysis, which arises before the distal end of the 
joint, is strongly curved at the base and has the apical angle of 
the lower border of the grooved surface produced into a large and 
hghtly curved triangular papilla (pi. ii, fig. IQ). 



68 Records of the Indian Museum. [Vol. XII ^ 

Hypoctonus birmanicus, Hirst. 
Lower Burma: Pegu. 

Onl}'- the male is known. It was described in 191 r. It is 
said to be closely related to H. hinghami. 

Hypoctonus binghami (Oates). 

Lower Burma: Tavoy — *Reef Island at mouth of Tavoy 
River. 
Megui — Owen Island. 

In this species also the genital sternum of the female is not ex- 
tended backwards in the middle. The male is unknown to me, 
but appears from descriptions to have a somewhat more strongly 
modified tibial apophysis than has that of H. oatesi. 

Hypoctonus formosus (Butler). 

(PI. ii, fig. 20.) 

Lower Burma : Amherst District — *Moulmein {H. formosus, 
s. str.) ; *Double Island {H. formosus, subsp. 
insular is). 

Also recorded from Taoo, a place whose whereabouts is un- 
known to me. 

Thorell gives a number of additional localities, this being the 
only form without keels between the median and lateral eyes that 
was recognized when he wrote. His records probably refer to 
several distinct species. Simon's specimens from Tavoy, similarly, 
were no doubt H. hinghami as already suggested by Oates (1889, 

p. 16). 

In this, as in all the following species of the genus, the lower 
ridge of the grooved surface of the tibial apophysis of the male 
(pi. ii, fig. 20) is strongly developed near the tip, and the genital 
sternum of the female is produced backwards in the middle. 

Hypoctonus ranguncnsis (Oates). 
(PI. ii,fig. 21.) 

Lower Burma: *Rangoon ; ? *Arakan. 

Also recorded from Palon, of whose whereabouts I am uncer- 
tain. 

The Arakan specimen is a female with all the characters of 
the Rangoon species. 

Deep grooves are present between the paired cavities and 
posterior margin of the genital sternum of all .females of this 
species that I have seen. 



1916.] F. H. GRAVEI.Y : Indo-Australian Thelyphonidae. 69 

Hypoctonus sylvaticus (Oates). 

(PL i, fig. 10; pi. ii, fig. 23.) 

Lower Burma : Tharawadi — *Zigon ; Minhla. 

The female of this species was first described in 1912 {a). 

Hypoctonus saxatilis (Oates), 
(PI. i, fig. 11; pi. ii, fig. 22.) 
Lower Burma : *Thayetmyo. 

Hypoctonus wood-masoni (Oates). 

(PI. i, fig. 12; pi. ii, fig. 24.) 

Lower Burma : Amherst District — *Dhammathat, Gyaing 
River a few miles from Moulmein (sea 
level); *Sukli, E. side of Dawna Hills, 
ca. 2100 ft. ; *Myawadi, Burmo-Siamese 
frontier, ca. 900 ft. ; *near Mulaiyit Moun- 
tain ; *Meetan (? Mita of Imperial Ga- 
zetteer) in the Haung-tharaw Valley. 
This appears to be a somewhat widely distributed species • 
but many of the above records are based on females only. 

The figure of the genital sternum of the female (pi. i, fig. 12) 
has been prepared from Oates' specimen. Since it was prepared 
specimens have been added to our collection which indicate that 
this one is scarcely fully mature. In these the posterior median 
expansion of the genital sternum is even narrower in proportion to 
its length and more abrupt, and its posterior margin may be lightly 
cleft in the middle line. 

Hypoctonus stoliczkae, Gravely. 
(PI. ii, fig. 25.) 
E. Himalayas : Darjeeling District — *Punkabari. 
Described in 1912. The lamina developed from the lower 
ridge of the grooved surface of the tibial apophysis is exception- 
ally large in this species. 

Hypoctonus granosus, Pocock. 

China : Yunnan. 

Only the female is known. Pocock , who described it in 1900 {a) , 
states that it is recognizable from all previously described species 
by the coarse granulation on the upper side of the hand. 

Hypoctonus spp. 

China : Yunnan — *Lo-po-ssu-Chuan. 
Siam: ^Meetaw forest, Raheng, 2000 ft. 



70 Records of the Indian Museum. [Vol. XII, 

Upper Burma: *0n high ridge {ca looo ft.) at source of 
Kyathe, Myaung, Bawbin forest reserve ; 
*Pyinmanna, Yamethin, Meiktila ; Bha- 
mo ; Mandalay; Thigyam. 

Lower Burma : Prome ; "^Farm Caves near Moulmein ; Kathis- 
tan, ca 900 ft.^ and Western slopes of 
Pegu Yomas, looo-iioo ft., Thayetmyo 
District ; Thagata-Juva in Mulaiyit Moun- 
tain. 

Malay Peninsula : Penang Island. 

Genus Typopeltis, Pocock. 

This genus is confined to far eastern Asia from Cochin China 
to Siberia and Hong Kong to Japan. Since the publication of the 
Revision in "Das Tierreich " Pocock (igooa, p. 298) and Tarnani 
(rgoi, p. 214) have published keys for the determination of species. 

Typopeltis amurensis (Tarnani) ^ 

E. Siberia; between Olga Bay and the Amur River. 

China : Canton — Sikiang. 

Annam. 

Also recorded from Haut Song Chai and Mois Balnar, whose 
whereabouts I ha'^e been unable to trace. 

The tarsi of the antenniform legs of the female are unmodi- 
fied. 

Typopeltis kasnakowi, Tarnani. 

Siam : x^rran Kull; Ta-ta-kham (? or -khaw) : Watanaa. 
This species was described by Tarnani in igor from male spe- 
cimens only. 

Typopeltis niger (Tarnani). 
China. 
Also known from the male only. 

Typopeltis tarnani, Pocock. 

N. Siam : Lampun. 

This species was described from the male only in 1902. 

Typopeltis daiyi, Pocock. 

Siam : Lampun ; lyacan via Raheng. 

This species was described in 1900 {a) ; it does not appear in 
thr " Tierreich " revision. 



See below, p. 80. footnote. 



1916.J F. H. Gkavelv : I ndo- Australian Thelyphonidae. 71 

The tarsi of the antenniform legs are modified in the female 
of this and all the remaming species of the genus. 

Typopeltis stimpsoni (Wood). 
Incl. T. crucifer , Pocock. 

(PI. i, fig. 13.) 

Japan: Yokohama. 
Loochoo Islands : 06-Sima. 

Formosa : Tam-sui on the Keelung River ; Kushaku Moun- 
tain ; "^Takao 
Hong Kong. 

This appears to be a most variable species. Iwakawa (1908) 
has shown that T. crucifer cannot be separated from T. stimpsoni. 
This author does not appear to have been aware that Schwangart 
(1906) had suggested splitting the former species into two sub- 
species, a proceeding whose validity now seems very doubtful. 

Among other characters, the armature of the lower side of the 
trochanter of the arm seems to be very variable (compare pi. i, 
fig. 13 of the present paper with pi. i, fig. 15 of Kraepelin, 1897). 

Typopeltis harmandi, Kraepelin. 

Cochin China. 

This species was described by Kraepelin in 1900. It does not 
appear in his revision in "Das Tierreich." Only the female is 
known. 

Genus Mimoscorpius, Pocock. 

Mimoscorpius pugnator, Butler. 

Philippine Islands. 
Only the male is known. 

Genus Uroproctus, Pocock. 

Uroproctus assamensis, Stol'czka. 

(PI. iii, figs. 26, 27 ; pi. iv, figs. 35, 36.) 

E. Himalayas: Darjeeling District — ^Punkabari and "^Sevoke 
(both near base of hills) ; '^Ghumti Tea 
Estate, 2500 ft. ; Pedong ; Maria Basti '. 
^Dafla Hills. 
hhox Country — "^Kobo, 400 ft. ; ^banks of 
Siyom River below Damda, 1300 ft. ; "^be- 
side stream below Balek ; ^Rotung, 1300 ft. ; 

1 Dr. Su'herland informs me that Maria Basti is the same place as that called 
Kaggia Monastery on the Survey of India map of the Darjeeling District. 



72 Records of the Indian Museum. [Voiv. XII, 

^Upper Rotung ca. 2000 ft. ; ■^between lat. 

28°-45 and 29°, ca. 4000 ft. 
Assam : ^Goalpara District. 

Darrang District — ^^"Assam-Bhutan frontier 

north of Mangaldai, ca. 300 ft. ; ^Kowpati ; 

^"Tezpur ; Burroi ' ; ^Harmutti ^ 
Lakhimpur District — '^Dikrang Valley ; Sadiya. 
Sibsagar District — ^Dumar Dulong, Moran 

P.O. 
^Garo Hills 
Khasi Hills — ^"Cherra Punji. 
Sylhet — ■^Shamshernager, ca. 100 ft. ; *Langla, 

ca. 100 ft. 
Cachar — '^"Silcuri forests. 

In addition to the above localities " Thelyphonus assamensis " 
was recorded by Simon in 1885 (P 452) from the Malay Peninsula 
and Indo-China. In 1896 he again recorded the species from Indo- 
China, this time from Pavie's collection. In his full report upon 





Fig. 2. — Abnormalities in llie trochanter of the arm ot 
Ui'Oproctiis assamensis, X 4. 

that collection, however, he records Thelyphonus schimkewitschi 
instead (1904, p. 293). Uroprocius as-iamensis is not otherwise 
recorded either south or east of Assam, and there can be no doubt, 
I think, that the record from the Malay Peninsula as well as that 
from Indo-China was based upon an incorrect determination. 
Kraepelin records the species from Calcutta ; but this record prob- 
ably refers not to the original place of capture, but to the place 
of dispatch ; for there do not appear to be any Thelyphonids in 
the Gangetic Plain or Delta. 

Uroproctus assamensis is an extremely constant species, in 
spite of its abundance and wide distribution. Even abnorma- 
lities in the teeth on the trochanters of the arms, such as are 
shown in text-fig. 2, are very rare, occurring only in two or three 
out of over fifty specimens examined. 



I According to the labels these two localities are situated at the base of the 
Dafla Hills. They must therefore be in or near the Darrang District. I cannot 
locate them with greater precision than this. 



1916.] F. H. Gravely : I ndo- Australian Thelyphonidae. 73 

The genital sternum is very little modified in adults of either 
sex (see pi iii, figs, 26 and 27). In the female especially it remains 
throughout life very like that of immature specimens of all forms 
of Thelyphonidae. 

Genus Thelyphonus, Latreille. 

This genus occurs throughout the Oriental Region, with the ex- 
ception of Burma where it is largely, if not entirely, replaced by 
Hypodonus ; and it extends far eastwards among the Polynesian 
islands. 

Thelyphonus sepiaris, Butler. 

Incl. T. cristatus, Pocock. 

^'' Western Bengal" (probably Chota Nagpur, which is no 

longer included in Bengal). 
Orissa : "^Balasore ; "^Barkul on the Chilka I^ake, o-iooo ft. 
South India : Ganjam District — "^Gopkuda Island, Chilka 
Lake ; foot of Mohiri Hills, 3 or 4 miles 
from Berhampur^ 
Karnul District — ^Nandyal. 
Chengalpat District — "^Poonamallee; *Tiru- 

valur. 
Coromandel coast — Pondicherri ; Genji. 
Salem District — ^Yercaud in the Shevaroy 

Hills. 
Coimbatore District — *Ootacamund in the 

Nilgiri Hills ; foot of Anamalai Hills. 
Mysore — Bangalore, ca. 3000 ft, ; French 

Rocks. 
Cochin — Trichur. 

Travancore — -Trivandrum ; Athengil * ; Aram- 
boly^, 
Ceylon : North-Central Province— ^'Anuradhapura ; ^Min- 
neriya ; "^Polonuruwa. 
Central Province — ^Sigiri; ^'Nalanda. 

Thelyphonus sepians was originally described b}^ Butler (1873, 
p. 131) from '' Tongoo " f? ^Taung-ngu) in Burma and from Ceylon; 
and Pocock (1894, p. 134) states that the type of Butler's T. nigre- 
scens from Tenasserim is identical with T. sepiaris. But no original 
records from outside the Indian Peninsula appear to have been 
made since, Pocock (1900 b, p. 105, foot-note) regards the local- 
ity recorded for T. nigrescens as probably incorrect ; and in this 
he is doubtless right. 

The Tongoo cotypes of 2\ sepiaris were only lent to Butler 
and seem now to have disappeared — possibly they may have 

I Mr, Fischer tells me that his observations on the courtship of the species 
(lyii) were made at this place, 

■^ Specimens in the Trivandrum Museum. 



74 



Records of the Indian Museum. 



[Vol. XII, 



been T. schnehageni, Kraepelin. Altogether it seems most un- 
likely that T. sepiaris really occurs in Burma at all. 

Butler does not say whether his fi:^ure of T. sepiaris (1873, 
pi. V. fig. 6) was taken from one of his Burmese or Ceylonese speci- 
mens. It differs from specimens of T sepiaris from India and 
Ceylon in haying the tibia of the arm slightly broader instead of 
narrower than it is long. I haye no knowledge of the shape of 
the tibia of the arm of T. schnehageni. 

Thelyphonus sepiaris is a much more yariable species than 
Uroproctus assamensis. The range of yariation in the teeth of the 
trochanters of the arms is indicated in text-fig. 3. One male of T. 
sepiaris in the Indian Museum collection has the hand relatiyely 
narrow as in the female. The shape of the fingers is somewhat 
yariable in both sexes. 







Pui, :,. — Abnormalities in the trochanter of the arm of Thelyphonus sepiaris, X 4. 



Specimens answering to Pocock's descriptions of the subspecies 
indicus and muricola, and to that of the form which he regarded 
as a distinct species cristatus, occur with yarious intermediate 
forms in yarious places, and I am unable to regard any of them as 
in any way distinct. 

Thelyphonus schnehageni, Kraepelin. 

Burma: Rangoon. 

Only the female is known. 



Thelyphonus manilanus, Koch. 

Philippine Islands : Manila. 

Moluccas: Halmaheira (subsp. halmahcirae, Kraepelin) 

New Guinea (introduced). 



1916.] F. H. Gravely : I ndo-. Australian Thelyphonidae. 75 

Thelyphonus wayi, Pocock. 

Si am : Bathambang. 

Described from a single female in i()Oo{a). 

In this species and the next the tarsal joints of the antenni- 
form legs, though long as in Uroproclus assamensis and the pre- 
ceding species of Thelyphonus, are modified in mature females as 
in the remaining species of Thelyphonus. 

Thelyphonus anthracinus (Pocock). 

Borneo: Batu Song in Eastern Sarawak. 

The antenniform legs of the female are of the same transi- 
tional type as in the preceding species. The male has probably 
been described by Thorell (see below, p. 76). 

Thelyphonus caudatus (Linnaeus). 
(PI. iii, figs. 28, 29, pi. iv, figs. 37, 38.) 

Java; Batavia ; "^Buitenzorg ; * West Java. 

Pocock (i8)4, p. 122) gives Hong Kong as well as Java. As, 
however, there are no records from intervening countries the occur- 
rence of the species in the former locality needs confirmation be- 
fore it can be accepted. 

Thelyphonus linganus, Koch. 

(PI. iii, figs. 30, 31; pi. iv, figs. 39, 40.) 

Malay Peninsula : Penang. 

Perak — Ulu Selama ; "^Grik ; ^Lenggong 

Cave ; ? Larut Hills, 3400 ft. 
Kelantan — Kuala Aring. 
^Johore — Johore Bahru ; up to about 500 

ft. on Gunong Pulai. 
■^Singapore. 
Sumatran Islands : Sumatra ; Linga ; ^Sinkep. 
The specimens from Perak differ from those from further south 
in that the tarsi of the antenniform legs are less distinctly modi- 
fied, being of more uniform thickness and lacking the grooves on 
the sixth and seventh segments and the hook on the seventh. In 
a series of specimens from Johore and Sinkep Island the grooves 
are, however, usually absent from the sixth segment and often 
from the seventh, while the tooth is not always well developed. 
Probably, therefore, the differences are not specific. 

Tarnani (1895) records this species from Batavia; but his 
description is inadequate, and his figure of the tarsus of the anten- 
niform leg indicates a mistaken identification, the eighth joint 
being, for instance, shorter instead of longer than the seventh, and 
the third longer instead of shorter than broad. 



76 



Records of the Indian Museum. 



[Vol. XII, 



Thorell (1888, pp. 390-395) records a male from Borneo; but 
from his description of the tarsus of the antenniform legs it is 
clear that the identification is at fault. Kraepelin (1897, pp. 32-3) 
believes this specimen to be the male of T. anthracinus, Pocock. 

In Kraepelin's key for the identification of species the presence 
of a longitudinal groove in the last sternum is mentioned as one 
of the principal characteristics of both sexes of T. linganus. In 
the female, however, this is not so well developed as in the male, 
and in some specimens it is absent. 

In a series of 27 specimens of T. linganus from Johore, eight 
show abnormalities of some kind in the armature of the trochanter. 
Five of these are shown in text-fig. 4. There are no such ab- 




FiG. 4. — Abnormalities in the trochanter of the arm of Tlieiypkoniis 
IiJiganus, X 4. 



normalities among our eleven specimens from Perak, ten from 
Sinkep Island, and two from Singapore. 

Thclyphonus borneensis, Kraepelin. 

Borneo. 

Only the female is known. 



Sumatra. 
Celebes. 



Thelyphonus klugi, Kraepelin. 
Thelyphonus celebensis, Kraepelin. 



Celebes. 

Only the female is known. 



1916.J F. H. Gravely : Indo- Australian Thelyphonidae. J7 

Thelyphonus doriae, Thorell. 

(PI. iv, figs. 34, 41.) 

Malay Peninsula : Singapore. 

Sumatran Islands: Billiton Island, half way between Sumatra 

and Borneo, 
Java. 
Borneo: Sarawak — ^Kuching ; Mt. Dulit (var. Aos^j). 

West Borneo (var. hosei) — Pontianak. 

Central Borneo. 

Thelyphonus sucki, Kraepelin. 
(PI. iii, fig. 32; pi. iv, fig. 42.) 
South-East Borneo : Tandjong; '^Bendjermasin. 

Thelyphonus semperi, Kraepelin. 

Philippine Islands : Mindanao— Zamboanga, the Western ex- 
tremit}^ of the Island. 

Thelyphonus pococki, Tarnani. 

Celebes. 

This species has been described (Tarnani, 1900, p. 482) since 
the revision of the family in " Das Tierreich." Only the female 
is known. It appears to be closely related to T. semperi. 

Thelyphonus schimkewitschi, Tarnani. 

(PI. iii, fig. 33 ; pi. iv, fig. 43.) 

vSiam: -Pitsanuloke, ^Bangkok; Koh Si Chang (Island); 

Chantaboon. 
I^aos : Luang Prabang. 
Cambodia. 
Cochin China : Saigon. 

Thelyphonus burchardi, Kraepelin. 

Hast Sumatra : Sungei Isaiah. 

This species has been described from female specimens only 
(Kraepehn, 1910, pp. 99-100, pi. i, figs, la-c) since the revision of 
the family in " Das Tieneich." 

Thelyphonus insulanus, Keyserling. 

New Hebrides. 

Fiji Islands : Viti — Kandanavu. 

Pocock {i8ggb, p. 98) says that this is a true Thelyphonus, 
not an Abalius as suggested by Kraepelin (1897, p. 17). Kraepelin 



78 Records of the Indian Museum. [Vol. XII, 

(1899, p. 322) finally suggests affinities with T. schimkewitschi . I 
have not seen a description of the species. 

Thelyphonus hanseni, Kraepelin. 
Philippine Islands: Mindanao. 

Thelyphonus asperatus, Thorell. 
Java. 
Amboina. 

Thelyphonus leucurus, Pocock. 
Solomon Islands : New Georgia — Narowal ; Rubiana. 

Thelyphonus sumatranus, Kraepelin, 
Sumatra. 
Described from the male only. 

Genus Abalius, Kraepelin. 

In one species of this genus (^4. rohdei) the tarsi of the antenni- 
form legs are long as in Uroproctus, and are not modified in the 
female. In the rest they are short, and are modified in the female 
as in the more highly specialized species of Thelyphonus. 

Abalius rohdei, Kraepelin. 
New Guinea. 

Abalius samoanus, Kraepelin. 

Samoa : Upolu. 
Male unknown. 

Abalius willeyi, Pocock. 
New Britain. 
Male unknown. 

Abalius manilanus, Kraepelin. 

Philippine Islands : Manila. 

This species has been described from a female specimen 
(Kraepelin, 1900, p. 7, text-fig, 2) since the revision of the family 
in " Das Tierreich.'^ 

Genus Tetrabalius, Thorell. 

This genus occurs in the Moluccas and Borneo. 

The tarsi of the antenniform legs are moderately short and are 
slightly modified in the female of the only species in which they 
have been examined. 



1916.] F. H. GraveI/Y : I ndo- Australian Thelyphonidae. 79 

Tetrabalius seticauda (Doleschall). 
Moluccas: Halmaheira ; Amboina; Ternate ; Batjan; Ceram. 

Tetrabalius nasutus, Thorell. 
Borneo. 

Only one specimen is known. It is said to be a female, but 
both antenniform legs are damaged. 

It will be seen from the foregoing pages that among the Thely- 
phonidae evolution has chiefly affected three organs — the tibial 
apophyses of the male, the tarsi of the antenniform legs of the 
female, and the genital sternum of both sexes. 

The modijfication of the tarsi of the antenniform legs of the 
female occurs at about the place at which the male holds them 
between his chelicerae during courtship (see Gravely, 19156, 
p. 52-2, pi. xxiv, fig. 25) and there can be little doubt that it 
implies a specialization connected with this process. Species in 
which these tarsi are modified must therefore be regarded as higher 
in the evolutionary scale than allied species in which they are 
unmodified. 

Nothing definite is known as to the uses of the modified tibial 
apophyses of males ; but since this modification is also confined to 
one sex it is presumably also connected in some way with sexual 
processes. In any case, since the tibial apophyses of both sexes 
of some genera, and of females of all, are alike simply conical, 
those species must clearly be regarded as most highly specialized 
in the males of which these apophyses are most widely removed 
from this fundamental form. 

With regard to the genital sterna, those species hi which these 
plates undergo the greatest change when maturity is reached must 
similarly be regarded as the most highly specialized. 

Specialization of the genital sterna appears to be roughly 
correlated with speciaUzation in other parts. Thus in the keelless 
genera, in which the antenniform legs are never modified, it is not 
known to occur in the genus Labochirus, very few members of 
which have the tibial apophysis as highly modified as is usual in 
the genus Hypoctonus ; and in the genus Hypoctonus it appears to 
be confined to the most specialized species — i.e. to those in which 
the tibial apophyses of the male bear a distinct lamina on the 
lower border of the grooved surface. Similarly in the keeled 
group it appears to be least marked, among Indo-Australian 
forms, in the genus Uroprodus, in which the tibial apophyses of 
the male are scarcely, and the antenniform legs of the female 
not at all, modified. Specialization of the genital sternum ap- 
pears, moreover, often to be more marked in males than in females 
in genera in which the antenniform legs of the latter are more 
strongly modified than the tibial apophyses of the former, and 
vice versa. It seems impossible to say more at present with refer- 
ence to modifications of the genital sternum. 



8o Records of the Indian Museum. [Vol. XII, 

The genera characterized by the specialization of the tibial 
apophyses of males are three in number — Labochirus, Hypoctonus 
and Typopeltis. 

The distribution of the genus Labochirus , as already pointed out 
(above, p. 6i), suggests that this genus, which contains almost all 
the most primitive representatives of the keelless group in the Indo- 
Australian area, once had a more continuously wide distribution 
than is at present the case. Its most highly specialized species ap- 
pear to be confined to Burma, in and around which country and 
nowhere else the remaining Indo-Australian genus of the keelless 
group — Hypoctonus — is found. The more primitive species of this 
genus closely resemble those of the last, provmg a common origin 
for the two ; but the proportion of highly specialized species is 
much greater. I have alread}^ alluded to the concentration of this 
highlj' specialized genus in Burma as evidence that the conditions 
found among the secluded valleys of this country have acted as a 
stimulus to evolution in the same sort of way as the conditions 
found among the islands of the East Indian Archipelago, a con- 
elusion which finds support in other groups (see Gravely, 1915a, 
p. 416). 

The genus Hypoctonus appears to be dominant over the whole 
of Burma, and its range extends be3^ond the Siamese frontier 
almost to Raheng in the Me Ping Valley, an immature specimen 
having been sent to us by Mr. C. S. Barton from laterite jungle 
in the forest surrounding the Metaw River, a river which joins 
the Me Ping from the west close to Raheng. From open ground 
in this forest Mr. Barton has also sent us an immature specimen of 
the genus Thelyphonus, a genus which appears to be widely dis- 
tributed in Siam and Indo-China. It is difficult to determine, 
from the evidence at present available, whether Thelyphonus or 
Typopeltis is the dominant genus of the two last named countries, 
or whether both are equally common. 

Typopeltis extends northwards to Japan and Siberia. It 
resembles the keelless genera already dealt with in having the 
tibial apophyses of males strongly modified, though perhaps in 
general a little less strongly. In addition, however, the tarsi of 
the antenniform legs of females — though always long — are often 
somewhat modified, a thing which is unknown in the keelless 
genera. It is impossible in the present state of our knowledge to 
locate the evolutionary centre of this genus, but it is noteworthy 
that the only species in which the antenniform legs of the female 
are known to be unmodified is Typopeltis amurensis ' from .Siberia 
on the periphery of the range of the genus. 

Omitting the genus Mimoscorpius (from the Philippines), of 
which scared}^ anything is known, the keeled genera with unmodi- 

' The h'pe specimen is a female from Siberia. Kraepelin (1897, p. 13) 
identifies with this a male from Canton. In view of the hmited range of most spe- 
cies of Thelyphonidae the correctness of this identification can scarcely be con- 
sidered certain. Unfortunately nothing is known of the sex of the Indo-Chinese 
specimens in the Paris Museum. 



1916.] F. H. Gravely : I ndo- Australian Thelyphonidae. 81 

fied or almost unmodified male tibial apophyses remain for consi- 
deration. Of these the genus Uroproctus, whose unmodified geni- 
tal sternum indicates its primitive character, contains only one 
species, a species the females of which have the tarsi of their an- 
tenniform legs long and unmodified. In two at least of the other 
three genera the females of some species have the tarsi of their anten- 
niform legs long and unmodified, while those of most have them 
short and modified, two species of Thelyphonus being transitional in 
so far as these tarsi are long although modified. The phylogenetic 
value of the distinctions between these genera is very doubtful, 
and the}'' may be treated here as together forming a single unit. 

The species found in the Malay Peninsula and Archipelago 
and the Polynesian Islands are as follows : — 

Thelvphoniis manilanus , Thelyphonus insulanus, 

^j anthr acinus, ,, hanseni, 

,, caudaius, ,, a^perahis, 

,, linganus, ,, leucurus, 

,, horneensis, ,, sumatranus , 

,^ klugi, Ahalius rohdei, 

,, celehensis, ,, samoanus, 

,, doriae, ,, willeyi, 

,, sucki, ,, manilanus^ 

,, semperi, Tetr ahalius seticauda, 

,, pococki , ,, nasutus. 

,, burchardi, 

In two of these — Thelyphonus sumatranus from Sumatra and 
Abalius nasutus from Borneo— the structure of the antenniform 
legs of the female is not definitely known. ^ But the tarsi of 
these legs are short in the male of the former species, and as 
shortening appears to follow modification it may be assumed that 
they are modified in the female. In the only known specimen of 
the latter species they are damaged. 

In all the others^ except Thelyphonus anthracinus from Borneo, 
Thelyphonus manilanus from the Philippines and Moluccas, and 
Abalius rohdei from New Guinea, they are both modified and short. 
In the first of these three exceptional species they are modified 
but long ; in the other two the}^ are both long and unmodified. 

In Continental Asia (excluding the Malay Peninsula and in- 
cluding Ceylon) on the other hand, only two out of five species be- 
longing to the keeled group have the antenniform tarsi modified, 
and in one of these they are long. Both species are, moreover, 
confined to Siam and Indo-China, i.e. they are the nearest of all 
to the Archipelago. 

The country west of Siam and more directly north of the 
Malay Peninsula is occupied by the keelless genera Hypoctonus 



I I have not seen a description of T. tnsulanics. If it is allied to T. schifn- 
keu'itclii as Kraepelin sug-gjsts it must have the antenniform legfs of the female 
modified. 



82 Records of the Indian Museum. [Voi,. XII, 

and Lahochirus. Only one species of Thelyphonus — T. schnehageni 
from Rangoon — has been recorded from this country. Through- 
out Assam and the Eastern Himalayas the present group of genera 
is represented by Uroproctiis assamensis ; and throughout the 
Indian Peninsula and Ceylon by Thelyphonus sepiaris. In all of 
these three species the tarsi of the antenniform legs of the female 
are long and unmodified. 

It is clear, therefore, that species of this group are more numer- 
ous and as a rule more highly specialized in the Archipelago than 
in Continental Asia. 

Summary of Conclusions. 

1. The degree to which different species of Thelyphonidae 
have been affected by the process of evolution can best be seen in 
the genital sternum of both sexes, the antenniform legs of the 
female, and the tibial apophyses of the male (p 79). 

2. The modifications seen in the genital sternum are not sufh- 
cjently definite or varied to be of much use for the purposes of this 
paper. Broadly speaking, however, they are correlated with the 
modifications seen in the other two structures mentioned (p. 79). 

3. One of these two structures is affected in some genera, 
and the other in the rest. Only in the genus Typopeltis are both 
affected together. The relationships of this genus are rendered 
obscure by the fact that it differs from other genera with modified 
male tibial apophyses in having keels between the median and 
lateral eyes, and that it differs from other genera with modified 
female antenniform legs in having a different (more nearly ter- 
minal) series of joints affected by the modification (pp. 62 and 80). 

4. The genera Uroproctus, Thelyphonus, Abalius and Tetra- 
balius are closely related. Except in so far as the structure of the 
genital sternum of Uroproctus indicates the primitive character of 
this genus, they are separated by characters of doubtful phylo- 
genetic significance and they are best treated together as a unit 
group for the purposes of this paper. In all species the tibial 
apophysis of the male is simply conical, though often slenderer 
than that of the female ; in the more highly specialized species the 
antenniform legs of the female are modified (pp. 62 and 81). 

5 . Twenty-three of the twenty-eight species belonging to these 
four genera are found in and confined to the Malay Peninsula, the 
Malay Archipelago and the Polynesian Islands. Of these the females 
of only two have unmodified antenniform legs ; one of the remaining 
twenty-one has the tarsi of these legs unshortened although they 
are modified (p. 8r). Of the two species which inhabit Siam and 
Indo-China one has these tarsi shortened and the other unshort- 
ened ; both have them modified (p. 81). One species has been re- 
corded from Burma, where the keelless genera with modified male 
tibial apophyses are dominant. Like the two species occurring 
(and dominant) in Assam and in the Indian Peninsula (with Ceylon) 
respectively it has the antenniform legs of the female unmodified 



1916.] F. H. Gravely : I ndo- Australian Thelyphonidae. 83 

(pp. 81-82). Species found in and near the Archipelago are evi- 
dently, then, more highly specialized and much more numerous 
than those in Burma, Assam and the Indian Peninsula. 

6. The keelless genera may for the present be regarded as two 
in number ; but it has been necessary to redefine them (pp. 61-63). 
The genus Lahochirus as redefined occurs in Africa, in vSouth India 
and Ceylon, in Burma and the north of the Malay Peninsula, and 
perhaps in Borneo (pp. 64-67). It is composed almost entirely of 
relatively primitive forms which presumably had at one time a 
more continuously wide distribution than at present. Two species 
(L. andersoni and L. cllisi), however, show a specialization of the 
male tibial apophysis similar to that found in the higher members 
of the genus Hypoctonus, but affecting the upper instead of the 
lower border of the grooved surface. Both these species are con- 
fined to Burma (pp. 64 and 80). The genus Hypoctonus, which 
consists chiefly of the more highly specialized species of the group, 
is also confined to Burma, whose secluded valleys presumably form 
the main evolutionary centre of the group. The fauna of these 
valleys is very imperfectly known, and the species of this group 
have for the most part very restricted ranges. Probably, therefore, 
there is still much to be learnt with regard to them (pp. 61 and 80). 

7. In the genus Typopeltis the number of records, espe- 
cially from Continental Asia, is exceptionally small in comparison 
with the range of the genus, which indicates that here too there 
is still much to be found out. For the present the most that can 
be said is that the evolutionary centre is presumably somewhere 
in the tropics, that the genus does not extend south of Indo-China, 
and that the only species in which the female is known to have un- 
modified antenniform legs occurs in Siberia on the northern peri- 
phery of the range of the genus (p. 80). 

8. Nothing can be said of the genus Mimoscorpiiis from the 
Philippines, as next to nothing is known about it. 

9. Before concluding it may be well to note that the two 
American genera, which do not properly come within the scope of 
this paper, are both extremely primitive. Thelyphonellus has the 
male tibial apophysis less modified than any of its Oriental keel- 
less allies ; and M astigoproctus has the genital sternum as little 
modified as the allied and primitive Oriental Uroproctus, and the 
tibial apophyses alike in the two sexes. 



LIST OF PAPERS REFERRED TO. 

For a general bibliography see Kraepelin, 1897; for references 
to individual species see Kraepelin, 1899. 

1872. Butler, A. G. — " A Monograph of the Genus Thelyphonus." 

Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (4) X, 1872, pp. 200-206, pi. xiii. 

1873. Butler, A. G. — " Descriptions of Several New Species of 

Thelyphonus." Cist. Ent. I (6), 1873, pp. 129-132. 



84 Records of the Indian Museum. [Vol. XII, 

1885. Simon, E. — " Faune arachnologique de I'Asie meridionale." 
Bull. Sac. Zool. France X, 1885, pp. 1-39 and 436-462, 

1888. Thorell, T.— " Pedipalpi e Scorpion! dell' Archipelago 

Malese." Ann. Mus. Civ. Geneva (2) VI (XXVI), 1888, 
pp. 326-428. 

1889. Oates, E. W. — "On the Species of Thelyphonus inhabiting 

Continental India, Burma and the Malay Peninsula." 
J. A. SB. LVIir (II), 1889, pp. 4-19. pi. ii. ' 

1894. Pocock, R. I. — " Notes on the Thelyphonidae contained 

in the Collection of the British Museum." Ann. Mag. 
Nat. Hist. (6) XIV, 1894, pp. 120-134, pi. ii. 

1895. Tarnani, J. — " Ueber die Thelyphoniden aus den Sammlun- 

gen einiger Russischer Museen, II." Horae Sac. Ent. Ross. 
XXIX, 1894-5, pp. Ill 121, pi. i. 

1896. Simon, E. — " Liste des Arachnides recueillis en Indo-Chine 

et offerts au Museum par M. Pavie," Bull. Mus. Hist. 
Nat. Paris, 1896-7, pp. 263-4. 

1897. Kraepelin, R, — " Revision der Uropygi." Abh. Ver. Ham- 

burg, XV (i), 1897, 60 pp., 2 pi. 
1899. Hentschel, E. — " Zur geographishen Verbreitung der Thely- 
phoniden." Zool. Anz. XXII, 1899, PP- 429-430. 

1899. Kraepelin. K. — " Scorpiones und Pedipalpi." Das Tier- 

reich, 265 pp., 94 text-figs. 

1899 Pocock, R. l.—{a) '^ Diagnoses of some new Indian Arach- 

nida." /. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc, XII, 1898-1900, 

pp. 744-753- 

(b) •' Scorpions, Pedipalpi and Spiders collected by Dr. 
Willey in New Britain, the Solomon Islands, Loyalty 
Islands, etc." Willey's Zool. Res., 1899-1902, pp. 95-120, 
pis. x-xi. 

1900. Kraepelin, K. — " Uber einige neue Gliederspinner." Abh. 

Ver. Hamburg, XVI (4), 1900, 17 pp., 12 text-figs. 

1900. Pocock, R. I. — {a) ''Some new or little-known Thelyphoni- 

dae and Solifugae." Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (7) V, 1900, 
pp. 294-306, text- fig. 1-4. 

(b) " Arachnida." Fauna of British India Series, 279 
pp., 89 text-figs. 

1900 Tarnani, J. — " Deux nouvelles especies de Thelyphonides " 

Zool Anz. XXIII, 1900, pp. 481-2 

1901. Krapelin, K. — " Catalogue des Pedipalpes des Collections 

du Museum d'Histoire Naturelle de Paris." Bull. Mus. 
Hist. Nat. Paris, VII, 1901, pp. 263-274. 
1901. Simon, E. — ''Arachnida of the Skeat Expedition to the 
Malay Peninsula." Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1901, pp. 

45-84. 

1901, Tarnani, J. — "Uber die Thelyphoniden aus den Sammlun- 

gen einiger russischer Museen." Ann. Mus. Zool. Ac. 
Imp. Sci. St. Petersburg, VI, 1901, pp. 207-219, pi. ix. 

1902. Pocock, R. I. — " A Contribution to the Systematics of the 

Pedipalpi." Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (7) IX, pp. 157-165. 



1916.] F. H. Gravely : I ndo- Australian Thelyphonidae. 85 

1900. Borner, C. — " Beitrage zur Morphologic der Arthropoden. I. 
Ein Beitrag zur Kenntnis der Pedipalpen." Bib. Zool. 
XVII, 1903-6, 42, 1904, 174 pp., 114 text-figs., 7 pi. 

1904. Simon, E. — " Arachnides recueillis par M. A. Pavie en Indo- 
Chine." Mission Pavie Indo-Chine, 1879-1895, Etudes 
Diver ses III , Recherches sur I'Histoire Naturelle de f Indo- 
Chine Orientate, 1904, pp. 270-295, pi. xvi. 

1906. Schwangart. F. — " Uber zwei Formen der Pedipalpengat- 
tung Typopeltis, Pocock, von Formosa. Zool. ^w^. XXX, 
1906, pp. 331-337, text-figs. 1-3. 

1908. Iwakawa, T.— " On the Specific Identity of the Scorpion- 
Spider of the Loochoos and Formosa." Annot. Zool. 
Jap. VI (4), 1908, pp. 287-291, pi. xi. 

1910. Kraepelin, K.— " Neue Beitrage zur Systematik der Glieder- 

spinnen." Mttt. Mus. Hamburg, XXVIII, 1910, pp. 59" 
107, I pi., 9 text-figs. 

1911. Fischer, C. E. C— " The Courtship of Whip-Scorpions." /. 

Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. XX, 1910-11, pp. 888-889. 

1911. Hirst, S.— " On a new Pedipalp from Burma." Ann. Mag. 

Nat. .Hist. (8) VIII, pp. 380-381, I text-fig. 

1912. Gravely, F. H.— (a) " Notes on Pedipalpi in the Collection 

of the Indian Museum. III. Some new and imperfectly 
known Species of Hypoctonus." Rec. Ind. Mus. VII, 
1912, pp. 101-107. 

(6) " Exhibition of Hving Pedipalpi, with Remarks on 
the Distribution of the Order." Proc A S.B., Aug. 19 11 
(1912). pp. cxxiii-cxxv. 
1915. Gravely, F. H— (a) "The Evolution and Distribution of 
Indian Spiders belonging to the Subfamily Aviculariinae." 
J.A.S.B. (n.s.) X, 1914 (1914-5), PP- 411-420, pi. xxxi. 

(6) '' Notes on the Habits of Indian Insects, Myriapods 
and Arachnids." Rec. Ind. Mus. XI, 1915, pp. 483-539, 
pis. xxii-xxv. 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE I. 

Fig. I. — Anterior abdominal sterna of Labochirus proboscideus , 
very young, X 4. 

2. — Anterior abdominal sterna of Labochirus proboscideus, 

young, X 4. 
3. — Anterior abdominal sterna of Labochirus proboscideus, 

9x4. 
4. — Anterior abdominal sterna of Labochirus proboscideus , 

cf X 4. 
5. — Anterior abdominal sterna of Labochirus gasirostictus , 

9x4. 
6. — Anterior abdominal sterna of Labochirus kraepehni, 2 

X 4- 
7. — Anterior abdominal sterna of Labochirus dawnae, 9 

X 4. 
8. — Anterior abdominal sterna of Labochirus browni, 9x4. 
9. — Anterior abdominal sterna of Labochirus ellisi, 2X4. 
10. — Anterior abdominal sterna of Hypoctonus sylvaticus, 9 

X 4. 
II, — Anterior abdominal sterna of Hypoctonus saxatilis, 9 

X 4- 
12. — Anterior abdominal sterna of Hypoctonus wood-masoni, 

9X4. 
13, — Lower surface of left trochanter of Typopeltis stimp- 
soni, cf X 4. 



Rec. Ind. Mus..VoLXlI,1916. 



Plate I. 
















Bemrose.CoUo. Derby 



LABOCHIRUS AND HYPOCTONUS. 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE II. 
Fig. 14. — Tibial apophysis of Labochirus kraepelini, cf . 



^D 





3 ' y y > ' 


andersoni, cf . 


,, 17 


— 


> J J ' J ) 


elhsi, cf . 


„ 18 


— 


,, ,, Hypoctonus 


oalesi, 0* . 


,> 19 


— 


1 ) ) ) > J ' 


carmichaeli, d" . 


,, 20 


— 


) ) > J J ' J • 


formosus, cf. 


,. 21 


— 


1 ; J ' ) > > 


rangunensis, cf. 


,, 22 


— 


J » 5 ) ) ) 


saxatilis, cf 


„ 23 


— , 


> > > 5 ' > ' 


sylvaticus, cf. 


„ 24 


— 


» J ' > J >3 


wood-masoni , cf 


„ 25 


— 


) > .• ,' > ! >> 


stoliczkae, cf . 



Rec. Ind. Mus.. Vol. XII. 1916. 



Plate II. 








LABOCHIRUS and HYPOCTONUS. 



H 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE III. 

Fig, 26. — Anterior abdominal sterna of Uroproctus assamensis, c 
X 4. 
^j 27. — Anterior abdominal sterna of Uroproctus assamensis, 9 
X 4. 
28. — Anterior abdominal sterna of Thelyphonus caudatus, cf 
" X 4. 

29. — Anterior abdominal sterna of Thelyphonus caudatus, 9 
" X 4. 

J J 30. — Anterior abdominal sterna of Thelyphonus linganus, o" 
X 4. 
31. — Anterior abdominal sterna of Thelyphonus linganus, 9 
X 4. 
,, 32. — Anterior abdominal sterna of Thelyphonus sucki, cf X 4. 
^, 33, — Anterior abdominal sterna of Thelyphonus schimkewitschi , 
if X 4. 



Rec, Irid. Mus..Vol.XIl,19]6. 



Plate 111. 








28. 



2 9. 



30. 




31. 





D. N. BagcH, del 



Bempose.Collo. Derby 



UROPROCTUS AND THELYPHONUS. 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE IV. 



Fig. 34 

35 
36 
Z1 
38 
39 
40 

41 
42 

43 



— Genital sternum of Thelyphonus doriae, cf X 4. 
— Tibial apophysis of Uroprocius assamensis, a' X 4. 

J) >. ji 'J jj 2 X 4. 

— Arm and hand of Thelyphonus caudatus, a' X 4. 

5X4- 

linganuSj cf X 4. 

9X4. 
doriae, cf x 4. 
sucki, 0* X 4. 
schimkewitschi , & X 4. 



P.ec. Ind. Mus., Vol. Xll, 1916. 



Plate IV. 








UROPROCTUS AND THELYPHONUS. 



VIII. REPORT ON A SMALL COLLECTION 

OF MARINE MOLL use A DREDGED IN 

SHALLOW WATER IN THE 

ANDAMAN ISLANDS. 

By H. B. Preston, F.Z.S. 

In dealing with the present small collection the exceedingly 
rich nature of the Andaman Islands Molluscan fauna is once 
more emphasized, several large collections, notably those of Nevill, 
Bouley, Wilmer and Warneford, made during more or less recent 
years having seemingly failed to exhaust it and there is little 
doubt that were systematic dredging, especially in from two to 
twenty fathoms, carried on at every available point round the 
islands large numbers of forms hitherto unknown to science would 
be revealed. 

In the present paper the author is able to diagnose and 
figure seventeen species which appear to have up to now escaped 
notice, and also to place on record the occurrence of several 
quite unlooked for forms, thus very considerably extending theii 
known range, while the material collected has, in addition, enabled 
him to provide drawings of two species {Ethalia capillata, Gould 
and Eulinia oxytata, Watson) which, though duly described, have 
not before been figured. 

Class GASTROPODA. 

Order PROSOBRANCHIA. 

Family Pl,eurotomidae. 

Pleurotoma fusca, Hombron and Jacquinot. 

Vov. Slid. Pole, ZooL, Vol. V, p. iii, pi. xxv, figs. 19-20. 

Brigade Creek, in 2-5 fathoms, on a bottom composed of de- 
caying vegetation ; Port Blair. 

Mangilia gracilenta, Reeve. 

Pvoc. Zool. Soc, 1843, p. 184; Tryon, Man. Conch., \'o!. VI, p. 251. pi. 
xxiii, figs. 98, 88; pi. xvii, fig. il. 

Port Blair. 



Records of the Indian Museum. 



[Vol. XII, 



Family Nassidae. 
Nassa kcmpi, sp. n. 

(Figs. I, la.) 

Shell small, ovately fusiform, whitish, shading on the last whorl 
to pale yellowish-brown, painted with two spiral bands of pale 
reddish-chestnut which increase to three on the last whorl ; whorls 
5, the first two smooth, polished, the last three sculptured with 
rather closel^^-set, transverse costulae ; base of shell finely spirally 
sulcate ; suture impressed, crenellated by the terminations of the 




Fig. I. — Nassa kempi, sp. n. X 6. Fig. 2. — Nassa phoevicensis, sp. n. X 4. 

,, la. — do., sculpture, X 8. ,, 2a. — do.. sculpture, X 4. 

Fig. 3, 3fl. — Natica kempi, sp. n. x 3. 
,, 36. — do., operculum X 3. 



transverse costulae ; columella obliquely descending, narrowly and 
restrictedly outwardly calloused, the callus extending upward 
across the parietal region to meet the upper margin of the labrum 
and bearing eight denticle-like plaits of which the uppermost and 
the three basal ones are the coarsest ; labrum white, acute, 
varicosely thickened behind, slightly projecting in front and some- 
what sharply contracted near the base, bearing seven small, 
regular denticles just within the aperture; aperture ovate; canal, 
short, rather broad. 

Alt. 4'5, diam. maj. 2*5 , diam. min. 2*25 mm. 

Aperture: alt. 1*5, diam. "5 mm. 

Hah. — vSemiramis Bay, Andaman Islands, in 2-6 fathoms, on 
a bottom of fine mud (S. Kemp). 



1916.] H.B.Preston: Andaman Marine Mollusca. 89 

Nassa phocnicensis, sp. n. 

(Figs. 2, 2a, p. S^.) 

Shell rather small, shortly fusiform, reddish-brown, painted 
with spiral bands of dark chocolate; whorls 6, flattish, regularly- 
increasing, the last long, sculptured with slightly oblique, trans- 
verse costulae, crossed by fine, spiral lirae and a single groove a 
little below the sutural region, which transforms the terminations 
of the transverse costulae into a row of nodules; suture im- 
pressed; columella margin obliquely descending, bearing four 
plait-like denticles, livid whitish in colour, restricted and rather 
erectly calloused and extending above into a well defined, parietal 
callus which reaches to the upper margin of the labrum; labrum 
varicosely thickened with narrowly reflexed margin, obliquely 
backwardly sloping and sharply contracted to form a notch near 
its base, bearing seven denticles just within; aperture irregularly 
ovate, canal short. 

Alt. 7, diam. maj. 375, diam. min. 3*25 mm. 

Aperture: alt. 2'25, diam. i mm. 

Hab. — Phoenix Bay, Andaman Islands, in 1-3 fathoms, on a 
bottom of muddy sand (S. Kemp). 

Nassa (Hima) tindalli, Melvill. 

Proc, Malac. Soc. Loiidon, Vol. VII, 1907, p. 29 (fig. in text). 

Port Blair. 

A single small and damaged specimen which the author refers 
with some hesitation to the above quoted species originally des- 
cribed from Baticaloa, Ceylon. 

Nassa (Niotha) livcscens, Phil. 

Zeitsclir. fiir Malak., 1848, p. 135 (as Nassa) ; Tryon, Ma>7, Conch., 
Ser. I, Vol. IV, p. 54, pi. xvi, fig. 304. 

Semiramis Bay, 2-6 fathoms, in fine mud. 
A single dead and immature specimen. 

Nassa (Arcularia) globosa (Quoy). 

Quoy and Gaimard, Zool. Voy. Astrolabe, II, p. 448, pi. xxxii, figs. 25-?7 
(as Buccinum). 

Phoenix Bay, in 1-3 fathoms, in muddy sand. 



Nassa (Arcularia) cancellata, Adams. 

^ool. Soc, 1851, p. 99 ; Tryon, Man. Condi., Ser. i 

Bamboo Flat Bay, 1-4 fathoms, in muddy sand. 



Pvoc. Zool, Soc, 1851, p. 99 ; Tryon, Man. Condi., Ser. i, \'ol. IV, p. 26, 
pi. viii, fig. 35. 



go Records of the Indian Museum. [\^oi,, XII, 

Nassa (Alectrion) unicolor, Honibron and Jacquinot. 

Voy. Astral, et Zel., 1S53, V, p. 76, pi. xxi, fig^s. 13-15. 

Semiramis Bay, 2-6 fathoms, in fine mud; Port Blair. 
A single juvenile example from each locality. 

Family Capulidae. 
Calyptraea pellucida, Reeve. 

Condi. Icon. {Trochita), sp. 2, pi. i, figs. 2a-b. 

A single specimen on the inner side of a valve of Tellina 
viator, Preston, from Port Blair. 

Family Naticidae. 
Natica kcmpi, sp. n. 
(Figs. 3, 3a, 36, p. 88.) 

Shell small, solid, ovate, of a yellowish ground colour, painted 
with rather fine, closely-set, transverse, zig-zag, chestnut mark- 
ings and irregularly, broadly, spirally banded with pale reddish- 
chestnut; whorls 4, the first three small, the last large, convex, 
finely, transversely striate; sutures so lightly impressed as to be 
almost linear; umbilicus deep, sealed, but for a comparatively 
narrow opening, by a heavy convex callus which is stained with 
dark livid purple; columella margin obliquely descending, spread- 
ing above into a well defined, parietal callus which is so thickened 
as to take on almost the appearance of a nodule near its junction 
with the upper margin of the labrum ; labrum sub-acute above 
and in front where it is stained with a livid tinge, slightly dilated 
below and considerably thickened where it merges into the base 
of the columella margin; aperture ovate; operculum thick, 
shelly, polished shining, semi-transparent, but marked with opaque, 
radiating bands of milk white, two-whorled, with eccentric uu- 
cleus and strongly spirally striate. 

Alt. 7"5, diam. maj. 5*75, diam. min. 4*75 mm. 

Aperture : alt. 4, diam. 2*25 mm. 

Hah. — Port Blair, Andaman Islands (5. Kemp). 

Sigaretus (Eunaticina) calaraphe, sp. n. 

(Figs. 4, 4a.) 

Shell small, moderately solid, yellowish-white ; whorls 4, the 
first two small, the last two rapidly increasing, the last large, long, 
sculptured with fine, but rather irregular, slightly wavy, incised 
spiral striae ; suture canaliculate ; umbilicus moderately narrow, 
deep, partly concealed by the outward expansion of the calloused 
columella margin ; columella margin obliquely descending, curved 
below, outwardly expanded, the expansion appearing as a wing- 



I9i6.] 



H. B. Preston : Andaman Marine Mollusca. 



91 



like projection above and much contracted in the median part ; 
labrum continuous with the cohimella callus, acute, somewhat 
projecting in front ; aperture pyriform ; interior of shell white, 
porcellaneous. 

Alt. 8'5, diam. maj. 5'5, diam. min. 4 25 mm. 

Aperture : alt. 6, diam. 3 mm. 

Hab. — Semiramis Bay, Andaman Is., in 2-6 fathoms, on a 
bottom of fine sand (S. Kemp). 

Family Scalid.\e. 
Epitonium robillardi (Sowerb\). 

Pi'oc. Malac. Soc, London, I. p. 42, pi. iv, tig. 5 (as Scalarin). 

Bamboo Flat Bay, 1-4 fathoms, in muddy sand. 






Fig. 4. — Sigaretits (Eunaticiiiaj calaraphe, sp. n. X 4. 
4rt. — do. sculpture, X 4. 

5. — Eulinia oxytata, Watson X 6. 
6. — Eiilima rossinsiilae, sp. n. x 3. 



Family Euwmidae. 

Eulima oxytata, Watson. 

(Fig. 5.) 

J. Linn. Soc, 1883, Vol. XVII, p. 117 (untigured). 

Bamboo Flat Bay, 1-4 fathoms, in muddy sand. 
The author has been unable to trace the existence of any 
figure of this pretty little species, hence the figure now given. 



Eulima rossinsulae, sp. n. 

^Fig. 6.) 

Shell elongately subulate, semi-opaque, white ; whorls 17, 
flattened, not convex, smooth, polished, shining; suture linear; 
columella margin oblique ; labrum acute, slightly bent inwards 
over the aperture; aperture slightly oblique, narrowly and some- 
what elongately triangular. 



92 



Records of the Iitdian Museum. 



[Vol. XII, 



Alt. II, diam, maj. 2"25 mm. 
Aperture : alt. 1-5, diam. 75 mm. 

Hab. — Off Ross Island, Andaman Is., 2-10 fathoms, on a bot- 
tom of sand, stones and coral (S. Kemp). 

Family Neritidae. 
Theodoxus oualancnsis, lyCsson. 

Lesson in Dupere}', Voj'. Coquille, ZooL, Vol. II, 1830, p. 379. 
Reeve, Conch. Icon., sp. t68, pi. xxxvi, fig. 168 (as Neritina). 

Bamboo Flat Bay, 1-4 fathoms, in muddy sand. 

A single small specimen ; the species though originally des- 
cribed from the Pacific appears to have a very wide range, the 
author having taken quite typical specimens some years ago at 
Baticaloa on the east coast of Ceylon. 





Fig. 7, 7a, ^b. — Etlialia capillata, Gould, X 4. 
,. 8. 8a. — CylicJinella syngenes, sp. n. X 8. 



Family Trochidae. 

Ethalia capillata, Gould. 

(Figs. 7, ya, yh.) 

Pi'oc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist., 1861, Vol. VIII, p. 17. 

Off Ross I., in 2-10 fathoms, on a bottom of sand, stones 
and coral. 

A very beautiful species which appears hitherto to have escaped 
being figured. 

Order OPISTHOBRANCHIA. 

Family Scaphandridae. 

Cylichnella syngenes, sp. n. 

(Figs. 8, 8a.) 

Shell allied to Cylichna cylindracea} Pennant, a common 
European form, but differing from that species in the wider apical 



Rvit. ZooL, Rd. 4, Vol. I\', p. T17, pi. Ixx, fig. 35 ('as Biillu). 



1916.] H. B. Preston : Andaman Marine Mollusca. 93 

umbilicus, in its coarser revolving striae and more cylindrical and 
truncate form. 

Alt. 5 25, diam. 2 mm. 

Aperture: alt. 5*25, diam. '25 mm. 

Hah. — Port Blair, Andaman Is. (S. Kemp). 

Family Aplustridae. 
Micromelo undatum (Bruguiere). 

Brug., Encycl. Mefh., I, p. ,^8o (as Bulla) ; Tryon, Man. Conch., Vol. 
XV, p. 392, pi. lix, figs. 20-24. 

Ojff Ross I,, in 2-10 fathoms, on a bottom of sand, stones and 
coral. 

A single very brightly coloured example which is inseparable 
from the West Indian shells in the British Museum. 

Class PELECYPODA. 

Order TETRABRANCHIA. 

Sub-order Mytilacea. 

Family Mytiudae. 

Mytilus curvatus, Dunker. 

Pi'oc. Zool. Soc. 1856, p. 361 ; Reeve, Conch. Icon., sp. 53, pi. xi, fig. 53. 

Brigade Creek, in 2-5 fathoms, on a bottom composed of 
decaying vegetation. 

Sub-order Arc ace A. 

Family Arcidae. 

Area (Anadena) holoserica, Reeve. 

Proc. Zool. Soc, 1S44, p. 39 [as Area) ; Reeve, Conch. Icon., sp. 11, 
pi. ii. 

A young specimen from Semiramis Bay, in 2-6 fathoms, in 
fine mud. 

Family Nuculidae. 

Nucula semiramisensis, sp. n. 

(Figs. 9, 9a, 96.) 

Shell tumid, ovately rhomboidal, covered with a thin, pale 
reddish-brown periostracum, polished, shining, minutely, obsolete- 
ly. transversely striate, and marked with concentric growth lines; 
umbones pearl}^ not prominent: dorsal margin arched in the me- 
dian part, anteriorly sinuous, posteriorly bulging ; ventral mar- 
gin rounded ; anterior side sharply angled above, obliquely sloping 
below ; posterior side rather slightly produced, sharpl}^ rounded ; 
hinge plate bearing on right valve five erect, sharp-pointed, 



94 



Records of the Indian Museum. 



[Voi,. XII, 





Fig. 9, ga.~Nucula sonirnmisensis, sp, n. X ^. 
0^. — do., hinoe, x ?. 



anterior and sixteen posterior lateral teeth, and on the left valve 

six anterior and seven- 
teen posterior lateral 
teeth. Interior of shell 
pale bluish, nacreous. 

Ivong. 775, lat. 1175 
mm. 

Hab. — S emir am is 
Bay, Andaman Is,, in 
2-6 fathoms, in fine 
mud (S. Kemp). 

Allied to N. bengal- 
ensis, Smith', from deep 
water in the Bay of Ben- 
gal. The present species 
is however of smaller dimensions and greater convexity for its size, 
the anterior side is also much more angular than is the case in 
that species. 

Yoldia tenella, Hinds. 

Proc. Zool. Soc, 1S43, P- 99 ; Reeve. Conch. Icon., sp. 2, pi ii. 

Semiramis Bay, in 2-6 fathoms, in fine mud ; Port Blair. 

Sub-order Cardiacea. 

Family Cardidae. 

Fulvia papyracca, Chem. 

Conch., Cab., Vol. VI, p. 190, pi. xviii, fig. 184; Sowerby, Conch, Illiist., 
fig. 56 (non fig. 55); Reeve, Condi. Icon., sp. 9, pi. ii fas Cardiiini). 

Bamboo Flat Bay, in 1-4 fathoms, on a bottom of muddy 
sand (young specimens only). 

Sub-order Conch acea. 

Family Venkridae. 

Dosinia laminata, Reeve. 

Venus, No. 34 Schroter, Einleit, iii, p. 167, pi. x, fig. 3V; V. excavafa, 
Gmel. Syst., p. 3269, No. 83?; cf. Romer, Krit. Unters., p. 26; Reeve, Condi. 
Icon., sp. 41, pi. vii. 

Port Blair. 

A number of small specimens measuring about 13 millimetres 
in height and breadth. 

Pitaria sp, ? Juv. 

Phoenix Bay, in 1-3 fathoms, on a bottom of muddy sand : 
Port Blair. 



Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist.. Ser. 6, Vol. X\'I, 1895, p. 257, pi. ii, fig. 9. 



1916.] H. B. Preston : Andaman Marine Mollusca. 95 

Anaitis calophylla, Hanley. 

Cat. Rev. Biv. Shells, Appendix, p. 361, pi. xvi, fig. 26 (as I'eniis). 
Port Blair. 

Anaitis sp. ? Juv. 

Semiramis Bay, 2-6 fathoms, in fine mud. 

A single very beautiful specimen, which the author has been 
unable to satisfactorily determine, it is obviously in a very youth- 
ful state. 

Tapes tcxtrix, Chem, 

Condi. Cab., VII, p. 48, pi. xlii, fig. 442 (as Venus). 

Port Blair. Two young examples. 

Family Solenidae. 

Solen sp. ? Juv. 

Bamboo Flat Ba^^, 1-4 fathoms, in muddy sand; only ex- 
tremely juvenile specimens obtained. 

Order DIBRANCHIA 

Sub-order Lucinacea. 

Family Lucinidae. 

Lucina semperiana, Issel 

Savigny, Descript. de V Egypt e Coq., pi. viii, fig. i? , Issel, Mai. del Mar. 
Rosso, 1869, p. 82. 

Semiramis Bay, 2-6 fathoms, in fine mud. 

Sub-order Tellina cea . 

Family Tei.i,inidae. 

Tellina bertiniana, sp. n. 

(Figs. 10, 10a, p. 96.) 

Shell trigonally ovate, somewhat convex, white, opaque, 
slightly polished, smooth but for concentric growth lines which 
are more closely-set and more apparent near the margins; umbones 
moderately small and inwardly curved, marked with rather dis- 
tant growth ridges ; dorsal margin arched ; ventral margin gentl}' 
rounded, ver}^ slightly contracted posteriorly ; anterior side round- 
ed ; posterior side angularly rounded. 

Long. 7-5, lat. 9'25 mm. 

Hah. — Bamboo Flat Bay, Andaman Islands, in 1-4 fathoms, 
on a bottom of muddy sand (5. Kemp). 

Dedicated to M. Victor Bertin in recognition of assistance 
received from his valuable work on the Tellinidae.^ 



1 Nouv. Arch. Mus. Paris, 2nd Ser., I, pp 202-361, pis. viii, ix. 



96 



Records of the Indian Museum. 
Tellina innocens, sp. n. 



[Vol.. XII, 



(Fig. II.) 

Shell small, ovately and broadly auriform, thin, semi-trans- 
parent, white, both valves finely concentrically striate; umbones 
small, a little prominent; dorsal margin anteriorly sloping, pos- 
teriorly sharply sloping and a little excavated ; ventral margin 
rounded ; anterior side also rounded ; posterior side shortly and 
obtusely rostrate, abruptly rounded at its extremity. 

Long. 4, lat. 5 mm. 

Hah. — Phoenix Bay, Andaman Is., in 1-3 fathoms, on a bot- 
tom of muddy sand (5. Kemp). 

Tellina micans, Hanley. 

Proc. Zool. Soc, 1844, p. 72 ; Sowerby, Thes. Conch., fig. 106. 

Port Blair (several specimens). 




Fig. 10, loa. — Tellina hertiniana, sp. n. X 3. 
,, II. — Tellina innocens, sp. n. X 4. 
,, 12. — Tellina pei'simplex, sp. n. X3. 



Tellina persimplex, sp. n. 

(Fig. 12.) 

Shell oval, thin, semi-transparent, whitish, both valves having 
the upper portion smooth, while the lower portions are marked 
with fine, concentric ridges which become coarser on the posterior 
side; umbones small, not prominent; dorsal margin gently slop- 
ing both anteriorly and posteriorly ; ventral margin rounded ; an- 
terior and posterior sides bluntly rounded. 

Long. 6, lat. 8 mm. 

Hab. —Vort Blair, Andaman Is. (S. Kemp). 

Tellina pervitrea, sp. n. 

(Fig. 13) 

Shell small, ovately cuneiform, exceedingly thin and almost 
transparent, smooth, polished, shining, marked only with fine, 
concentric growth lines; umbones small, not prominent; dorsal 



1916.] H. B. Preston : Andaman Marine MoUusca. 



97 



margin anteriorly gently arched, markedly excavated in the liga- 
mental region and sloping posteriorly ; ventral margin scarcely 
rounded; anterior side rounded; posterior side comparatively 
short, abruptly descending, rounded below. 

Long. 475, lat. 8-25 mm. 

Hab. — Semiramis Bay, Andaman Is., in 2-6 fathoms, on a 
bottom of fine mud (5. Kemp). 

Tellina phoenicensis, sp. n. 

(Figs. 14, 14a.) 

Shell small, ovately cuneiform, milk white, both valves sculp- 
tured with moderately fine, concentric ridges which stand out 
somewhat along the upper portion of the posterior, dorsal margin, 
the interstices being occupied by very fine, miscroscopic, con- 
centric striae ; umbones small, rather prominent ; dorsal margin 




Fig, 13. — Tellina pervitrea, sp. n. X 3. Fig. iS-— Tellina soror, sp. n. X 3- 

,, 14. — Tellina phoenicensis, s^. n. X 4. ,, 15a. — do., hinge, X 3. 

,, 14a. — do., hinge, X 4. ,, 16. — Tellina unguis, s^.n.X J^. 

anteriorly, very slightly sloping, posteriorly sloping, faintly ex- 
cavated above then a little bulging ; ventral margin rounded an- 
teriorly, contracted posteriorly, anterior side bluntly rounded; 
posterior side produced, subrostrate, sharply rounded. 

Long. 5, lat. 8 5 mm. 

Hah. — Phoenix Bay, Andaman Islands, in 1-3 fathoms, on a 
muddy bottom (5. Kemp). 



Tellina soror, sp. n. 

(Figs. 15, 15a.) 

Shell allied to T. phoenicensis but larger and of a thinner and 
semi-transparent texture, the concentric ridges are lacking and 
are replaced by very fine and closely-set striae only ; the ventral 
margin is not posteriorly contracted; the anterior side is still 
more obtusely rounded, and the posterior side is neither unduly 
produced nor rostrate. 



98 



Records of the Indian Museum. 



[Vol.. XII, 



Long, 675, lat. 2 1 25 mm. 

Hah. — Port Blair, Andaman Islands (S Kemp). 

Tellina unguis, sp. n, 

(Fig. 16, p. 97.) 

Shell rather elongately ovate, thin, transparent, yellowish- 
white, shining, polished, smooth but for exceedingly fine growth 
lines; umbones small, scarcely prominent; dorsal margin arched, 
posteriorly excavated for a short distance; ventral margin very 
gently rounded; anterior side produced, rounded; posterior side 
obliquely sloping above, very obtusely rostrate below. 

Long. 475, lat. 7-25 mm. 

Hah. — Bamboo Flat Bay, Andaman Is., in 1-4 fathoms, on 
a bottom of muddy sand (5. Kemp). 





17. 18- 

Fig. 17. — Tclluia vadoi'u?n, sp. n. X 4. Fig. 18. — Theora hindsiana, sp. n. X3. 
., i-jn. — do., hinge, X \. ,, iSn-. — do., hinge, X 3, 



Tellina vadorum, sp. n. 

(Figs. 17, i7«.) 

Shell rather roundly ovate, thin, white, both valves sculp- 
tured with fine, regular, concentric ridges which become more 
closely crowded towards the ventral, anterior and posterior mar- 
gins; umbones small, a little prominent; dorsal margin arched; 
ventral margin rounded; anterior side also rounded; posterior side 
very obtusely and roundedly rostrate. 

Long. 6-5, lat. 8 mm. 

Hah. — Bamboo Flat Bay, Andaman Islands in 1-4 fathoms, 
on a bottom of muddy sand (5. Kemp). 

Tellina vestalis, Hanley. 

Proc. Zool. Soc, 18.H, p. 141 Reeve, Condi. Icon,, sp. 230, \^\. \'. 

Port Blair (young only). 



I9i6.] 



H. B. Pkeston : Aidamnn Marine Mollusca. 



99 



Tellina viatcr, Preston. 

An)i. Mag. Nat. Hist., Ser. 8, Vol. XVI, 1915, p. 84, fig. in text. 
Port Blair. 

A number of specimens of this very delicate species which are 
inseparable from the type which is of New Caledonian origin. 

Family Scrobiculariidae. 
Thcora hindsiana, sp. n. 

(Figs. 18, i8a, p. 98.) 

Shell allied to T . opalina, Hinds', but differing from that spe- 
cies in its more tumid form, anteriorly excavated and posteriorly 
sloping dorsal margin, broader and more obtusely rounded anterior 
side and more rostrate posterior side. 

Long. 8'25, lat. 13 mm. 

Hab. — Phoenix Bay, Andaman Islands, in 1-3 fathoms, on a 
bottom of muddy sand. 

Named in honour of the late INIr. R. B. Hinds, to whose 
researches are due a large proportion of the known members of the 
group. 

Suborder Anatinacea. 

Family Cuspidariidae. 

Cardiomya andamanica, sp. n. 

(Figs. 19, 19a.) 

Shell small, convex, pyriform, pure white, sculptured with 
seven minute anterior, eleven coarse 
median, and three fine posterior radiate 
riblets, a considerable smooth gap in- 
tervening between the two last; um- 
bones small, not prominent; dorsal 
margin anteriorly sloping towards the 
umbones, posteriorly gently curving 
upwards towards the posterior side ; 
ventral margin rounded, posteriorly 
contracted ; anterior side steeply slop- 
ing above, rounded below ; posterior 
side produced, rostrate, sharply round- 
ed at its extremity. ^^^'^- 19. iga.—Cantiomya au- 

Long. 3, lat. 5 (nearly) mm. damanlca, sp. n. x 6. 

Hab. — Semiramis Bay, Andaman Is. , 
in 2-6 fathoms, on a bottom of fine mud (S. Kemp). 




' Proc. Zool. Soc, 1843, p. 78. 



IX. A NEW CHLAMYS FROM CALCUTTA. 

By S. Maulik, B.A. (Canlab), F.E.S., 
Imperial College of Science and Technology, London. 

Among the Hispinae and Cassidinae sent to me by Mr. 
Gravely from the Indian Museum, there occurs an interesting 
insect, belonging to the division Camptosomes of the family 
Chrysomelidae. It is necessary to describe it as a new species, 
it being the fourteenth Chlamys recorded from the Indian region. 
I name it after Mr. Gravely who found it on Ziziphus jujiiba 
at Calcutta and tells me that in life it closely resembles a piece of 
caterpillar excrement. I thank Dr. Gahan for allowing me to 
see the types in the collection of the British Museum, and Mr. 
Andrewes for letting me examine the types in his collection. 

Family CHRYSOMELIDAE. 

Division CAMPTOSOMATA. 

Sub-family Chlamydinae. 

Genus Chlamys, Knoch. 

Chlamys gravciyi, n. sp. 

Sub-quadrate, broadest at the middle, narrowed anteriorly 
and posteriorly, black, five basal joints of antennae fulvous, the 
remaining six joints very dark brown. The insect is completely 
covered with coarse and shallow punctures, in some parts the 
punctures are shallower and in others they are deeper. The 
elevated surface of the prothorax with four ridges and without any 
tubercles, each elytron with ten sharp tubercles. Length 2'5 mm. 

Head with the vertex coarsely punctate, shallowly depressed 
in the middle; eyes oval, convex, triangularly notched on the 
inner side; basal joint of the antenna thickest, longest, and 
curved to fit into the grooves round the eyes, 2nd joint small and 
rounded, 3rd-5th joints small and equal to one another in length, 
6th joint transverse but smaller than the following joints, 7th-irth 
joints large and transverse, apex of nth Joint rounded. When 
the antennae are extended forwards the lateral expansions of the 
apical 6 joints are on the outer side, in repose they lie closely 
pressed to the sides of the prosternum, the tips reaching up to its 
constricted portion, and the lateral expansions being on the inner 
side. It is difficult to examine the antennae properly unless they 
are dissected off and a balsam mount made of them. 



102 



Records of the Indian Museum. 



[Vol. XII, 



Prothorax bisinuate on either side at base which is as broad 
as that of the elytra; narrowed in front, anterior margin circular, 
the head fits in well into this circular front of the prothorax : 
lateral margins oblique and straight; the disc in the middle is 
triangularly^ and considerably elevated, the apex of the triangle 
being towards the scutellum, on this elevated portion there are 
two strong ridges running parallel down the middle, and from 
near the bases of these middle ridges two other sinuous ridges 
branch off, all of these ridges scarcely reach the anterior margin, 
they become feebler towards the margin. 

Scutellum about twice as broad as long, the two apical outer 
angles produced, surface rough. 

Elytra broadest at base, constricted at the middle ; coarsely 
and deeply punctate ; suture serrate throughout ; humeral callus 
raised, rounded, surface finely strigose. Each elytron has ten 





Fig. I. — Chlamys gravelyi, n. sp. from above; \a. antenna. 



sharp tubercles disposed as follows :— in a longitudinal line parallel 
to the suture there are four tubercles, the third being smaller and 
more towards the suture, along the median longitudinal line three, 
and finally there are three along the lateral marginal line, the 
second of these tubercles being deviated more towards the median 
line; the fourth tubercle of the sutural line, third of the median 
line and the second of the lateral marginal line being close together 
form a group. The surface of the elytra is rough being raised 
in places, particularly between the tubercles. 

Underside. — Presternum widened anteriorly and greatly con- 
stricted towards the posterior extremity. Last abdominal sternite 
with a depression in the middle. Pygidium with three ridges and 
four deep furrows. 

Localities:— C2i\c\iX,t2i, 3-iv-i9i5, 25 and 30-V-1915, 8-vii-i9i2, 
27-ix-i9i5, 2-X-1915," on Ziziphus jujuha " {F. H. Gravely) ; Paresh- 



igi6.] S. Maulik : .4 new Chlamys. I03 

iiath, W. Bengal, 4000-4400 ft., io-iv-1909, ''on various shrubs" 
{Annandale). 

Described from 14 examples. 

Type in the Indian Museum, Calcutta; 2 co-types in the 
British Museum. 



X. DESCRIPTIONS OF TWO NEW FISH 
FROM THE CHII.KA LAKE. 

By B. h. Chaudhuri, D.Sc. {Edtn.), F.R.S.E., F.L.S., 

Assistant Siipeyintendent, Indian Museum. 

Descriptions of two new species in the Chilka Survey collec- 
tion are now published in advance of the report on the fish which 
is under preparation, in order to avoid the detention of a paper on 
the larval stages by Professor D. R. Bhattacharya, which will be 
issued shortly in vol. V of our Memoirs. 

Gobius ostreicola, sp. nov. 

The height of the body is 22*2% of the total length without 
the caudal fin, the length of the head is 35 '5%, the least depth of 
the caudal peduncle is I5"5%, the diameter of the eye is 9%, the 
height of the first dorsal fin is 22*2%, the length of the pectoral 
fin is 33'3%, the length of the ventral fin is 26*6%, the base of 
the anal fin is 20%, the base of the second dorsal is 26"5%, the 
length of the caudal fin is 26' 6% in the total length without the 
caudal fin.^ 

The body is elongate and compressed. The caudal peduncle 
is very much compressed. The dorsal profile slopes downwards 
from the nape towards the caudal peduncle as well as towards 
the snout; the ventral profile is almost a straight line. 

The head is large and broad and is very much depressed, its 
breadth being shorter than its length by the length of its snout. 
The part of the head on each side in front of the opercle and 
behind the eye protrudes above and is inflated sideways with a 
pore behind. There is a median longitudinal groove from the 
occiput to the back of the eye. The interorbital space is saddle- 
shaped with a slight bridge-Hke elevation in the middle and is 
equal to the length of the snout. There are a series of minute pores 
— openings of muciferous glands — arranged in patterns round the 
eyes, the nasal area and other parts of the head. The nasal area 
has two fleshy tubular protuberances with two valvular openings 
behind each in front of the eyes. The eyes are rather large, and 
are not lateral but wholly superior, and project beyond the dorsal 
profile. The snout is short and is less than the diameter of the eye 
in length. 

The mouth is horizontal, the jaws are subequal, the lower jaw 
being slightly the longer, the angle of the jaws is vertically below 
the middle of the eye. The teeth are villiform and are in several 

' Measurements are in hundreds of length without the caudal fin. 



io6 



Records of the Indian Museum. 



[Vol. XII 



rows ill each jaw, those of the upper jaw being smaller and less 
numerous than those of the lower. The teeth in the upper jaw 
are in two series: the outer series consists of two or three rows of 
teeth larger anteriorly but becoming smaller laterally ; the inner 
(posterior) series forms a cluster of smaller teeth several rows deep 
but not spreading laterally. In the lower jaw there are broad 
bands of teeth several rows thick which continue to the angle of 
the mouth in almost equal thickness ; the outer ones of this set 
are slightly larger than those behind. 

The gill openings are lateral and they do not continue forward 
beneath. The isthmus is broad, the width being contained three 
times in the length of the head. Pseudobranchiae are present. 

There are two dorsal fins, entirely separated from each other, 
the first one has six spines and the second has ten rays; the 
anterior end of the first dorsal is considerably behind the base of 
the pectoral fin, the third to fifth spines are the longest but they do 
not reach beyond the third ray of the second dorsal fin when lying 
horizontal. The second dorsal fin begins a little forward of the tip 
of the pectoral fin ; the posterior rays of this fin are slightly longer 
than the anterior ones and the last of these rays almost reaches 
the base of the caudal fin. 

The anal fin has nine rays the first of which is undivided; it 
is inserted a little behind the origin of the second dorsal fin and 
is somewhat similar in shape to that fin. Its posterior rays are 
longer and are long enough to reach some of the rays of the caudal 
fin that are attached to the ventral side of the base of that fin. 

Six specimens — one type and five co-types — have the dorsal 
and anal fin rays as follows : — 



Specimens 


Dorsal spines. 


Dorsal rays. 


Anal rays. 


VI. VII. 


10 


1 1 


9 


lo 


5 i ' 3 


1 


4 2 



The pectoral fin has sixteen rays, some of which are thin and 
silky ; the fin is somewhat low down, rather broad, and has a round- 
ed margin. 

The tip of the united ventral fin reaches the vent. The anal 
papilla is prominent, long and muscular. The caudal fin is broadly 
rounded. 

The scales are small and are mostly ctenoid, except a few very 
small scales embedded in the occipital region of the head which is 
otherwise naked ; the isthmus and chest are also scaleless. There 
are a few embedded scales in front of the vent and the part of 
the abdomen above the joined-ventral fin is scaleless. The number 
of scales in the lateral line is thirty-seven and in the lateral trans- 
verse fourteen. 



1916.J B. L. Chaudhuri ; Fish jrom the Chilka Lake. 107 

The colour of the body (in spirit) is mottled dark brown, the 
ventral side and the sides of the abdomen being slightly lighter ; 
the fins are dull white and the two dorsal, anal and caudal fins 
are banded by series of black spots in the spines and ra3'S ; in the 
first dorsal fin there are four such series of black dots, in the 
rest it varies from two to three. 

The fish was found breeding among the oyster beds near 
Manikpatna in the Satpara peninsula. 

The type specimen, measuring 45 mm. without the caudal fin 
and 57 mm. with it, was collected in the beginning of the month 
of December, 1914 near Manikpatna among the oyster beds. 

There are altogether five co-types, two of which, measuring 48 
mm, and 49 mm., were collected along with the type specimen near 
the same spot. The other three co- types measuring 39 mm. to 41 
mm. were collected on the 5th of September. 1914 near the same 
locality. 

Petroscirtes bhattacharyac, sp. nov. 

The height of the body is 18% of the total length without 
the caudal fin, the length of the head is 25%, the least depth of 
the caudal peduncle is ii"5%, the diameter of the eye is 7%, the 
length of the snout is 9%, the length of the pectoral fin is 18%, 
the length of the ventral fin is 14%, the length of the caudal fin 
is 16%, the base of the dorsal fin is 72%, and the base of anal 
fin is 22% in the total length without the caudal fin. 

The body is moderately elongate^ round and naked. The 
snout is rounded and short ; the mouth is sub-inferior and termi- 
nal; the cleft of the mouth is narrow. There are two small 
tentacles about the middle of the snout in front of the nasal 
openings. 

There are long incisiform teeth in a single row in each jaw, 
and a pair of canine teeth at each angle of the jaws. The upper 
canine teeth are very much bent and recurved, the lower ones are 
longer and stouter and not curved. The number of incisor teeth 
in the upper jaw is 18 and that in the lower 16. There is a con- 
siderable alveolar space between the upper canine and the last 
(outermost) incisor of the upper jaw in each side — in which space 
the lower canine is lodged when the mouth remains shut. 

The fins are thin, the spines and rays are hyaline and the 
interstices are membranous. There is a single dorsal fin with 
thirty-one spines commencing sUghtly in front of the gill-openings 
and ending near the base of the caudal fin ; the posterior spines of 
the dorsal fin are higher than the anterior ones, some of the long 
posterior spines being almost double the length of the anterior 
short ones. The anal fin has twent5^-one rays, the last rays 
almost touch the lower caudal rays. The caudal fin is fan-shaped, 
it appears to be somewhat truncated and has rounded sides. 
The ventral fin consists of two fleshy round rays united at the 
base and free at the end, the free portion of the outer ray is 
nearly double that of the inner free end. The pectoral fin is 



io8 Records of the Indian Museum. [Vol. XII, 1916.] 

rounded and has a somewhat muscular base. It is considerably 
posterior to the origin of the ventral fin. There is an anal 
papilla equidistant from the end of the snout and the base of the 
caudal fin, it is also in the middle of the vent and the anterior 
origin of the anal fin. 

The ground colour of the head and of the body is dull brown 
with a lighter shade in the abdominal region. On each side of 
the head there are four broad transverse bands, black in colour, 
with interspaces equally broad but white; on the upper part of 
the head there is one white horse-shoe-shaped loop commencing 
behind the eyes and reaching round the occiput. On the side of 
the body there are eight or nine very faint but darkish transverse 
bands — broader than those on the sides of the head, with interspaces 
equally broad ; along the middle line on each side of the body — 
on each of these dark faint bands — there are altogether eight or 
nine round black blotches. Looking from above the lighter inter- 
spaces, that pass through the base of the dorsal fin from side to 
side, appear as many white blotches. The fins are diaphanous 
and slightly darkish, the anal fin being darker than the rest. 
The dorsal and the anal fins are edged with bright white points 
and the base line of the caudal fin has a white band posterior to 
a dark band. There is a transverse broad black band low down 
on the anterior side of the base of the pectoral fin. The terminal 
edge of the opercular membrane is white. 

The type specimen, measuring 44 mm. without the caudal 
fin and 51 mm. with that fin, was obtained at Barkul Point on 
the 2nd March, 1914. There are altogether eleven co-types. 

Habitat. — The species is a permanent inhabitant of the lake, 
both in the Main Area and in the outer channel, breeding in the 
lake. 



XI. DESCRIPTION DE LA LARVE DE 

LASIODACTYLUS CH EVRO LATI , 

RE ITT. 

[COLEOPTERA, NiTIDULIDAEj. 

Par p. DE Peyerimhoff. 

Materiel etudie : Nombreuses larves de tous ages, conservees 
dans I'alcool faible, recueillies avec rimago. 

Provenance: Barkuda I., Chilka L. (Ganjam, Madras, Indes 
Anglaises), dans des fruits tombes et fermentes de Melia azadi- 
rachta [Neem ou Nim tree). Coll. Chilka Surve3\ 

Longueur des plus grands specimens : 7 mm. — Largeur : 1-5 mm. 

Corps eruciforme, assez convexe, d'un jaune orange; tete 
plus foncee; pronotum charge de deux plaques cornees brunes ; 
contours des mandibules, taches retiniennes, stigmates, quatre 
taches cornees sur le mesonotum et le metanotum, deux taches 
analogues sur les 9 tergites abdominaux, extremite des prolonge- 
ments du dernier segment et trochantins, d'un brun clair. Tegu- 
ments mats, sauf sur la tete et sur les taches cornees. Pilosite 
presque nulle, au moins chez les individus ages. 

Tete degagee chez les individus jeunes, legerement engagee 
dans le prothorax chez les individus ages, attenuee en avant a 
partir de la moitie, arrondie en arriere, portant une forte impres- 
sion en U superposee aux sutures de I'aire frontale, ornee de 
quelques soies, claviformes en dessus, simples en dessous. Clypeus 
transversal, fortement tumelie de chaque cote, sans suture nette. 
Labre bien detache, encore plus transversal, portant six soies sur 
le pourtour et des papilles au bord anterieur. 

Antennes ayant a peu pres la longueur de I'epistome et du 
labre pris ensemble, basees sur une large membrane cupiliforme, 
de 3 articles decroissant en largeur, le 1° carre, plus ou moins en- 
chasse dans la membrane basilaire, le 2° allonge, legerement fusi- 
forme, le dernier tres petit, subule, termine par une sole et accole 
a un cone sensitif interne moindre de moitie. 

Ocelles lateraux, au nombre de 4, sous forme de cornees sail- 
lantes disposees au-dessus d'une tache retinienne foncee. 

Mandibules courtes, a peu pres symetriques, cachees sous 
I'epistome et le labre, peu chitinisees, sauf sur les bords et sur les 
condyles, fortement anguleuses au cote externe, composees d'une 
pointe cornee a sommet bifide, portant 4 ou 5 dents au bord in- 
terne, — d'une lacinia formee de lanieres multifides reunies en 
frange, — d'une mola finement striee, semblant evidee en dessous et 
un peu davantage a droite qu'a gauche. 




. #1' r% 



no Records of the Indian Museum. [Vol. XII, 

Trou occipital infero-posterieur ; trou maxillaire vaguement 

rectangulaire ; tous deux 

^ ^ .,. communiquant entre les 

^^"Wi^J^ pleures, dont les ailes sont 

iV "^ ","',' /Js distantes du dixieme envi- 

--i;£ ,-''//.% ^^oJi <i6 1^ largeur de la tete. 

^;, , ii £, /|! Pieces lahio-maxillaires en 

partie membraneuses, peu 
saillantes en dessous. 

Maxilles formees d'un stipe 
deux fois plus long que large, 
a contours externes flexueux 
base sur un cardo tres peu 
coude, et au sommet, separe 
du lobe par une suture tres 
nette. Lohe maxillaire ob- 
long, convert au sommet de 
papilles et desoies sensitives 
et portant a la base, sur la 
face dorsale, un fascicule de 
4 dents aigues, dont deux 
beaucoup plus developpees, 
depassant le bord interne. 
Membrane articulaire a peine 
chitinisee sur son bord in- 
pC^ " ;^ terne. Palpes maxillaires 

epais,lepalpigere complete- 
ment detache, corne a la 
base et simulant un premier 
article ; I'orange parait ainsi 
J!| '^l»' \ compose de quatre seg- 

ments. 

Labium compose d'avant 
en arriere: d'un palpigere 
cordiforme portant une 
paire de palpes uniarticules 
reconverts d'une langiie ar- 
rondie, obtuse, non setule- 
use, — d'un menton egale- 
ment cordiforme, pourvu 
de deux soies, membraneux 
au sommet, ou il pent en- 

Kio. i.~\.Hr\-G dc Lasiodactyliis chevyolafi. chasser Une partie du pal- 
Specimen ag-c. pigere, — d'un sous-menton 

tres allonge, dont le tegu- 
ment luisant contrasta avec la matite de la membrane articulaire, 
— d'une gula membraneuse (a peu pres invisible sans dissection) 
et situee exactement entre les deux sommets cornes des pleures. 

Pronotum beaucoup plus developpe que tout autre segment, 
transversal a cotes arrondis, orne sur ses deux tiers anterieurs de 



F>' 



'^}. 





1916]. p. DE Peyerimhoff : Lasiodactylus chevrolati. 



Ill 



deux plaques coriiees et luisantes, presque contigues ; chacune 
d'elles porte quelques courtes soies clavifonnes et quatre impres- 
sions, une mediane et trois laterales, a fond plus clair. 

Mesonotum et inetanotum identiques, presque de moitie plus 
courts que le pronotum, portant quatre plaques luisantes bien 
moins etendues, les medianes plus developpees, terminees en arriere 
par un tubercule charnu couronne de trois soies clavifonnes, — les 
laterales munies de deux soies seulement ; de cha({ue cote en outre, 
deux papilles et une soie claviforme. 

Segments ahdominaiix ornes sur les 8 premiers de deux plaques 
seulement, de plus en plus etendues et a tubercule setigere de plus 
en plus isole et saillant d'avant en arriere, — portant en outre une 
papille et une soie discales de chaque cote. Neuvieme segment 




?. — l.arve de Lasiodactyltis chevrolati. 

a. (Hypeus, labre et niandibule (legerement detachee), face dorsale : h. 
Tete vue lateralement : c. Face ventrale de la tete : d. Maxillaire et labium vus 
par la face ventrale : e. Lobe maxillaire vu par la face dorsale. 



sensiblement plus etroit, en trapeze renverse, tumefie vers le som- 
met, d'ou partent deux paires d'appendices a sommet chitineux, 
les anterieurs courts, les posterieurs allonges, setigeres. 

Desso'us membraneux et mou. Prosternum relie a la tete par 
un goitre transversal tres developpe. Pleurites thoraciques et 
abdominaux composes de toutes les pieces indiquees par Hopkins ^, 
savoir I'epipleure, I'liypopleure, le sternum (sillonne longitudinale- 
ment), le sternellum et le poststernellum (fig. 3a). L'epipleure, de 
plus en plus saillante d'avant en arriere, se termine lateralement 
par un tubercule charnu, orne d'une papille anteapicale. Anus 
tronconique, a extremite orne de 6 soies; maqueuse erectile 
quadrilobee. 



I'he 



Dend rocfoiiiis 



Washington, 1909, p. 62, fig. 39. 



112 Records of the Indian Museum. [Voi^. XII, 

Stigmates en nombre normal, la I^ re paire infero-laterale, situee 
a la marge anterieure du metathorax, les 8 autres dorso-laterales, 
de ptus en plus rapprochees, d'avant en arriere, du bord post6- 
rieur des segments. lis sont tres saillants, en forme de boutons 
fonces. et constitues par un element de trachee tres elargi, tres 
chitinise, recouvert d'une sorte de cloche egalement chitineuse, 
percee au sommet par le peritreme, qui est legereraent reniforme. 

Pattes tres ecartees, et de plus en plus de la i° a la 3° paire, 
rattachees a un trochantin bien visible, composees d'une hanche 
globuleuse semee de papilles microscopiques, sauf sur la partie 
centrale, qui s'affaisse en contraction pour recevoir une partie des 
segments suivants, — d'un trochanter egal a la moitie du femur, — 
d'un femur deux fois plus long que large, — d'un tibia egal en long- 
ueur au femur, mais deux fois plus mince, — d'un tarse forme d'un 
ongle a base membraneuse portant une sole en-dessous. 

Chez les larves de plus en plus jeunes. la tete est de plus en 
plus grosse par rapport au prothorax, les tubercules setigeres sont 
de plus en plus saillants, et les soies elles-memes, simples ou clavi- 





FiG. 3. — Larve de Lasiodactylits chevrolafi. 

a. Face \"entrale des derniers segments : h. Extremite d'un tronc trachc'en 
et stigmate : c Patte posterieure droitc, vue de dessous (avec le trochantin prec 
dant la hanche). 

formes, de plus en plus longues ; les papilles deviennent egalement 
setiferes, notamment celles qui terminent le processus lateral des 
pleures. Les soies inferieures participent au meme developpement. 
Larve de Nitidulide typique, a structure tres differenciee et a 
adaptation nettement saprophage. La discussion de ses caracteres 
et leur comparaison avec ceux des autres types seront faites ulte- 
rieurement. D'ailleurs, le petit nombre de Nitidulidae connus a 
ce point de vue et I'insuffisance de la plupart des descriptions, 
rendraient actuellement cet examen comparatif aussi incomplet 
que difficile. 

Deus larves de Lasiodactylus ont ete deja decrites: 
I. Celle de L. pictus, Mac-Leay (E. Candeze, Histoire des 
metamorphoses de quelques Coleopteres exotiques, Liege, 1861, p. 
16, pi. iii, fig. 6 [sub " Lordites glahricula, Murray i. litt.]. — Quoi- 
que tres succincte, cette description permet de constater que la 
larve de L. pictus (de Ceylan) differe pen de celle de L. chevrolati. 
Elle n'aurait toutefois que deux taches cornees au lieu de 4, sur le 



1916]. p. DE Peyerimhoff : Lasiodadylus chevrolati. 113 

mesonotum et le metanotum, et ces taches, comme celles des seg- 
ments de r abdomen, seraient surmontees d'epines au lieu de soies 
claviformes. 

2. Celle de L. caliginosus Reitt. [d'apres une communica- 
tion in litteris de M. le Dr. Sicard, qui a recolte cette larve et I'a 
communiquee a I'auteur de la description] — Capt. Xambeu, Lar- 
ves de Madagascar, 14° Memoire, sep. 1905, p. 16 — 17 [sub ''Lor- 
dites species"]. — Cette larve n'a que deux ocelles, et le mesonotum, 
le metanotum et les segments abdominaux sont depourvus de pla- 
ques ou taches cornees. Differences relativement importantes, et 
qui laisseraient supposer une erreur d'attribution ou de determina- 
tion. 



XII. CONTRIBUTIONS TO A KNOWLEDGE 

OF THE TERRESTRIAL ISOPODA 

OF INDIA. 

Part II. — Some new species of PARAPERiscvrHis, 
C ('BAR IS, etc. 

By Waeter E. Colunge, M.Sc, F.L.S., etc., Research 
Fellow of the University of St. Andrews. 

(Plates IX— XIX.) 

The present contribution deals mainly with new species of the 
genus Cubaris, Brandt, amongst which is an interesting one from 
caves near Cherrapunji, Assam. Two new species of Paraperiscy- 
phis, Stebbing, are described from single specimens from Ceylon, 
but their characters are so distinct from any known forms, that I 
offer no excuse for departing from a rule not to describe from 
single examples. It is interesting to be able to record a new 
species of Burmoniscus, Cllge., also from a cave near Cherrapunji. 
The complete list is as follows : 

Paraperiscyphis stebbingi, Cllge. 
,, Pulcher, n. sp, 

,, scabrus, n. sp. 

Cubaris gravelii, n. sp. 

expansus, n. sp. 

dilectum, n. sp. 

pusillus, n. sp. 

brunneocaudatus , n, sp. 

chiltom, n. sp. 

caver Hosus, n. sp. 

lobatus, n. sp. 

albolateralis, n. sp. 
Burmoniscus kempi, n. sp. 

Genus Paraperiscyphis, Stebbing. 

igii. Paraperiscyphis Stebbing, Rec. Ind. Mas., vol. VI, p. 184. 

Paraperiscyphis stebbingi, Cllge. 

I(;i4. Paraperiscyphis stebbingi, Collinge, Rec. Ind. Mus., vol. X, p. 207, 
pi. xxiv, figs. i-io. 

Habitat. — Kavalai, 1300-3000 ft., Cochin State, 24 — 27-ix-i9i4. 
No. m^ {F. H. Gravely). 



ii6 Records of the Indian Museum. [Voi,. XII, 

This is an additional record for this interesting species. 

I find that in describing this species I made a most unfor- 
tunate sHp in the diagnosis wherein it was stated (p. 207) " 2- 
jointed flagellum, the first joint longer than the second," and 
again on p. 208 the error was repeated. In P. stehhingi the first 
joint of the flagellum is not longer than the second, but as correctly- 
figured [cf. pi. xxiv, figs. I and 2). 

Parapcriscyphis gigas (Cllge.). 

1915. Pei'iscyphis gigas, Collinge, Rec. hid. Mas., vol. XI, p. 148, pi. ix, 
figs. I -10. 

The form of the uropoda, which is a character of the very 
greatest importance in the classification of this and allied genera^ 
will necessitate the removal of this species to the genus Parapcri- 
scyphis. 

Parapcriscyphis pulchcr, n. sp. 
(PI. ix, figs. I — 5). 

Body oblong oval, dorsal face strongly convex, surface irregu- 
lar but smooth. Cephalon (fig. i) small, flanked by the lateral 
plates of the first segment of the mesosome, lateral lobes well 
developed, median lobe represented by slight median expan- 
sion of the anterior margin ; epistoma carinate. Eyes subdorsal. 
Antennulae (fig. 2) small, 3-jointed, distal joint with terminal 
style and indented on the inner side. Antennae (fig. 3) moderately 
stout, joints 2-4 subequal, 5th joint the longest ; flagellum 2-jointed, 
Avith the first joint shorter than the second which has a fine 
terminal style. Uropoda (fig. 4) extending beyond the telson, 
basal plate short and stout with antero- dorsal surface expanded, 
convex dorsally, concave ventrally ; exopodite and endopodite 
extending beyond the basal plate, both articulating on the inner 
margin, exopodite flat and blade-like, endopodite three-sided. 
Telson (fig. 5) obtusely triangular, dorsal surface convex, irregular 
and smooth. Length I4'5 mm. X 7 mm. Colour (in alcohol) greyish- 
green ground colour with small irregular blackish spots on the 
posterior border of each mesosomatic segment, in the median line 
on each mesosomatic and metasomatic segment is a yellowish spot, 
lateral to this an irregular yellowish marking, and still more laterally 
another spot, which together give the appearance of five broken 
lines. 

Habitat. — Peradeniya, Ceylon, 28-V-1910. No. -yo- (F. H. 
Gravely). 

Type. — In the collection of the Indian Museum. 

The form of the cephalon, antennae and uropoda separate this 
handsome species from any other member of the genus. There being 
only a single example, I have not attempted any examination 
of the mouth-parts. 



1916.] W. E. CoLi.iNGE : Indian Terrestrial I sopoda. 117 

Paraperiscyphis scabrus, n. sp. 
(PI. ix, figs. 6-10). 

Body oblong oval, dorsal face strongly convex, richly tuber- 
culated. Cephalon (fig. 6) small, flanked by the ist segment 
of the mesosome, lateral lobes well developed, median lobe small 
and confluent with carina of epistoma. Eyes subdorsal. Anten- 
nulae (fig. 7) small, 3-jointed, distal joint terminating as a cone. 
Antennae (fig. 8) with joints 2 and 3 subequal, 4th joint nearly 
twice as long and 5th nearly three times as long; flagellum 
2-jointed, with the first joint shorter than the second which has 
a fine terminal style. Whole of appendage sparsely covered 
with short bluntly ending setae. Uropoda (fig. 9) extending be- 
yond the telson, basal plate short and stout, with antero-dorsal 
surface expanded, convex dorsally with thickened antero dorsal 
margin bounding the antero-dorsal surface, concave ventrally with 
groove; exopodite and endopodite both extending beyond the 
basal plate and articulating on the inner margin. Telson (fig 10) 
obtusely triangular, dorsal surface convex, tuberculated. Length 
11*5 X 6 mm. Colour (in alcohol) greenish-brown with yellowish 
mottling. 

Habitat — Peradeniya, Ceylon. No. -fo- {F. H. Gravely). 

Type. — In the collection of the Indian Museum. 

In the form of the telson and uropoda this species shows a 
relationship to P. pulcher, but is separated by the striking differ- 
ence in the shape and development of the lateral and median lobes 
of the cephalon, there are also well-marked differences in the form 
of the antennulae and antennae. 

Genus Cubaris, Brandt. 

The widely conflicting opinions held as to the position of this 
genus afford a typical instance of the very unsatisfactory state of 
the classification of the Terrestrial Isopoda. 

Brandt's description', though brief, is quite clear, and the 
slight modifications suggested by Miers* in 1877 scarcely affect it. 
Budde-Lund^ in his ' Revision ' p. 36, under the Family Oniscidae, 
subfamily 7 Oniscinae, Tribe r Armadilloidea, cites the genus 
Armadillo, Dum. , and under Tribe 2 Oniscoidea, the genus Armadil- 
lidium, Brandt, and from the later text we gather that the genus 
Cubaris is sunk as a synonym of Armadillo. In rgro* (p. 9) the 
genus is recognized and appears between Armadillo, Dum., and 
Pericephalus, B.-L., whilst in 1912^ it is regarded by him as a 
subgenus only, in the subfamily Oniscinae. 



' Bull. Nat. Hist. Soc. Moscow, 1833. 

'- Proc. Zool. Soc. Loud., 1877. 

■-' Rev. Crust, hop. Terr., 1904. 

* Sjostedts Kilimaudjayo-Meru E.xped . 21 Crust. 2 Isop., igro. 

■^ Trans. Linn. Soc. Land. (Zool.), 1912. 



il8 Records of the Indian Museum. [Voi.. XII, 

This author's attempts at classification were frequently unfor- 
tunate, as in the present instance. He approached more closely 
to a sound classification perhaps in 1910 than in any of his 
previous or later writings, but did not seem able to decide upon 
any system or parts, other than the oral appendages, which fre- 
quently misled him. 

I hope at a later date, when more of the Indian and Asiatic 
species have been worked out, to submit a revision of the Family 
Armadillidiidae founded upon structural characters, in the mean- 
time I am provisionally placing all the Indian forms in the one 
genus. 

Cubaris gravclii, n. sp. 

(PI. X, figs. I — II). 

Body oblong oval, slightly convex, smooth. Cephalon (figs, i 
and 2) small, strongly marginate anteriorly and posteriorly, lateral 
lobes small, median lobes absent ; epistoma vertical with triangu- 
lar-shaped depression in the medio-anterior line. Antennulae 
(fig. 3) small, 3-jointed, terminal joint pointed with number of fine 
setae laterally, proximal joints globose, distal joint attenuated. 
Antennae (fig. 4) short, sparsely setaceous, joints 3 — 5 slightly 
grooved on their outer side; flagellum 2-jointed, the distal joint 
being the longer. First maxillae (fig. 5), outer lobe terminating in 
four stout incurved spines and four smaller inner ones. Second 
maxillae (fig. 6) thin and plate-like, terminating distally in a 
bilobed manner, the outer lobe is fringed with setae, and those on 
the inner one form a brush-like lobe. Segments of the mesosome 
convex, lateral plates of 2nd to 4th segments slightly excavate, 
remainder truncate, posterior angles only slightly produced back- 
wards. Segments i and 2 with notch and groove on their lower 
inner margins for reception of succeeding segments (fig. 7). Maxilli- 
pedes (fig. 8), outer palp terminates in a multispinous process on 
the outer side, with a very small spine and then two larger ones 
below it, from the base of the outer palp are three large spines, the 
inner palp is very broad and has two spines with wide bases, and 
one short, blunt, tooth-like one on the innermost border and a 
longer pointed one on the lower margin. Uropoda (figs. 9 and ro) 
not extending beyond the telson, basal plate narrow posteriorly , 
thickened and convex dorsally, antero-dorsal surface prominent ; 
exopodite articulating in deep groove on the inner border of the 
basal plate, which here is slightly excavate, endopodite setaceous, 
with two long whip-like setae terminally. Telson (fig. 11) longer 
than the breadth at the posterior margin which is slightly curved, 
expanded anteriorly, somewhat flattened. Length 12 mm, Colour 
(in alcohol) dark horny-brown with few lighter lateral flecks on the 
mesosomatic segments. 

Habitat.— Fass between Chaibassa and Chakardharpur, Chota 
Nagpur, 24-iii-i3. No. «fa* {F. H. Gravely). 

Type. — In the collection of the Indian Museum. 



1916.] W. E. CoLLiNGK : Indian Terresitrial Isopoda. rig 

The species is named in compliment to Mr. F. H. Gravely. 

The antennules here differ strikingly from any other species of 
Cubans I know of. The mouth-parts are typical of the genus. 
The tooth on the underside of the lateral plate of the first meso- 
somatic segment is small, being just large enough to overlap 
the anterior wall of the groove on the second segment. The 
uropoda have a prominent antero-dorsal surface on the basal plate 
and the postero-dorsal portion is strongly convex, ventrally the 
plate is almost flat. Below the point of articulation of the exopo- 
dite is a small groove, and the inner border of the basal plate is 
slightly excavate. The length of the telson is greater than the 
breadth of the posterior margin. 

Cubaris expansus, n. sp. 
(PI. xi, figs. I — 10). 

Body broadly oval, strongly convex, almost smooth. Cephalon 
(figs I and 2) small, marginate anteriorly, lateral lobss very small, 
median lobes absent; epistoma almost vertical. Eyes situated 
dorso-laterally. Antennulae (fig. 3) small, 3-jointed, terminal joint 
pointed with eight blunt setae, proximal joint the smallest. An- 
tennae (fig. 4) short, covered with fine setae, 2nd to 4th joints 
grooved on their outer side; flagellum 2-jointed, distal joint nearly 
twice as long as the proximal one. First maxillae (fig. 5), outer 
lobe terminates in four stout incurved spines and six smaller ones ; 
inner lobe terminally rounded, with two setose spines. Segments 
of the mesosome strongly convex, lateral plates of 2nd and 3rd 
segments slightly excavate, remainder truncate, posterior angles 
very slightly produced backwards. Segments i and 2 with notch 
and groove on their lower inner margins for reception of succeed- 
ing segments (fig. 6). Maxillipedes (fig. 7), the outer palp termin- 
ates in a multispinous process on the outer side, with two promin- 
ent spines below it, the inner palp possesses two spines with 
wide bases, then a fine marginal spine and one short blunt tooth- 
like one on the innermost border. Uropoda (figs. 8 and 9) not 
extending beyond the telson, basal plate narrower posteriorly than 
anteriorly, posterior margin almost straight, dorso-antero-lateral sur- 
face prominent; exopodite small, articulating on the inner border 
of the basal plate, which is here raised in a boss, endopodite setace- 
ous, two and a half times the length of the exopodite, articulating 
at the top of the inner border of the basal plate. Telson (fig. 10) 
longer than the breadth at posterior margin which is almost 
straight, expanded anteriorly with slight concavity in the median 
line. Length 13 5 X 6*5 mm. Colour (in alcohol) horny-brown 
with lighter lateral flecks on the mesosomatic segments. 

Habitat. — Barkuda I., Chilka L., Ganjam Dist., Madras Pres., 
i6-vii-i4. No. ^fF. 

Type. — In the collection of the Indian Museum. 

C. expansus is characterized by the broadly oval body, the 
series of eight blunt setae on the inner border of the distal joint of 



I20 Records of the Indian Museum. [Vol. XII, 

the antennulae and the form of the uropoda. The tooth on the 
underside of the lateral plate of the first mesosomatic segment is 
fairly long and pointed and overlaps the anterior wall of the some- 
what flattened groove of the second segment. 

Cubaris dilectum, n. sp. 
(PI. xii, figs. 1—9). 

Body oblong oval, convex, finely tuberculate. Cephalon (figs. 
I and 2) small, strongly marginate anteriorly and posteriorly, 
lateral lobes small, median lobes absent ; epistoma almost vertical, 
slightly depressed laterally. Antennae (fig. 3) situated rather low 
on the epistome, sparsely setaceous, somewhat attenuate: flagel- 
lum 2-iointed, the distal joint being the longer. First maxillae 
(fig. 4), outer lobe terminating in four stout incurved spines and 
six smaller inner ones. Segments of the mesosome convex, lateral 
plates of 2nd to 5th segments slightly excavate, remainder trun- 
cate, posterior angles only slightly produced backwards. Segments 
I and 2 with notch and groove on their inner margins for reception 
of succeeding segments (fig. 5). Maxillipedes (fig. 6), outer palp 
terminates in a broad multispinous process on the outer side and a 
single large pointed one below it, from the base of the outer palp 
are two large spines, the inner palp is broad and has three pointed 
marginal spines and one short, blunt, tooth-like spine on the inner- 
most border. Uropoda (figs. 7 and 8) extend very slightly beyond 
the telson, basal plate narrow posteriorly, thickened and strongly 
raised, convex dorso-laterally, antero-dorsal surface expanded, 
strongly marginate ; exopodite large and extends slightly beyond 
the basal plate, endopodite setaceous, broad and slightly flattened, 
with three long whip-like setae terminally. Telson (fig 9) longer 
than the breadth at the posterior margin which is slightly curved, 
sides only very slightly incurved, expanded anteriorly. Length 8 
mm. Colour (in alcohol) fawn with irregular light and dark brown 
mottling. 

Habitat. — Kalimpong, Darjiling District, E. Himalayas, 600 — 
4500 ft. No. Hh'- {F. H. Gravely). 

Type. — In the collection of the Indian Museum. 

This beautifully marked species differs from any other des- 
cribed form in a number of important characters. The tooth on 
the underside of the lateral plate of the first mesosomatic segment 
is large and truncate, and works in a slight groove in the anterior 
wall of the groove of the second segment. The exopodites of the 
uropoda extend beyond the telson and the antero-dorsal surface is 
unusually deep. 

Cubaris pusillus, n. sp. 

(PI. xiii, figs, I — 10). 

Body oblong oval, strongly convex, smooth. Cephalon (figs, i 
and 2) small, but rather long, strongly marginate, lateral lobes 



1916.] W. K. Coi^UNGE : Indian Terrestrial I sopoda. 121 

small, median lobes absent; epistoma vertical. Eyes prominent, 
situated dorso-laterally. Antennae (fig. 3) sparsely setaceous, 2nd 
to 5th joints deeply grooved on their outer sides ; flagellum 2- 
jointed, the distal joint being twice the length of the proximal one. 
First maxillae (fig. 4), outer lobe terminating in four stout incurved 
spines and five smaller ones ; inner lobe terminally rounded with 
two large setose spines. Second maxillae (fig. 5) thin and plate- 
like, terminating distally in an inner setaceous lobe and an outer 
tooth-like plate with three ridges of setae. Segments of the meso- 
some convex, with posterior margins prominent, lateral plates of 
2nd to 5th segments slightly excavate, remainder truncate, poste- 
rior angles very faintl}^ developed. Segments i and 2 with notch 
and groove on their inner margins for reception of succeeding seg- 
ments (fig. 6). Maxillipedes (fig. 7), outer palp elongated, terminat- 
ing in a multispinous process with three longer spines. on the outer 
side and three on the inner side, inner palp also elongated, With 
three marginal spines and one blunt tooth-like spine on the inner- 
most border. Uropoda (figs. 8 and q) not extending beyond the 
telson, basal plate narrow posteriori}^, thickened, convex dorso- 
laterally, antero-dorsal surface expanded, concave, strongly margin- 
ate; exopodite small and bluntly pointed, endopodite setaceous, 
also bluntly pointed. Telson (fig. 10) longer than broad at the 
posterior margin which is very slightly curved, sides fainth^ 
incurved, expanded anteriorly. Length 5*5 mm. Colour (in al- 
cohol) variable, bluish-black to a horny-brown. 

Habitat.— KsiS, Satara Dist., Bombay Pres., 3700 ft., 23 — 24- 
iv-1912. No. tF." (F. H. Gravely). 

Type. — In the collection of the Indian Museum. 

This is a very distinct species and the type of an interesting 
group. The head is longer than in most species. The antennae 
are characterized by the unusually deep grooves on the inner sides 
of joints 2, 3 and 4. The second maxillae are quite unlike those 
of any other described member of the genus. The tooth on the 
underside of the lateral plate of the first mesosomatic segment is 
small, but stands out some little distance, overlapping the groove 
of the second segment. The uropoda have a deep antero-dorsal 
surface and small exopodite. 

Cubaris brunneocaudatus, n. sp. 

(PI. xiv, figs. I — 10). 

Body oblong oval, strongly convex. Cephalon (figs, i and 2) 
small with posterior margin slightly raised, lateral lobes small, 
median lobe absent; epistoma vertical. Eyes fairly large, situ- 
ated dorso-laterally. Antennulae (fig. 3) small, 3-jointed. with 
few stout setae on the terminal joint. Antennae (fig. 4) deeply 
grooved on the outer side of joints 3 — 5 ; flagellum 2-jointed, distal 
joint two and a half times as long as the proximal one. First 
maxillae (fig. 5), outer lobe terminates in four stout incurved spines 



122 Records of the Indian Museum. [Voi.. XII, 

and six smaller ones. Segments of the mesosome strongly arched, 
lateral plates of 2nd to 5th segments slightly excavate, remainder 
trmicate, posterior angles only slightly developed. vSegments i 
and 2 with notch and groove on their inner margins for reception 
of succeeding segments (fig. 6). Maxillipedes (fig. 7), the outer palp 
terminates in a multispinous process on the outer side with two 
large spines at its base, internal to the process are three pointed 
spines, the inner palp appears to be thrown into three folds with 
a marginal tooth-like spine on the outer border of each and a longer 
spine on the inner border of the most dorsal fold. Uropoda (figs. 
8 and 9) not extending beyond the telson, basal plate narrow 
posteriorly, thickened, convex dorso-laterally, antero-dorsal surface 
expanded, concave with raised margin ventrally, the anterior 
margin forms a deep fold which is continued laterally on the outer 
border; exopodite small, not more than half the length of the 
endopodite, terminating in a finely pointed style, endopodite 
bluntly pointed, with three whip-like setae terminally. Telson 
(fig. 10), posterior margin broader than the length, sides faintl}^ 
curved, expanded anteriorl3^ Length I0'5 mm. Colour (in alcohol) 
dark grey with the telson and uropoda a reddish-brown. 

Habitat. — Tatkon, Burma, 6-ix-i9i4. No. Hrr {T. B. Fletcher). 

Type. — In the collection of the Indian Museum. 

This species in the form of the cephalon and uropoda exhibits 
a slight relationship with C. soUdulus, CUge. , but differs from that 
species in the form of the antennulae, antennae, and maxillipedes 
and the strongly arched body. There are also well marked differ- 
ences in the shape of the tooth and groove on the under side of 
segments i and 2. 

Cubaris chiltoni, n. sp. 

(PI. XV, figs. I — II). 

Body oblong oval, slightly convex, finely punctulated. 
Cephalon (figs, i and 2) small with posterior margin slightly raised, 
lateral lobes distinct, median lobe absent; epistoma medianally 
convex. Antennae (figs. 3 and 4) with the outer side of the joints 
2 — 5 almost flat ; flagellum 2'jointed, distal joint two and a half 
times as long as the proximal one. First maxillae (fig. 5), outer 
lobe terminates in four stout incurved spines and six rather long 
thin ones; inner lobe short, rounded terminally, with two setace- 
ous spines. vSecond maxillae (fig. 6) thin, plate-like, terminating 
distally in an inner lobe with short stout setae on the inner side 
and long fine setae on the outer side, and an outer tooth-like plate. 
Segments of the mesosome slightly convex, lateral plates of 2nd to 
5th segments slightly excavate, remainder truncate, posterior angles 
produced backwards. Segments i and 2 with notch and groove 
on their inner margins for reception of succeeding segments (fig. 7). 
Maxillipedes (fig. 8), the outer palp terminates in a multispinous 
process on the outer side external to which is a small spine and 
two internal to it and a further two at the inner border, the inner 



1916.] W. E. CoivUNGE : Indian Terrestrial Isopoda. I2j 

palp shows three folds with two curved spines on the outer border of 
the ventral one and a longer spine on the margin of the most dorsal 
fold. Uropoda (figs. 9 and 10) not extending beyond the telson, 
basal plate narrow posteriorly, thickened and slightly convex 
dorso-laterally, antero-dorsal surface expanded, ventrally almost 
flat; exopodite small, half the length of the endopodite, terminat- 
ing bluntly, no style, endopodite bluntly pointed with whip-like 
setae. Telson (fig. 11), posterior margin almost straight and shorter 
than the length, sides curved, anterior portion expanded, and 
convex dorsally. Length 9 mm. Colour (in alcohol) blackish-brown 
with lighter irregular markings laterally and as a broken median 
line on the mesosome. 

H abitat. ~-Fu.en]ikara I., nr. Ernakulam, Cochin State, ix-1914. 
No. '^fr {F. H. Gravely). 

Type. — In the collection of the Indian Museum. 

C. chiltoni is allied to C. brunneocaudatus , agreeing with this 
last mentioned species in the form of the mouth-parts and in a 
lesser degree the uropoda. It differs, however, in the shape of 
the cephalon, antennae, maxillipedes, uropoda, and telson, as also 
in the more depressed form of the body and in the form of the 
notch and groove on the underside of segments i and 2. Most 
species of Cubaris show the peduncular joints of the antennae 
grooved on the outer side, but in C. chiltoni these grooves have 
become widely expanded, so that the outer side of the joints 2 — 5 
are almost flat, in section exhibiting a form as shown in figure 4 
(pi. XV). 

I have much pleasure in associating with this niteresting 
species the name of Professor Charles Chilton, to whom we are 
indebted for his valuable work on the Isopoda and other Crustacea 
of New Zealand. 

Cubaris cavernosus, n. sp. 

(PI. xvi, figs. 1—9). 

Body oblong oval, convex dorsally with faintly rugose lateral 
patches on the mesosomatic segments. Cephalon (figs, i and 2) 
small, lateral lobes fairly well developed, median lobe absent; 
epistoma depressed laterally and in the medio-dorsal portion. 
Byes very small, occasionally one or both imperfect. Antennules 
(fig. 3) 3-iointed, with lateral setae on the distal joint. Antennae 
(fig. 4) rather slender, joints 2—5 slightly grooved, setae small and 
fine ; flagellum 2 jointed. First maxillae (fig. 5), outer lobe termin- 
ates in five stout curved spines and four smaller ones, inner lobe 
truncate terminally with two short setose spines. Segments of the 
mesosome convex, lateral plates of 2nd to 5th segments excavate, 
6th and 7th very slightly so, posterior angles of 2nd— 5th segments 
only very faintly developed. Segments i and 2 with notch and 
groove on their inner margins for reception of succeeding segments 
(fig. 6). Maxillipedes (fig. 7), the outer palp terminates in a 
multispinous process on the outer side, at its base is a small upright 



124 Records of the Indian Museum. [Vol. XII. 

spine and three directed outwards, still more internally there are 
three fine spines ; the inner palp has a single long marginal spine 
and two blunt tooth-like ones. Uropoda (fig. 8) not extending 
beyond the telson, basal plate narrow posteriorly, thickened and 
slightly convex dorso-laterally, antero-dorsal surface expanded 
obliquely; exopodite extending to the end of the basal plate, 
terminally truncate with short st3de, endopodite large, with two 
long whip like setae terminally and numerous long setae elsewhere. 
Telson (fig. 9) slightly longer than the breadth of the posterior 
margin, which is almost straight, sides faintly curved. Length 
10-5 X 5'5. Colour (in alcohol) tawny-yellow. 

Habitat. — Caves near Cherrapunji, Assam, ca. 4000 ft.. 31-x- 
1914. No. m^ {R. Friel . 

Type. — In the collection of the Indian Museum. 

The eyes in this species are present in varying degrees of 
complexity. Sometimes they are represented by two or three 
pigmented facets with others in which there is no pigment, in other 
cases the facets are imperfect, the eye being represented by irregu- 
lar-shaped pigment spots. 

Cubaris lobatus, n. sp. 

(PI. xvii, figs. T — II). 

Body oblong oval, strongly convex, anterior margin deflected 
backwards. Cephalon (figs, i and 2) small, lateral lobes well 
developed, median lobe absent; epistoma sunken laterally with 
raised medium portion. Eyes large, situated dorso-laterally. 
Antennulae (fig. 3) longer than usual, 3-jointed, the terminal joint 
has a number of lateral setae and the 2nd joint a short spine on 
the inner side. Antennae (fig. 4) rather longer than usual, joints 
2—5 grooved on their outer sides; flagellum 2-jointed, distal joint 
nearly three times as long as the proximal one, terminally there 
is a style. First maxillae (fig. 5), outer lobe terminates in four 
stout incurved spines and six smaller ones, inner lobe terminally 
rounded, with two setose spines. Second maxillae (fig. 6) thin 
and plate-like, outer lobe tooth-like, inner lobe terminating in a 
dense mass of fine setae. Segments of the mesosome strongly 
convex, lateral plates of 2nd to 5th segments excavate, remainder 
truncate, posterior angles very faintly developed. Segments i and 
2 with notch and groove on their lower inner margins for reception 
of succeeding segments (fig 7), iVIaxillipedes (fig. 8), outer lobe 
terminating in a multispinous process, external to this is a small 
curved spine and one large one and four short ones internally, on 
the ventral side a very large spine arises from the base of the lobe, 
the inner lobe has two stout curved tooth-like spines and a single 
fine one ; arising from the basal segment are two long stout spines. 
Uropoda (figs. 9 and 10) not extending beyond the telson, basal 
plate narrow posteriorly, thickened, convex dorso-laterally, 
antero-dorsal surface expanded, oblique, with raised margin ven- 



1916.] W. E. CoiyUNGE : Indian Terrestrial Isopoda. 125 

trally ; exopodite small, articulating slightly away from the inner 
margin, endopodite stout, setose, terminating in three stout whip- 
like setae, which exhibit a series of spiral markings. Telson (fig. 
II), posterior margin slightly broader than the length, sides faintly 
curved, expanded anteriorly, slightly raised in the median line. 
Length 9 mm. Colour (in alcohol) brown with light broken median 
line and yellowish mottling laterally 

Habitat. — Parambikulam, 1700 — 3200 ft., Cochin State, 16 — 
24-ix-i9i4. No. Hry' {F. H. Gravely). 

Type. — In the collection of the Indian Museum. 

Cubaris lobatus exhibits a number of features not found in the 
majority of known species of the genus, thus the lateral lobes of 
the cephalon are well developed, the antennulae and antennae are 
longer than usual, and the maxillipedes differ markedly in detail. 

Cubaris albolateralis, n. sp. 

(PI. xviii, figs. I— 12). 

Body oblong oval, strongly convex, smooth, with a small 
lateral indentation on each side of all of the mesosomatic segments. 
Cephalon (figs, i and 2) small, with posterior margin raised, lateral 
lobes feebly developed, median lobe absent, dorsal surface with 
raised lateral lines; epistoma dorsally sloping backwardly, other- 
wise almost vertical. Eyes dorsal. Antennulae (fig. 3) 3-jointed, 
proximal joint attenuated at its base, distal joint with number of 
lateral setae on the inner border. Antennae (fig. 4) short and 
stout, 2nd to 5th joints deeply grooved on their outer sides ; 
flagellum 2-jointed, distal joint three times the length of the proxi- 
mal one, terminally there is a short style. First maxillae (fig. 5), 
outer lobe terminates in four stout curved spines and six smaller 
ones, inner lobe rounded terminally with two long curved setose 
spines. Second maxillae (fig. 6) thin and plate-like, terminating 
distally in an inner setaceous lobe and an outer tooth-like plate. 
Segments of the mesosome strongly convex, each has laterally a 
small indentation (fig. 7), lateral plates of 2nd to 4th segments 
slightly excavate, remainder truncate or almost so, posterior angles 
only slightly produced backwards. Segments i and 2 with notch 
and groove on their inner margins for reception of succeeding 
segments (fig. 8). Maxillipedes (fig. 9), outer lobe terminates in a 
multispinous process and four inner fine pointed spines, the inner 
lobe has a tooth-shaped spine on its outer and inner border and 
two longer pointed spines. Uropoda (figs. 10 and 11) not extend- 
ing beyond the telson, basal plate narrow posteriorly, terminally 
blade-like, thickened and slightly convex dorso-latetalh*, antero- 
dorsal surface expanded, ventrally the outer border shows a flat- 
tened rim and blade-like posterior margin ; exopodite small with 
terminal style, situated on the inner lateral margin of the basal 
plate, which is obliquely flattened, endopodite large, with two long 
whip-like setae terminally, setose elsewhere, in section triangular. 



126 Records of the Indian Museum. [Voi.. XII, 

Telson (fig. 12), posterior margin almost straight and broader than 
the length, sides curved, anterior portion expanded, convex 
dorsally. Length 8 mm. Colour (in alcohol) greyish-green, dorsal- 
ly with few lateral irregular yellowish markings, yellowish below 
the indentations. 

Habitat. — Under stones, Kamalapuram, S. India, 6-ix-i9i2. 
No. ^^i^ [T. B. Fletcher). 

Type. — In the collection of the Indian Museum. 

There are a number of important characters in this species by 
which it differs from any other members of the genus, amongst 
these may be mentioned the dorsal position of the eyes and the 
very feeble development of the lateral lobes of the cephalon, the 
short, thick-jointed antennae, the broad maxillipedes, the truncate 
lateral plates of the 5th — 7th mesosomatic segments, and the form 
of the uropoda. 

Genus Burmoniscus, Cllge. 

Hitherto this genus has been known only from the two 
examples of B. moiilmeimis , Cllge.,' obtained by Mr, F. H. Gravely, 
from the Farm Caves, near Moulmein. 

With so limited a supply of material the description of the 
genus was perforce somewhat imperfect, and I am now able to 
give a fuller diagnosis, and at the same time add an additional 
species to the genus. 

B. inoulmeinus, and Philoscia coeca, Budde-Lund*, have hitherto 
been the only cavernicolous species of Terrestrial Isopoda known 
from India, indeed only very few have been described from Asia. 
Ridley^ mentions Armadillo int'ermixtus , Budde-Lund, as being 
common on the walls of caves in the Malay Peninsula, and Budde- 
Lund* describes with that species A. nigromarginatus from the 
same locality. He has also described^ an Armadillo infuscatus 
from the same source. 

In all probability there are a considerable number of species 
awaiting discovery, especially belonging to the genus Cubaris. 
Just as in Europe we have a large Isopodean cave fauna'' belonging 
to the Trichoniscidae, so, I think, we shall find a similar one in 
India referable to the Cubaridac. 

Burmoniscus, Cllge. 

1914. B/in?iunisc/is, Collinge, Rec. Iiid. Miis., vol. \'III, p. 466, pi. xxxi. 

Body oblong oval, dorsal surface strongly convex, perfectly 
smooth and shiny. Cephalon small, emarginate, median and 
lateral lobes absent. Eyes absent, may be represented by pigmented 

' Rec. Ind. Miis., 1914, vol. VIII, p. 466. 

2 An)i. Mils. Civ. Star. Nat. Genova, 1894, s. 2, vol. XIV, p. 612. 

^ Brif. Assoot. Rpf., 1898, p. 581. 

* Rev. Crust. Terr, hop., 1899, pp. 126, 127. 

6 Proc. Zool. Soc. Loud., 1902, p. 380. 

' Racovitza, Arcli. Zool. exp. e. gen., 1907, t. 7 and 1909, I. 9. 



1916.] W. E. Coi^uNGE : Indian Terrestrial Isopoda. 127 

areas. Antennae slender, elongated, joints grooved on their 
outer sides, with 3-iointed flagellum. First maxillae, outer lobe 
terminates in four stout curved spines and four finer inner ones 
which latter have bifurcated ends. Second maxillae thin and 
plate-like, the inner one terminating in a brush of fine setose 
spines. Segments of the mesosome strongly convex, the lateral 
plates of I to 4 slightly overlap one another posteriorly, whilst 
those of 5 and 7 are produced backwardly, especiall}^ the 7th. 
jMaxillipedes poorly developed, with the inner lobe the larger. 
Metasome narrow, lateral plates small and slightly incurved. Uro- 
poda with elongated, somewhat flattened basal plate, which extends 
beyond the telson ; exopodite long and pointed, endopodite elong- 
ated. Telson very short and broad, terminally rounded or pointed. 

Although I have carefully examined a number of specimens 
I have not so far been able to find any antennules. Apart from 
the maxillae, the mouth parts are of little value here for purposes 
of generic distinction. 

Respecting the affinities of this genus it is not possible to say 
much, as our knowledge of the Indian and' Asiatic Terrestrial 
Isopoda is, as yet, so fragmentary. In the form of the cephalon, 
the mesosome, and metasome and the uropoda, Burmoniscus 
undoubtedly shows a remote relationshp with Philoscia, at least 
the Asiatic Philoscias, although these also are, as yet only imper- 
fectly understood. 

Burmoniscus kempi, n. sp. 
(PI. xix, figs. 1—8). 

Body oblong oval, dorsal surface convex, smooth and shiny. 
Cephalon (figs, i and 2) larger than in B. moulmeinus, Cllge., 
and partly flanked l:)y the lateral plates of the ist segment of the 
mesosome, emarginate, median and lateral lobes absent ; epistoma 
almost vertical. Eyes absent. Antennae (fig. 3) slender and elong- 
ated, especially the 4th and 5th joints, peduncular and flagellar 
joints grooved on their outer sides, flagellum 3Jointed, termina 
joint with long fine style. First maxillae (fig. 4), outer lobe termin 
ates in four stout curved spines and four inner ones deeply bifur 
Gated, inner lobe rounded terminally with two setose spines 
Second maxillae (fig. 5) thin and flexible, somewhat thicker on the 
inner side, on the outer side it is produced into a thin plate with 
radiating thickened arms, anteriorh^ terminating as a flattened 
tooth, and a smaller one on the inner side, between the two the 
inner lobe forms a brush-like mass of setae. Maxillipedes (fig. 6) 
poorly developed, the inner lobe the larger. Uropoda (fig. 7) with 
elongated, somewhat flattened basal plate which extends beyond 
the telson, grooved dorsally between points of articulation of 
exopodite and endopodite; exopodite long, stout, and slightly 
ridged dorsally on the outer side, endopodite elongated, and com- 
paratively not so stout. Telson (fig. 8) short with the posterior 



128 Records of the Indian Museum. [Voi.. XII, 1916.J 

margin rounded. Length y$ mm. Colour (in alcohol) light brown 
with darker pigmented network. 

Habitat. — Maosmai Cave, Cherrapunji, Assam, ca. 4000 ft., x- 
1914. No. ""fo- (5. W. Kemp). Living in total darkness. 

Type. — In the collection of the Indian Museum. 

B. kempi differs from B. moulmeinus in having a larger cepha- 
lon, in the more elongated form of the spines of the outer lobe of 
the 1st maxillae and in the form of the inner lobe also. The 2nd 
maxilla is quite unlike that in B. moulmeinus , and the basal plate 
of theuropodais narrower and more elongated, there is also a lateral 
ridge on the outside of the exopodite. The telson is very different, 
being shorter and rounded posteriorly. 

This species is named in compliment to Mr. S. W. Kemp, by 
whom it was discovered, and whose work has added so largely to 
our knowledge of the Decapod and other Crustacea of India. 

ERRATA. 

In the previous "Contribution", Rec. Ind. Mus., 1915. 
Vol. XI, Pt. II, No. 6, on pages 144, 149 and 151 under the des- 
criptions of the antennae, the word inner should read outer. 



Fig. I 
,, 2 
,, 3 
,, 4 
„ 5 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE IX. 

Par aperiscy phis pidcher, n. sp. 

— Dorsal view of the cephalon. 

— Right antenaule. 

— Right antenna. 

— Right uropod, dorsal view. 

— Telson and uropoda. 



Paraperscyphis scabrus, n. sp. 

Fig. 6. — Dorsal view of the cephalon. 
,, 7. — Left aatennule. 
,, 8. — Right antenna. 
,, 9. — Right uropod, dorsal view. 
10. — Telson and uropoda. 



Hec. Ind Mas., Vol XII. 1916 



riate IX. 




1. 




4-. 




2. 






6. 



^^^^0- 



H.G.K. del. 




A.Chowdharv,lith. 



1-5. PA RAPERISCVPHIS P U LC HER.n. 3p. 
e-10. PARAPERISCVPHIS SC AB RUS , n.Sp. 



Fig. 


I 




2. 




3- 




4^ 




5- 




6. 




7 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE X. 

Cubans gravelii, n. sp. 

—Dorsal view of the cephalon. 
—Anterior view of the cephalon. 
— Antennule. 
—Right antenna. 
-First maxilla, outer lobe. 
—Second maxilla. 

—Lateral portions of ist and 2nd mesosomatic segments, 
showing notch and groove on the inner border of the 
under side. 
8. — Maxillipede, terminal portion. 
9. — Right uropod, dorsal view. 
10. — Right uropod, ventral view. 
II. — Last metasomatic segment, uropoda, and telson. 



Rec. Ind. Mus., Vol. XII, 1916. 



Plate X 



■-r^-, 




H.G.K. del 



CUBARIS GRAVELII ,n.8i 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE XL 

Cuharis expansus, n. sp. 

Fig. I. — Dorsal view of the cephalon. 

,, 2. — -Anterior view of the cephalon. 

,, 3. — Antennule. 

,, 4. — Right-antenna. 

,, 5. — First-maxilla, terminal portion of outer lobe. 

,, 6. — Lateral portions of rst and 2nd mesosomatic segments, 
showing notch and groove on the inner border of the 
under side. 

,, 7. — Maxillipede, terminal portion. 

,, 8. — Right uropod, dorsal view. 

,, 9. — Right uropod, ventral view. 

,, 10. — Last metasomatic segment, uropoda, and telson. 



Rec. Ind. Mus, Vol. XII, 1916. 



Plate XI. 








t). 





7. 




V{X\ .K. dp.]. 




10 




CUBARIS EXPANSUS,n.sp. 



A. Chowdhary,liLh. 



Fig. 


I, 


}} 


2 


y ) 


3 


> J 


4 


> > 


5- 


}) 


6. 


> > 


7- 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE XII. 

Cubans dilectum, n. sp. 

Dorsal view of the cephalon. 

-Anterior view of the cephalon. 

Right antenna. 

First maxilla, terminal portion of outer lobe. 

Lateral portions of ist and 2nd mesosomatic segments. 
showing notch and groove on the inner border of the 
under side. 

Maxillipede, terminal portion. 

Right uropod, dorsal view. 
B. — Right uropod, ventral view, 
g. — Last metasomatic segment, uropod and telson. 



Rec. Ind.Mus,Vol.XII,1916. 



Plate XII. 




H.G.K. del. 



CUBARIS DILECT UM,n.sp. 



A.Chowdhary.lit-h. 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE XIII. 

Cubans pusillus, n. sp. 

Fi(r. I. — Dorsal view of the cephalon. 
,, 2. — Anterior view of the cephalon. 
,, 3. — Right antenna. 

4. — First maxilla, terminal portigns of inner and outer lobes. 
5. — Second maxilla, terminal portion. 

6. — Lateral portions of ist and 2nd mesosomatic segments, 
showing notch and groove on the inner border of the 
under side. 
,, 7. — Maxillipede, terminal portion. 
., 8. — Right uropod, dorsal view. 
9. — Right uropod, ventral view. 
10. — Last metasomatic segment, uropod and telson. 



Rec lTid.Mus.,Vo].Xn,1916. 



PI ate XIII. 




H.G.K. del. 



CUBARIS PUSlLLUS,n.3p. 



A.Chowdha-ry.lith. 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE XIV. 

Cubans brunneocaudatus , n. sp. 

Fig. r. — Dorsal view of the cephalon. 
,, 2. — Anterior view of the cephalon. 
, 3 — Right antennule. 
,, 4. — Right antenna. 

,, 5. — First maxilla, terminal portion of outer lobe. 
,, 6.— Lateral portions of ist and 2nd mesosomatic segments, 

showing notch and groove on the inner border of the 

under side. 
., 7. — Maxillipede, terminal portion. 
,, 8. — Right uropod, dorsal view. 
,, 9. — Right uropod, ventral view. 
,, 10— Last metasomatic segment, uropoda and telson. 



Rec Ind. Mus., Vol. XII, 1916. 



PI ate XIV. 




^. 



■^ 



III 



* I 




% 



■ml 





7. 




H.G. K. del. 




10 




CUBARIS BRUNNEOCAUDATUS,n.sp. 



A . Chowdhary.llth. 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE XV 



Cuban's chiltoui, n. sp. 



IG 


. I. 


j> 


2. 


} ' 


3- 


}> 


4- 


■) } 


5- 


> ' 


6. 
7. 



9- 

10. 

ri. 



-Dorsal view of the cephalou. 

-Anterior view of the cephalon. 

-Right antenna. 

-Semi-diagrammatic section of the 4th joint of the 

antenna. 
-First maxilla, terminal portions of inner and outer lobes. 
-Second maxilla, terminal portion. 

-Lateral portions of ist and 2nd mesosonaatic segments, 
showing notch and groove on the inner border of the 
under side. 

-Maxillipede, terminal portion. 

-Right uropod, dorsal view. 

-Right uropod, ventral view. 

-Last metasomatic segment, uropoda and telson. 



Rec. IndMus.yol.Xn, 1916. 



Plate XV. 




11. 



7- 








''.\\'''/ '% 0f 







\ , I 



10. 




H C; K. del. 



CUBARIS CHILTONI.n.sp. 



A . Chowdhary.li th . 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE XVL 

Citbayis caver )iosns, n. sp. 



Fig. I 



— Dorsal view of the cephalon. 



2. — Anterior view of the cephalon. 

3. — Antennule 

4. — Right antenna. 

5. — First maxilla, terminal portions of inner and outer lobes. 

6. — Lateral portions of ist and 2nd mesosomatic segments, 
showing notch and groove on the inner border of the 
under side. 

7. — Maxillipede, terminal portion. 

8. — Right uropod, dorsal view. 

g. — Last metasomatic segment, uropoda and telson. 



Rec. Ind. Mus., Vol. Xll, 1916. 



Plate XVI. 







2. 




I'i;i//,.^ 



.</ .yv.ns - 






I / 













6. 



H.G.K. del. 



7. 



CUBARIS CAVERNOSUS,n.sp. 




A. Chowdhary.lith. 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE XVII. 

Cubiiris /obdlus, n. sp. 

Fig. I. — Dorsal view of the cephalon. 

,, 2. — Anterior view of the cephalon. 

,, 3. — Antennule. 

,, 4. — Right antenna. 

,, 5. — First maxilla, terminal portions of outer and inner lobes. 

,, 6. — Second maxilla, terminal portion. 

,, 7. — Lateral portions of ist and 2nd mesosomatic segments, 
showing notch and groove on the inner border of the 
under side. 

,, 8. — Maxillipede, terminal portion. 

,, 9. — Right uropod, dorsal view. 

,, 10. —Right uropod, ventral view. 

,, II. — Last metasomatic segment, uropoda and telson. 



Rcc. Jnd. Mus.,Vol.X]IJ,916. 



Plate XVII. 




H.G.K. del. 



CUBARIS LOBATUS.n.sp. 



A.Chowdhary,]ith. 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE XVIII 

Cubaris alholateralis, n. sp. 

Fig. r. — Dorsal view of the cephalon. 

,, 2. — Anterior view of the cephalon. 

,, 3. — Antennule. 

,, 4. — Right antenna. 

,, 5. — First maxilla, terminal portion. 

,, 6. — Second maxilla, terminal portion. 

,, 7. — Lateral portions of mesosomatic segments, showing form 
of the lateral plates and indentations on the segments. 

,, 8. — Lateral portions of ist and 2nd mesosomatic segments, 
showing notch and groove on the inner border of the 
under side. 

,, 9. — Maxillipede, terminal portion. 

,, 10. — Right uropod, dorsal view. 

,, II. — -Right uropod, ventral view. 

,, 12. — Last metasomatic segment, uropoda and telson. 



Rec. Irid Mus.,Vol. XII, 1916. 



Plate X VIII. 




WE.CSc H a K. del 



CUBARIS ALB0LATERALIS,n.3p. 



A . C h ovvd h ary, li th . 



IG 


. I. 




2. 




3- 




4- 




5- 




6. 




7- 




8. 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE XIX. 

Burmoniscus kempi, n. sp. 

— Dorsal view of the cephalon. 
— Anterior view of the cephalon. 
— Left antenna. 

—First maxilla, terminal portions of outer and inner lobes. 
— Second maxilla, terminal portion. 
— Maxillipede, terminal portion. 
— Right uropod, dorsal view. 

— Last metasomatic segment, telson and basal plates of 
the uropoda. 



Rec. ind. Mus., Vol. XII, 1.916. 



Plate XIX. 








5. 




WE.C ^ H.G.K. del. 



BURMONISCUS KEMPl.n.sp, 



A . Chowdha,ry,]ith. 



XIII. NOTES ON INDIAN ODONATA. 
By F. F. Laidlaw. 

Subfamily AGRIONINAE, Selys. 

{ = Coena^rioninae^ Kirby). 

Genus Ischnura, Charp. 

Represented in the Indian Empire so far as is known by six 
species ; one of these is possibly to be referred to a distinct genus 
when better known. Two species are of a wide distribution, the 
remainder probably have a restricted habitat. 

The genus itself is a dominant member of the Agrionine group, 
and the Indian area therefore shows a high percentage of endemic 
species. Ischnura is one of the genera which appears to be poorly 
represented in equatorial regions, having a richer representation 
in tropical and especially N. temperate countries. 

Ischnura sencgalensis (Ramb.), 

Micronymplia seiiegalensis, Kirby, Cat. Odoiiata, p. 141 (1890). 
Ischnura senegalensis, Ris, Katalog des Odonata von Siidafrika, in L. 
Schultze, Forschungsreise im west. u. zent. 
Siidafrica, Jena 1908, p. 310. 
Martin, Mem. Soc. Zool. de France, 1901, p. 246. 
Tillyard, Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. Wales, 1912, 
XXXVII, 3, p. 451. 

34 cf d' ; 10 9 9 (isochromatic) ; 12 9 9 (heterochromatic), 
No. ^-§^. 

The isochromatic females were all taken in Calcutta on July 
27th, 1914. They can be distinguished from the males only by 
careful scrutiny'. Eighteen males were taken with them. 

2 c' cc , 4 9 9 are from the salt lake below Chingrighatta, Cal- 
cutta, i2-ii-i5 (F. H. Gravely), No. ~. r cr'i 9 Rangoon, No. |^. 
The remainder from Orissa, Puri District, Nos. ^> ^, ^ ; Sar 
Lake, No. ^. 

The species breeds in the Museum tank in Calcutta, and pro- 
bably in Lake Chilka. The African and Oriental representative of 
a group of closely allied species whose distribution is well-nigh 
cosmopolitan. 

Ischnura forcipata, Morton. 

/. forcipata, Morton, Trans. Ent. Soc. Loud., 1907, p. 306, pi. xxiv, 

figs. I, 2, 3. 
/. gangetica, Laidlaw, The Entomologist, Aug. 1913, p. 235, text-fig. 



130 Records, of the Indian Museum. [Voi,. XII, 

Not represented in the Museum collection. 

A green (or blue) and black species readil}^ distinguished from 
the other similarly coloured Indian species (/. senegalensis) by the 
pterostigma of the fore-wing which is much narrower in front than 
behind and has its hinder margin very strongly convex. In this 
respect it resembles /. aurora. 

The female remains unknown. Length of abdomen & 24 mm., 
hind-wing 15 mm. Recorded from Quetta {Morton) and Kumaon 
{Laidlaw). 

Range probably restricted to the foot hills of the west and 
central Himalaya. 

The type male of /. gangetica is in the British Museum. 

Ischnura rufostigma, vSelys. 

Micronympha rufostigma, Kirby, Cat. Odoiiafa, p. 143 (i8go). 
/sclmiira rufostigma. Morton, Trans. Enf. Soc. Loud., 1907, p. 307 (?). 
I.aidlaw, Rec. hid. Miis., VIII, 4, p. 344, pi. xvi, 

fig- 5- 

2 0* d» , 2 $ 2 , Calcutta, 4-i-i5, No. ■ 2'-- 

The female has not been described (see note under I. inarmata). 

Pterostigma dull gray. 

Head, prothorax and thorax as in the male, but with a duller 
ground colour. 

Abdomen rather stouter than in the male. Ground colour pale 
yellowish-brown, with a metallic black line on the dorsum of each 
of the segments, this line is moderately broad, pointed in front, 
and widening a little at the apex of each segment. 

Range : Bengal, Assam, and doubtfully Kashmir (see note 
under I . inarmata, Calvert). 

Ischnura inarmata, Calvert. 

Ischuiira iiianiiata, Calvert, Proc. Acad. Nat. Set. Philadelpliia, 1898, 
pp. 147-148, text-figs. I, 2. 

2(^ c^ , I 9 ?, Kashmir, 1915 [H. T. Pease). 

The female appears to have been taken at the same time and 
place with the males, and is in all probability con-specific. 

It seems also to belong to the same species as 3 9 ? recorded 
by Morton from Kashmir {Trans. Ent.-Soc. London, 1907, P- 307)- 

These specimens were however regarded by him as being pos- 
sibly examples of /. rufostigma, Selys. 

Against this view is the fact that the undoubted examples of 
females of /. rufostigma described in this paper are quite different 
in their colour characters, and also the probability that /. rufos- 
tigma has a more easterly distribution. 

On the other hand Calvert describes a female specimen regard- 
ed by him as the female of /. inarmata, which also is quite distinct 
in colouring from the specimen before me, whilst it does not agree 
with Morton's specimens; it may be added that his account of the 



1916.] F. F. Laidi.avv : Indian Odonala. 131 

female is very incomplete, no mention is made of the thoracic 
colouring. 

Possibly the species has dimorphic females. In the absence 
of clearer evidence I propose to take this view. But of course /. 
rufostigma may have dimorphic females. I tabulate these female 
forms below : — 

A. 12. Indian Museum. 

Head as in male /, inarmata, but ground colour orange 

instead of blue. 
Prothorax orange, with small paired black spots. 
Thorax orange. 
Abdomen, segments i — 3 orange, apex of 3 marked 

with black, remaining segments metallic black above. 

B. 3$ 9. (Morton's specimens). " It'ike Pyrrhosoma tenellum 

(Villers), but thorax paler" (identical with A. ?). 

C. 32$. (Calvert's specimens). Head coloured as in males. 

Dorsum of abdominal segments i — 10 dark metallic 
green, the articulations with narrow, yellow, trans- 
verse rings. 

This species is recorded from Kashmir only. 

Ischnura aurora, Brauer. 

Micronymplia aurora, Kirby, Cat. Odonata, p. 143 (1890), 
Ischnura delicata, Martin, Mem. Soc. Zool. de France, 1901, p. 246. 

Tillyard, Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. Wales, 1907, XXXII 
(2), p. 3S4 seq. 

2cf cf 12, Nagpur, C. P., looo ft., Oct. 1914 {E. D'Abreu). 

In bad condition. 

Range : India to Ceylon ; Australia, not recorded from in- 
termediate territory so far as I know. 

Apparently not very common though widely distributed in 
India. 

Ischnura ? nursei, Morton, 

Isc/inura '!" nursei, Morton, Trans. Ent. Soc. Land., 1907, p. 306, 
pi. xxiv, figs. 4, 5, 6. 

A red and black species, unknown to me. The abdomen is 
described as being short and stout relative to that of other males 
of the genus, " segments i — 4 carmine, 5 lemon yellow, 6 yellowish 
in anterior half, remainder of abdomen metallic violet, posterior 
part of 10 and appendages reddish." The species differs from 
other Ischnuras in the absence of post-ocular spots and is referred 
by Morton to this genus with doubt. The pterostigma of the fore 
wing is diamond-shaped, bright carmine inwardly, paler exter- 

Ischnura immsi, Laidlaw, TJie Entomologist, Aug. 1913, p. 236. Mr. 
Morton has pointed out to me (in litt.) that this species is identical with Enal- 
lagma? parvum, Selys. My name is therefore merely a synonym of Selys' 
species to which I hope to refer in a later note. 



132 Records of the Indian Museum. [Voi,. XII, 

nally, that of the hind wings small, yellow. Length of hind- wing 
12 ram., of abdomen i6^ mm. 

Recorded from Deesa, Gujerat. 

It is to be hoped that more examples of this very interesting 
species will be forthcoming before long. 

Genus Ceriagrion, Selys. 
Ceriagrion coromandelianum (Fabr.) 

Ceriagrion coro)nandelia}iii»i, Kirby, Cat. Odonata, p. 154. 

,, ^\a.x:i\n, Odonat. Mission Pavie {?,e'p.),'p. \d>. 

,, ,, Ris, Ab/inudl. d. Senckenberg. Naturf. 

Gesellsch., XXXIX, p. 51Q. 
,, ,, Morton, Trans. Ent. Soc. London, 1907, 

p. 308. 
,, ,, Laidlaw, Rec. Ind. Miis., VIII, p. 345, pi. 

xvi, figs. 8, 8fl. 

Many specimens, cf» 9 . Kierpur, Purneah District, Bihar, 7 — 9-X-15 

(C. Paiva). No. |^ 
Many specimens, cP* 9 . Maidan, Calcutta. 

& 9 . Ernakulam, Cochin State, 11 — 14-X-14 

{F. H. Gravely). No. HP- 

cr 9 . Calcutta. Nos. H-, ^^\°-a. ( ^^uf^^^ 

cf 9 . Sibsagar, Assam. Nos. ^fj^, ^|§^. 1 o\ ^ 

Range: Ceylon, India, Burma, Indo-China (Sunda Islands, 
Celebes are also given as included in the range of the species by 
Martin, loc. cit.). 

My figures of the anal appendages of the male are not satisfac- 
tory. They were drawn from a shrivelled specimen. Normally the 
inferior pair project directly backwards and slightly exceed the 
upper pair in length. Each member of a pair is curved inwards at 
its free extremity, the upper pair actually meeting in the middle 
line. The lower appendage has its free extremity more finely 
pointed than in the figure and tipped with black. Also when 
viewed directly from above the extremities of the lower pair can be 
seen projecting beyond the upper pair. 



No. 



Ceriagrion rubiae, sp. nov. 
2 cf CT" , I 9 . Chalakudi, Cochin State, i4-ix-i4 (F. H. Gravely). 



Length of abdomen: cf 26 mm., 9 27 mm. 
,, hind-wing: cf 18 mm., 5 18*5 mm. 

A small species in which the wing is petiolated to the level of 
the basal post-costal nerve ; the wings are uncoloured , and the 
excision on the hinder margin of segment 10 of the male abdomen 
is small and rather bluntly angular. 

Description : Post-costal nerves 10. 

cf Head rusty yellow, paler beneath; upper half of the eyes 
greenish-brown, lower half yellow. 



1916.] F. F. lyAiDLAW : Indian Odonata. 133 

Prothorax an^ thorax rusty yellow above, fading to pale yellow 
at the sides and underneath. 

Abdomen entirely reddish-orange above and at the sides, yel- 
low ventrally. 

Legs yellow with black spines. 

Anal appendages dark reddish-brown in colour, black at ex- 
tremities. The upper pair are distant to each other and parallel, 
seen in profile they are a little narrowed basally so as to be some- 
what club-shaped, each carries a fine black point distally, which is 
directed downwards. The lower pairs are larger, idirected upwards 
and taper regularly to their apices. They lie internally to the 
upper pair. The excision on segment 10 is small and shallow, 
bluntly angular ; barely one third as deep as the segment. The 
floor of the excision is formed by a shelf-like ridge which in the 
middle line has a small tongue-like projection directed backwards. 
9 . Head greenish-brown above, paler below, eyes similarly 
coloured but of a greener tone. 

Prothorax and thorax gray-green above, yellowish-white below. 

Abdomen dull, greenish-brown above, paler below. 

The species differs from the closely allied C. eruhescens, Selys, 
chiefly as follows : — in colour ; it is smaller, and the excision on 
segment 10 of the abdomen is bluntly angular, narrow, and its floor 
has the curious little tongue-like projection noted above. The anal 
appendages of the males of the two species differ in detail. 

C eruhescens appears to be a more eastern species and I can- 
not find that it has been recorded from India. (See Ris, Ahhandl. 
d. Senckenberg. Naturf. Gesellsch., Bd. XXXIV, p. 519, taf. xxiii, 
figs. 13, 14). 

The holotypes c^ 5 will be returned to the Indian Museum; 
paratype cf in my collection. 

Ccriagrion olivaccum, Laidlaw. 

Cei'iagrion olivaceitm, Laidlaw, Rec. hid. Mus.. VIII, 1914, p. 345 
pi. xvi, fig. 9. 

This is the largest of the four species recorded from the 
Indian Empire. It appears to be confined to Upper Burma and 
Assam. 

A female specimen from Nurbong, Assam, sent to me by Mr. 
Stevens, has only 12 post-nodal nerves on the fore-wings. 

Like the other Indian species it has the wings petiolated to 
the level of the basal post-costal nerve, 

Ccriagrion cerinorubellum (Brauer). 

Ceriagi'iou ceyinot'ubellum, Kirby, Cat. Odonata, p. 154. 

K.vug&r, Stettin Eiitomol.Zeit., rig's, ^. Hi). 
,, Ris, loc. cit., p. 519. 

9 cf cr'. Kierpur, Purneah District, Bihar, i9-ix-i5 (C. Paiva) 
*' resting on weed in stream.' ' Nos. g, |f . 



134 Records of the Indian Museum, [Vol. XII, 

The description given by de Selys of this insect scarcely does 
justice to its beautiful colouring which is well preserved in spirit 
specimens. The head, prothorax and thorax are a rich dark olive 
green above, passing on the sides to a beautiful shade of blue. 

The first three segments of the abdomen and the last three 
are of a beautiful cherry red colour, the intermediate segments 
being intense black. 

Range : Ceylon, India, Burma, Malay States, Sumatra, Borneo. 

A number of the larvae of C. coromandelianmn (Fabr.) were 
taken in the Museum tank, and were hatched out in the Museum 
(No. HI- ). The larva shows, especially in the structure of the 
anal lamellae, considerable differences from the larva of such a 
genus as Pseudagrion. The following is a brief account : — 

Body sandy yellow or brown in colour. Total length about 
20 mm. including the anal lamellae. 

Head broad, flat. I can find no indication of the transverse 
frontal ridge of the adult. 

Mask when folded just reaching base of second pair of legs. 
Its outer margin carries about 6 or 7 short stout spines along its 

distal half. On either side of the 
middle line is an oblique row of 5 
setae, diverging distally ; the outer- 
most being by far the largest. Ante- 
rior margin of mask bluntly angular. 
The palpi each bear 7 long setae in 
addition to the moveable hook (see 
fig. i). The length of each of the 
middle pair of legs is about 7 mm. 
The abdomen is cylindrical and 
,, , ^, ,, r r^ ■ tapers very gradually backwards. 

Fig. I. — Mask of larvaltorm oi ten- -r^ t r ■ 1 i. u :^^ ^c 

agrio, coromandelianum (Fabr.). ^ach of the Segments has a rmg of 

short blunt setae set around its hm- 
der margin, and each of the last five segments has in addition a pair 
of similar setae dorsally, one on either side of the middle fine near 
the end of the segment. The pair on segment 10 are much more 
remote from each other than those on the other segments. 

The anal lamellae (gills) are leaf-like, ob-lanceolate ; 4 — 5 mm. 
long, i"5 mm. wide, in one or two individuals acuminate but 
more often irregularly rounded at the apex. They are not jointed 
nor marked with a transverse fold, but the basal half is stouter 
and more strongly chitinized than the apical part. 

Each has two stout, main tracheal tubes forming as it were a 
mid-rib from which a large number of branches run outwards 
increasing the resemblance to a leaf. 

In the lateral pair of lamellae the mid-rib lies nearer to the 
ventral than to the dorsal margin, in the central lamellae the re- 
verse condition obtains. 

In each lateral lamella the basal two-fifths of the mid-rib 
bears a row of chitinous teeth on its outer side. In the central 




1916.J F F. Laidlaw : Indian Odonata. 135 

lamella there is a similar row of equal extent on both sides of the 
mid-rib. 

Lastly, on the ventral margin of the outer pair, and on the 
dorsal margin of the central lamella there lies another row of teeth 
also extending from the base for about two-fifths of the total 
length of the lamella. 

Subfamily GOMPHINAE, Rambur. 

Genus Davidius, Selys. 

Davidius aberrans (Selys). 

Hdgeiiiits fi'J aberrans, Selys, Bull. Acad. Relg., (2i XXXV'I, p. 506 

( iSy."?) ; Kirby, Cat. Odonata, p. 75. 
Davidius ^ zailorensis, Selys, /.c, (2) XIA'I, p. 667 11878); Kirby, l.c,, 

P-.75- 
Davidius aberrans, D. zallorensis, \\ illiamson, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 

XXX 11 1, 1907. pp. 286-287. 
See also Selys, Ann. de la Soc. Entom. de Belgiqiie. XXXX'III, 1894, 

P- 175- 

1 5 . Binyar, Kumaon, 7700 ft., 24-V-1912 {A. D. Imms) 
For. Zool. Mus. 

I have compared this specimen with the descriptions of 
D. aberrans and of D. zallorensis and can find no grounds for sepa- 
rating the two species. In the specimen before me the triangle 
of the left fore-wing is free, that of the right is crossed by a single 
nerve« Both hind-wings have the triangle crossed. 

Davidius davidi, Selys, subsp. assamensis^ nov. 

Davidius david i i, SeWs, Bull. Acad. Belg., 12,) XIA'I, 1878, p. 671. 

ic#», 2 2 9 . Gopal, Assam, 1914 [H. Stevens). 

Length of abdomen & 31 mm., 2 28 mm. 
,, hind-wing & 26 mm., 9 28'5 mm. 

Distinguished from the type by its smaller size (D. davidi type : 
abdomen 2 34'35 mm., hind-wing 32*33 mm. Selys, loc. cit.), and 
absence of isolated superior antehumeral spots of cuneiform shape 
which occur in the type. The basal black band on the frons is not 
large. 

The male differs from the female so far as colouring goes 
chiefly in having only the lower third of the mid-dorsal carina of 
the thorax coloured, and in having lateral spots on the first three 
segments only of the abdomen. 

Anal appendages of male : Upper pair slender and rather 
horn-like, each with a stout downwardly curved, rounded, hook- 
like process projecting from near its base, scarcely visible in profile. 
The appendage itself is longer than the tenth segment. The lower 
appendage is shorter than the upper pair, triangular and deeply 
cleft in the middle line (see fig. 2a). 

The male has the triangle of the left hind-wing crossed, the 
remaining triangle free. 



136 



Records of the Indian Museum. [Vol. XII, 1916.] 



The females have the triangles of the hind-wing crossed in 
every case. Those of the front wing free except in the case of the 
left fore-wing of the paratype where the triangle is crossed. The 





Fig. 2. — Davidiiis davidi assamensis, subsp. nov. 

a. Anal appendages (^ : h. Lateral view of genital structures on 
abdominal segment, 2 ^ . 



genus Davidius ranges from China and Japan to N. India, Assam 
and Tonkin. The two species noted above are the only forms 
recorded from the Indian Empire. 

The holotypes cf 9 will be deposited in the Indian Museum. 



XIV. SOME LIGNICOLOUS BEETLE- 
LARVAE FROM INDIA AND BORNEO. 

By P. H. GraveIvY, D.Sc, Asst. Superintendent, Zoological Survey 

of India. 

(Plates XX— XXII ) 

While hunting for insects in dead wood my attention has 
from time to time been attracted by stages in the life- histories of 
various beetles. Often the determination of the adult form into 
which a particular kind of larva will develop is a matter only to 
be determined by breeding. At other times the association of 
larvae, possessing definite family characteristics, with adults of the 
same family all belonging to one species, indicates the identity of 
the larvae with a high degree of probability. And when larvae 
and adults are associated with pupae, shown by their accompanying 
exuviae to have been derived from the former and by their form 
to be about to give rise to the latter, the probability becomes a 
certainty. 

By one or other of the above means, the identity of various 
beetle larvae recently added to the Indian Museum collection has 
been established. The Bornean Passalid larvae described below 
were collected by Mr. J. C. Moulton, many of the South Indian 
Passalid larvae by Mr. T. Bainbrigge Fletcher, the Andaman Pas- 
salid larvae by Mr. M. C. Bonig and Mr. S. W. Kemp, and two species 
of the Lucanid larvae by Mr. S. W . Kemp. The rest were collected by 
myself. Whenever possible the specimens have been hardened before 
being placed in spirit by immersion either for a few minutes in boiling 
water, or (better) for an hour or two in Carnoy's fluid ', as this helps 
to prevent blackening and collapse of the tissues. 

I have thought it best to refrain at present from attempting to 
prepare an account of the Longicorn larvae, since I have as yet 
been unable to consult the part of Xambeu's " Moeurs et Metamor- 
phoses d'Insectes " dealing with this group.'^ 

PASSALIDAE. 

The collection of material for the study of the development of 
Passalid beetles is rendered particularly simple by the close asso- 
ciation which appears to exist between adults and their young. 
This association has been investigated in the case of American 
forms by Ohaus (Stett. Ent. Zeit., Jahrg. LXI, 1900, pp. 164-172 

^ Absolute alcohol 6 parts, chloroform 3 parts, glacial lacetic acid i part. 
2 Published as a Supplement to '* EcAaMg'e ". (Lyon, ;892-i897 |. 



133 Records of tiie Indian Museum. [Vol. XII, 

and Jahrg. LXX, 1909, pp. 23-25 and 29-32). It is doubtful whe- 
ther the association is quite so close in Indian forms as in American 
ones (Gravely, Rec. Ind. Mus., XI, 1915, p. 496), although the struc- 
ture of the mandibles is the same as in American larvae, and seems 
equally unsuited for the mastication of unprepared wood ; but it is 
sufficient to allow of the collection of whole groups of insects in 
various stages all belonging to one species. Larvae of the following 
species have already been described ' : — 

*'Passalus"? punctiger, Lepeletier and Serville."^ 

1835. Percheron, A. '' Monographic des Passales" (Paris, 1835), 
pp. 17-18, pi. i, figs 13-14. 

**Passalus'* cornutus, Fabricius. 

[847. Burmeister, H. '' Handbuch der Entomologie " , V (Berlin, 

1847), pp. 454-459- 
1872. Riley, C. V. "The Horned Passalus." Ann. Rep. Ins. 

Missouri, IV, 1872, pp. 139-141, text-fig. 62^ a-d. 
1874. Schi(^dte, J. C. " De metamorphosi Eleutheratorum obser- 

vationes : Bidrag til Insekternes Udviklingshistorie." 

Naturhist. Tids., XI, 1874 (" Passalus ,'' pp. 356-359, pi. 

XV, fig 16; pi. xviii, figs. 12-19; pi. xix, fig 17). 

** Passalus '* distinctus, Weber. 

1853. Chapuis, F. and Candeze, E. " Catalogue des Larves des 
Coleopteres connues jusqu'a ce jour avec la description 
de plusieurs especes nouvelles," pp. 343-653, 9 pis. Mem. 
Sac. R. Sci. Liege, VIII, 1853 (" Passalus,''' pp. 467-468, 
pi. iv, figs. 5-5C). 

1861. Candeze, E. " Histoire des Metamorphoses de quelques 
Coleopteres exotiques." Mem. Soc. R. Sci. Liege, XVI, 
1861 {"Passalus," pp. 343-344)- 

Aulacocyclus kaupi, MacLeay. 

1893. Froggatt, W. W. "On the Life-Histories of Austrahan 
Coleoptera I." Proc.Linn. Soc. N. S. Wales, VIII, 1894 
{Aulacocyclus, p. 41). 

' The synon3iTiy of the American genera, to which most of these belong, is 
at present so confused that it seems best to refer to all under the single generic 
name "Passalus" which is applied to them by the authors here referred to. Only 
in the case of Indo- Australian species is the genus given according to modern defi- 
nitions. Madam Merian's larva can no longer be regarded as a Passalid. 

2 The plate bears the legend "P. inferriipfiis "; but this does not apply to 
the larva and pupa figured which are probabl)-, according lo Percheron, those of 
P. punctiger. 



1916.J F. H. ()ravi-;ly : Lis;nicoloiis Beetle-Larvae. 139 

Leptaulax bicolor (Fabricius). 

1861. Candeze, E. " Histoire des Metamorphoses de quelques 
Coleopteres exotiques." Mem. Soc. R. Sci. Liege, XVI, 
1861 {" Passalus," pp. 343-344). 

Passalid larvae are all much alike, and Schi^dte's elaborate des- 
cription of the larva of " Passalus cornutus" will probably be found 
to apply to all so far as general structure is concerned. Only 
specific differences, therefore, will be described here. Candeze 
was unable to detect any definite differences between the species 
before him, beyond slight ones in the position of the stigmata. 

In Oriental forms specific differences are found in the arrange- 
ment and nature of the large hairs, and in the manner in which, if 
at all, pile is developed on the body. 

Among the larvae I have examined all those with definite pile 
belong to the Pletirarius, Aceraius and Macrolinus groups, and in 
the first of these it is confined to the later stages while in the 
second it is absent in one species. Probably, therefore, the 
development of pile is a departure from the primitive type of larva. 
In this connection it is noteworthy that the larva of the Aceraius 
group from which it is absent — Episphenus neelfiherriensis — is that 
of the most primitive beetle of this group whose larva I have seen ; 
also that the larvae of the two Bornean species of Aceraius examined 
have the pile better developed than those of the two from conti- 
nental Asia, although one of the latter is the northern race of the 
highly specialized dominant species of the genus (compare Journ. 
As. Soc. Bengal, [n.s.] X, pp. 201-210, pi. xxiv; or Mem. Ind. 
Mus. Ill, pp. 311-313, text-fig. 7, p. 314). 

The manner in which the larger hairs are distributed appears to 
be derived by the suppression or multiplication of particular hairs 
from the following generalized plan.' A short row (usually five) 
behind each antenna on the head ; a short row (usually three includ- 
ing the lateral hair) bordering each of the anterior angles of the first 
thoracic segment ; one pair of dorsal hairs on each segment in front 
of the tenth abdominal ; one pair of lateral hairs situated obhquely 
above and behind the stigmata, and directly below but somewhat 
further away from the dorsal pair of hairs on each of these seg- 
ments ; one pair of ventral hairs in the same vertical plane but 
situated obliquely behind and below the stigmata on each of these 
segments after the first two thoracic, and especially on the ninth 
abdominal ; a circumanal ring, usually of about seven pairs of hairs, 
on the tenth abdominal segment. 

It is noteworthy that, in these characters also, Episphenus 
neelgherriensis approaches the generalized type more nearly than do 
any of the more highly specialized members of the Aceraius group 
that I have examined ; and that in this and some other species 

' Only in certain species of the highly specialized genus Aceraius are hairs 
produced in an entirely fresh place, namely on the frons. 



140 Records of the Indian Museum. [Vol. XII, 

this generalized type is approached more closely by young than 
by old larvae. Only in Leptaulax bicolor is the reverse the case, 
and here only as regards the small dorsal thoracic hairs which do 
not develop at all in L. bicolor var. vicinus. 

Passalid pupae all appear to resemble in general form that of 
" Passalus " cornutus figured by Riley {loc. cit.), differing mainly in 
the structure of the head , which reveals more or less distinctly the 
characteristic features of the head of the developing beetle. They 
will not be further described here. 

Pleurarius brachyphyllus, Stoliczka. 

(PI. XX, figs. 1-3.) 

Localities. — Cochin State: ioth-i4th mile of State Forest 
Tramwav. ca. 0-300 ft; Kavalai, ca. 1^00-3000 
ft. 

Larvae of this species are remarkable for the change which 
takes place in the structure of their hairs when the insects are 
about 25 mm. long. In young larvae these hairs are all long, 
tapering and filiform as in other species. In old ones only those 
on the head (missing in all our full grown specimens, but present 
in a number somewhat more than 25 mm. long), the ventral pair 
on the ninth abdominal segment, and the circumanal ring on the 
tenth retain this form, the rest being short, stout and clavate. 

Full grown larvae may be at least 50 mm. in length. In the 
Indian Museum collection there are several of about this size, and 
a large number of from about 14-30 mm. long. Unfortunately 
there are none between 30 and 50 mm. 

The head would apparently be covered all over with fine hair 
was it not worn down to the roots in places— ^.g., on the dorsal 
surface — till only the points of origin remain. Two long hairs are 
present behind the antennae. Of these the dorsal is the stouter and 
may be more or less ribbon-like. Three hairs are present in the 
anterior angles of the first thoracic segment of larvae not old 
enough to have developed clavate hairs. In others, on this as on 
other segments up to the second abdominal, only the single lateral 
pair of hairs is present. A single pair of dorsal hairs is present 
in addition on the next seven segments. On the last of these 
(the ninth abdominal) the ventral pair is also present. The tenth 
abdominal segment bears the usual circumanal ring of hairs. 
, In larvae which are not old enough to have developed cla- 
vate hairs the general surface of the body is smooth, apart from 
scattered specks which appear to represent sparse and undevel- 
oped pile. In older larvae there are tufts of pile above each leg, 
one in front and one behind, and tufts on the lateral margins of 
each tergum. The tergal tufts are united by dorsal bands on the 
first and second thoracic segments, and on the posterior border of 
the ninth and the whole of the tenth abdominal segments. 



1916.] F. H. GkaveIvY : Lignicolous Beetle-Larvae. 141 

Episphenus neelgherriensis (Percheron). 

Localities. — Nilgiri Hills : Ootacamund, 7500 ft. 

Mysore Bababudin Hills, 4000-5000 ft. 
Cochin State : Kavalai, ca. 1300-3000 ft. 

The lengths of the various larvae in the collection vary from 
I r-35 mm. 

The head is almost devoid of any indication of hairs on the 
dorsal surface except for about 5-7 long ones in a row behind 
each antenna, 5 being apparently the normal number. 

The arrangement of the hairs on the thorax and abdomen 
seems to be less constant than is usual. The tenth abdominal 
segment always bears a circumanal ring. In the smallest specimens 
each segment in front of it bears dorsal and lateral pairs of hairs, 
of which the former are much the strongest ; and the first thoracic 
segment bears in addition a line of about three hairs in each an- 
terior angle. All these hairs may be retained in large larvae; but 
more usually the first thoracic segment bears only two hairs situated 
laterally side by side, being without dorsal hairs, the second thora- 
cic segment bears none at all, the third thoracic and first abdomi- 
nal segments each bear the dorsal pair only, and the second to 
ninth abdominal segments bear both dorsal and lateral pairs. 
The whole body is smooth as in young larvae of the preceding 
species. 

Episphenus indicus (Stoliczka), 

Localities. — Mysore : Bababudin Hills, 4000-5000 ft. 
Anamalai Hills, 5000 ft., 
Cochin State: Kavalai, ca. 1300-3000 ft. 

The lengths of all the larvae of this species that I have before 
me are about 35-50 mm. There are no really small specimens 
among them. The head is more uniformly covered with fine hair 
than is that of the preceding species, which it resembles as regards 
the hairs behind the antennae. The thorax and abdomen are 
more or less covered with moderately long pile, especially later- 
ally ; but there are no definite tufts as in large larvae of Pleurarius 
brachyphyllus. The thorax is without prominent hairs. The first 
seven abdominal segments each bear two hairs (abnormally one or 
three) situated dorsally rather close together one below the other. 
The eighth and ninth abdominal segments bear none. The tenth 
bears the usual circumanal ring. 

Ophrygonius cantori, Percheron, subsp. convexifrons, Zang. 
Locality. — Assam : Shillong, Khasi Hills, 5500-6400 ft. 

Four specimens, all about 22 mm. long. Both head and body 
are covered, except near the mid- ventral line of most of the abdomi- 
nal segments, with somewhat thickly scattered coarse hairs, but there 
is no true pile. Longer and thicker hairs are present on the head 
in a row behind the antennae in the lateral angles of the frons. On 



142 Records of the Indian Museum. [Vol. XII, 

the first thoracic segment such hairs form a row behind the anterior 
margin, one or two similar dorsal and one lateral hair being present 
on each side behind them. On the second and third thoracic seg- 
ments there are two dorsal and two lateral hairs on each side, the 
dorsal ones being situated as usual one on the outer side of the 
other, and the lateral ones one behind the other. There are moder- 
ately long hairs above the legs on all segments, and a ventral pair 
of hairs between them ; on the third segment there are about three 
very long hairs , resembling in size and position the ventral hairs of the 
abdominal segments. On the first seven abdominal segments there 
are two pairs of dorsal hairs, one pair of lateral hairs, two or one 
pairs of ventral hairs, and one pair of weaker hairs nearer the middle 
of the ventral surface than the last named. The hairs on the eighth 
and ninth abdominal segments resemble those on the segments in 
front of them, except that there are three instead of two dorsal ones. 
The tenth abdominal segment bears the usual circumanal ring, and 
has short hairs scattered all across the ventral surface instead of 
having a mid-ventral hairless band like the preceding segments. 

Accraius grandis, Burmeister, subsp. hirsutus, Kuwert. 

Locality .—'Dsix]\\\ng District : Pashok, ca. 2000 ft. 

The lengths of the larvae before me vary from 38-50 mm. 
The largest larvae have jaws and labrum of about the same size 
as those of cast larval skins belonging to pupae found with these 
larvae, so presumably they are full grown. The beetles found 
with them are all about 40 mm. long. Doubtless the size of full- 
grown larvae varies like that of the adult beetles. The head 
resembles that of Episphenus indicus, except for the presence of a 
group of two or three well marked hairs in the lateral angles of the 
frons. The body is covered with pile as in that species, but this is 
inclined to be densest mid-dor sally instead of laterally. The tho- 
rax is without special hairs as a rule, but one or two pairs of rather 
small dorsal ones are present on the third segment in some speci- 
mens ; these and the three pairs which are present on each of the 
first six abdominal segments, form a series of transverse dorsal 
lines. The seventh, eighth and ninth abdominal segments are with- 
out hairs. The tenth bears the usual circumanal ring. 

Aceraius kuw^crti, Zang. 
(PI. XX, fig. 4.) 

Locality. — Sarawak: Kinabalu, 4500 ft. 

Two specimens 46 and 68 mm. long respectively. The head 
resembles that of the preceding species except that the long 
hairs are more numerous, both in the lateral angles of the 
clypeus and behind the antennae. In the larger of the two speci- 
mens there are also a few long hairs among the shorter ones that 
border the frons and fill its posterior angle. The thoracic and first 
seven abdominal segments each bears a transverse dorsal line of 5-7 



1916.] F. H. Gravely : Lignicolous Beetle-Larvae. 143 

hairs, which are weakest and least numerous in the first and last 
segments^ the seventh (counting from the middle Hne) being iden- 
tical, at least in position, with the lateral hairs of other species. 
On the eighth and ninth abdominal segments these hairs are all so 
small as to be scarcely noticeable among the well-developed pile 
with which the body is covered. The pile is associated with 
minute spinules, of which one is situated immediately in front 
of the base of each of the fine hairs of which the pile is composed. 
In front of the lateral ends of each line of long hairs the pile is less 
dense and the spines are relatively large and sharply pointed. In 
the smaller of the two specimens part of this area is entirely 
without hairs and spines. The tenth abdominal segment bears 
the usual circumanal ring. 

Aceraius pilifer (Percheron). 

Locality. — Sarawak : Kinabalu, 4500 ft. 

Two specimens 30 and 37 mm. long respectively. The head 
resembles that of the larger of the two specimens of the preced- 
ing species. The pile on the thorax and abdomen is much longer 
than in that species, and is accompanied by somewhat finer spin- 
ules ; otherwise the thorax and abdomen resemble those of that 
species. 

Aceraius helferi, Kuwert. 

Locality. — Tenasserim : Misty Hollow to Sukli, Dawna Hills, 
ca. 2100-2500 ft. 

Four specimens, each about 38 mm. long. The head resem- 
bles that of A . grandis subsp. hirsiUus. The pairs of dorsal hairs 
are three in number as in that species, but are present on the 
thoracic as well as on the abdominal segments, and are accom- 
panied on each of these segments by a pair of lateral hairs. On 
the first thoracic segment they are also accompanied by a few long 
hairs in the anterior angles, and on the ninth abdominal by a pair 
of well developed ventral hairs. The tenth abdominal segment 
bears the usual circumanal ring. The pile is short as in .4 . grandis 
subsp. hirsutus. 

Macrolinus andamanensis (Stoliczka). 

Localities. — Andamans : Port Blair ; Bom lungta (from Popita 
tree). 

Four specimens, all about 30-32 mm. long. The head is cov- 
ered with fine hair, but bears no long hairs either behind the 
antennae or elsewhere. The body is covered somewhat closely 
with short pile. The thoracic and seventh to ninth abdominal 
segments are without hairs. The first six abdominal segments 
have two pairs of dorsal hairs as in Episphenus indicuSy from 
which species the present one may be distinguished by the 



1 44 Records of the Indian Museum. [Vol. XII, 

absence of hairs behind the antennae and by the somewhat shorter 
pile on the body. There are no lateral hairs. The tenth abdomi- 
nal segment bears the usual circumanal ring. 



Leptaulax dcntatus (Fabricius). 

Localities. — Abor Country: Rotung, 1300 ft. 

Tenasserim: Kawkareik, Amherst District. 

Four specimens, 18-25 ^^- long. The head is practically 
hairless above, and is entirely without long hairs. The body is 
practically without pile and has only a single pair of dorsal hairs 
on the first eight ( ? sometimes six or seven only) abdominal seg- 
ments. 

Leptaulax bicolor (Fabricius). 

The two somewhat imperfectly separated varieties into which, 
at most, the adults of this species seem at present to be divisible, 
are associated in the single collection of each before me with 
sHghtly different larvae. Although it is impossible to be certain, 
from these two collections only, that this implies that the separa- 
tion referred to has been on right lines, it will be convenient to 
accept this hypothesis in describing them. 



I. u BICOLOR (Fabricius) s. str. 
Locality. — Cochin State'. Kavalai, ca. 2000-2500 ft. 

Several specimens varying from 12-31 mm. in length. The 
adults with which they are associated are about 29 ram. in length. 
The whole larva is practically without pile. In the smallest speci- 
mens there is a single long hair in a row of small ones behind the 
antennae ; but this disappears later, apparently when the larva is 
about 15 mm. long. In the smallest larvae the thorax bears three 
long hairs in the anterior angles of the first segment, a cluster of 
much shorter ones above the base of each of the first two pairs of 
legs, and a single pair of ventral hairs behind the third pair of legs. 
In a specimen a little over 15 mm. the hairs above the legs are 
quite weak, and a single pair of rather small dorsal hairs has 
appeared on each thoracic segment. In larger larvae the hairs 
above the legs completely disappear. Each of the first nine seg- 
ments of the abdomen bears two pairs of well developed dorsal 
hairs, and one pair of much smaller dorsally directed ventral 
hairs ; on the ninth segment there is in addition a pair of ventral ly 
directed ventral hairs resembling those which are dorsally directed 
and situated slightly below them ; the ventral hairs on the eighth 
and ninth segments are duplicated in one very small specimen ; 
the ventral hairs are easily seen in very small specimens but are 
quite small in large ones. The tenth abdominal segment bears 
the usual circumanal ring of hairs. 



1916,] F. H. Gravely : Li^nicolous Beetle-Larvae. 143 

2. L. BicoLOR var. vicinus (Percheron). 
Locality. — Andamans: Port Blair. 

Several specimens, varying from about 14-28 mm. in length. 

The smallest specimen resembles the smallest of the preceding 
form, except that the single long hair behind each antennae is much 
shorter, though relatively stout, and is as.sociated with a cluster 
of small spinules or bacilli. Large larvae differ from this speci- 
men only in the loss of the hairs above the two front pairs of legs 
(though these do not appear to be lost so quickly as in the pre- 
ceding form), and in the replacement of the pair of hairs behind 
the last pair of legs and of all the ventral pairs of hairs on the 
abdomen by short bacilli. The hairs and groups of spinules be- 
hind the antennae are not lost, and the dorsal pairs of hairs on 
the thoracic segments are not developed. 

LUCANIDAE. 

Several descriptions of Lucanid larvae have appeared since 
the publication of Chapuis and Candeze's catalogue {Mem. Soc. R. 
Set. Liege, VIII, 1853, lyucanidae, pp. 468-470). In the following 
list of the references I have been able to trace those not available 
in Calcutta are marked with an asterisk (*), as I have not been 
able to use them. 

Lucanus cervus, Linnaeus. 

? * Albrecht. Acta Acad. nat. Cur. (series ?) IV, pi. 5. 
1746. *Rossel von Rosenhof, A. J. Ins. Belust., II (i), 1746, pi. 

iv, fig 3- 
1790. * Herbst, J. F. W. " Natursystem aller bekannten in- und 

auslandischen Insekten," III (Berlin, 1790), p. 289, 

pi. F, figs 1-6. 
1804. *Posselt, C. F. " Beytrage zur Anatomic der Insekten " , 

etc., (Tiibingen, 1804), pi. ii, fig i. 
1823. *Blot. Mem. Soc. Linn. Calvados, I, 1823. 
1839. Ratzeburg, J. T. C. " Die Forst-Insecten," 2nd. ed., I 

(Berhn, 1839), pp. 105-106. 
Westwood, J. O. '* Introduction to the Modern Classifica- 
tion of Insects," I (London, 1839), PP- 187-188. 
1848. * Erichson, W. F, " Naturgeschichte der Insekten Deutsch- 

lands," (Berlin, 1848), p. 938. 
1874. Schi'?)dte, J. C. " De metamorphosi Eleutheratorum obser- 

vationes : Bidrag til Insekternes Udviklingshistorie." 

Naturhist. Tids.^lX, 1874 [Lucanus, pp. 341-345, pi, xviii, 

figs. 12-19, pi. xix, fig.17). 

** Lucanus ** alces. 

1836. *Haan, W. de. " Memoires sur les Metamorphoses des 
Coleopteres," I (Paris, 1836), p. 25, pi. iii, fig. 6. 



146 Records of the Indian Museum. [Voiv. XII, 

** Lucanus ** saiga. 

1836. *Haan, W. de. " Memoires sur les Metamorphoses des 
Coleopteres," I (Paris, 1836), p. 24, pi. iii, fig. 7. 

Dorcus parallelopipedus, Linnaeus. 

1833, Bree, C. R. '' Remarks on the Fall of an aged Ash Tree." 

Mag. Nat. Hist., VI, 1833, pp. 327-335, text-figs. 43-44. 
1839. Ratzeburg, J. T. C. " Die Forst-Insecten." 2nd ed., I 

(Berlin, 1839), PP- 105-106, pi. iii, fig. 19. 
1842. Dufour, L. " Histoire comparative des metamorphoses et 

de I'anatomie des Cetonia aurata et Dorcus parallelipi- 

pedtts."" Ann. Sci. Nat., (2) XVIII, 1842, pp. 162-181. 

pl. iv-v. 
*Mulsant, M. B. and Rey, C. ''Histoire Naturelle des 

Coleopteres de France, lyamellicornes." (Paris and 

Lyon, 1842), p. 281, pl. i, figs. i8a-c. 
1848. * Erichson, W. F. " Naturgeschichte der Insekten Deutsch- 

lands." (Berlin, 1848), p. 491. 
1874. Schii^dte, J. C. " De metamorphosi Eleutheratorum ob- 

servationes : Bidrag til Insekternes Udviklingshistorie." 

Naturhist. Tids., IX, 1874 [Dorcus, pp. 345-349, pl. xvii, 

figs, i-io, pl. xix, figs. 14-15). 
1890. * Planet, L. Naturaliste, XII, 1890, p. 156 

Platycerus caraboides, Linnaeus. 

1842. *Mulsant, M. E. and Rey, C. '' Histoire Naturelle des 
Coleopteres de France, Lamellicornes." (Paris and 
Lyon, 1842), p. 597. 

1874. Schi(|)dte, J. C. '' De metamorphosi Eleutheratorum ob- 
servationes : Bidrag til Insekternes Udviklingshistorie.' ' 
Naturhist. Tids., IX, 1874 {Platycerus, pp. 349-352, pl. 
xvii, figs. 11-21). 

Figulus striatus, Fabricius. 

1845. *Blanchard, C. E. "Histoire des Insectes," I, 1845 
p. 268, pl. viii, figs. 2-3. 

Ceruchus tarandus, Panzer. 

1842. *Mulsant, M. E. and Rey, C. "Histoire Naturelle des 
Coleopteres de France, Lamellicornes " (Paris and 
Lyon, 1842), p. 593, pl. iii, figs. 6^-c. 

Ceratognathus froggatti, Blackburn. 

1894. Froggatt, W. W. " On the Life-Histories of Australian 
Coleoptera," II. Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. Wales, (2) 
IX, 1894 (1894-5), pp. 120-121. 



1916,] F. H. Gravely : Lignicolous Beetle-Larvae. 147 

Mitophyllus irroratus, Parry. 

1881. Brown, T. '*On the Larva and Pupa of Ceralognathus 
irroratus." Trans. N. Z. Inst., XIII, 1880 (1881), pp. 
230-231. 

Aesalus scarabacoides, Fabricius. 

1842. *Mulsant, M. E. and Rey, C. '' Histoire Naturelle des 
Coleopteres de France, Lamellicornes," (Paris and 
Lyon, 1842), p. 604. 

Sinodcndron cylindricum, Linnaeus. 

1839. Westwood, J. O. "Introduction to the Modern Classi- 
fication of Insects," I (London, 1839), p. 189, text- fig. 
18 (p. 185), 11-13. 

1842. *Mulsant, M. E. and Rey, C. Histoire Naturelle des 
Coleopteres de France, Lamellicornes." (Paris and 
Lyon, 1842), p. 600, pi. iii, figs, loa-h. 

1874. Schi<;)dte, J. C. " De metamorphosi Eleutheratorum ob- 
servationes : Bidrag til Insekternes Udviklingshistorie." 
Naturhist. Tids., IX, 1874 {Sinodcndron, pp. 352-356, 
pi. xviii, figs, i-io, pi. xix, fig. 16). 

The Lucanid larvae described below were found in wood to- 
gether v,^ith adults of the species to which I have referred them. 
In no case were any pupae found. 

Aegus rocpstorffi, Waterhouse. 
(PI. xxi, figs. 8-11.) 

Locality. — Andamans : Port Blair (in rotten wood). 

Two larvae about 25 and 30 mm. long respectively, accom- 
panied by two mesodont males of slightly dissimilar development. 
The larvae are of the usual curved clavate form. 

The head is polished and obscurely rugose. It bears a few 
long slender hairs in a line behind the clypeo-frontal suture and the 
antennae, as in Dorciis parallelopipedus. The sutures bounding the 
frons latero-posteriorly, though distinct, are very weak. The cly- 
peus is somewhat or much broader than long in front ; behind it is 
quite twice as broad as long. The labrutn is about twice as broad 
as long behind, and somewhat broader in front; its anterior mar- 
gin and angles are rounded ; it is lightly elevated in the middle 
line in front, between a pair of marginal or submarginal depressions. 

The antennae resemble those of Dorcus parallelopipedus, but 
have the last of the two long joints scarcely longer than the first. 
I would regard these antennae, and those of other Lucanids, as 
apparently 5-jointed and really 4-iointed; not apparently 4-jointed 
and really 3-jointed as does Schif^dte. Both mandibles have three 
teeth at the apex, of which the ventral is situated in front of the 
middle one, and the middle one in front of the dorsal. In the right 



148 Records of the Indian Museum. [Vol. XII, 

mandible there is one and in the left there are two smaller teeth on the 
dorsal margin behind these, as in Lucanus cervus^ and Dorcus paral- 
lelopipedus. The molar tooth of the right mandible consists of a 
low anterior transverse ridge followed by a somewhat higher hol- 
lowed L-shaped cusp ; that of the left mandible consists of a very 
strongly elevated anterior transverse ridge, longitudinally grooved 
in front and more elaborately marked behind, followed by a low 
hollowed cusp of considerable size. The maxillae resemble those 
of Dorcus parallelopipedus. As with the antennae I would regard 
the basal piece ("stipes palpiger" of Schi'i)dte) as a basal joint. 
The labial palps are 2-jointed, the proximal joint being about as 
long as broad, and the distal about three times as long as broad 
and about twice as long as the proximal. 

The legs resemble those of Dorcus parallelopipedus in structure 
and proportions except that each joint — judging from Schi(?)dte's 
figure of the third leg of that species — is slenderer, and that 
the stridulating joint of the third leg is more sharply pointed 
distally as in Plalycerus caraboidcs The stridulating surface on 
the middle leg resembles that of the former species; the tubercles 
are very fine and closely set. The second, third and fourth joints 
of all legs, when not modified for stridulation, are thickened ven- 
trally near the distal end. The projections thus formed bear clus- 
ters of stout spiniferous tubercles and are strongest on the third 
joint of each, and especially of the second, leg. 

Only the thoracic and first two abdominal segments are dis- 
tinctly divided transversely by a groove above. All segments as 
far as the sixth abdominal are sparsely covered above with short 
hairs, and have a posterior line of long hairs. Further back the 
short hairs disappear, and from about this point backwards long 
hairs are found on the anterior as well as the posterior parts of 
each segment. Bach segment up to and including the ninth abdo- 
minal bears a large tubercle on each side in the posterior angles of 
the tergum. The terminal segment resembles that of Dorcus paral- 
lelopipedus, as do also the stigmata. 

The larva of this species closely resembles that of its ally Dor- 
cus parallelopipedus , the chief differences being found in the struc- 
ture of the molar teeth and the greater slenderness of the legs. 

Nigidius dawnae, Gravely. 
(PI. xxi, figs. 12-13.) 

Loc«/%.— Tenasserim: near Sukli, eastern side of Dawna 
Hills, Amherst District, ca. 2200 ft. (in hard dry 
wood). 

Several larvae about 20-35 mm long (all but one of about 
the latter size) were found in association with the well developed 



' Schi^dte speaks of the right mandible as tridentate only in these species, 
but the extra denticle is clearly shown in the right mandible of the latter species, 
which he figures (loc. cit., pi. xvii, figs. 3 and 4). 



igi6.] F. H. Gravely : Lignicolous Beetle- Larvae. 149 

males and females which formed part of the material from which 
the species was originally described {Rec. Ind. Mus. , XI, pp. 427-429, 
pi. xxix, fig. 7). They are curved and more or less clavate, but 
are slenderer than the larvae of the preceding species. 

The head closely resembles that of the preceding species but 
bears fewer hairs, and has a somewhat narrower clypeus and a 
labrum with less distinct anterior marginal depressions. 

The second of the two long joints of the antennae is some- 
what shorter than in the preceding species ; it is much, instead of 
scarcely, shorter than the first. The right mandible has only two 
terminal teeth as in Platycerus caraboides and Sinodeiidron cylindri- 
cum, the ventral being much the larger of the two; but beneath 
these a rudiment of the third terminal tooth is recognizable. The 
left mandible has three large teeth arranged like the apical teeth 
of Dorcus parallepo pidedus , with a small denticle a little behind 
each of the two outermost of the three. Except for the presence 
of the small dorsal denticle the termination of this mandible is 
also very like that of Smodendron cylindricum. The molar teeth 
of both mandibles closely resemble those of this species. The 
maxillae and labium resemble those of Aegus roepstoy-ffi — the 
former at least are very like those of Dorcus and Sinodendron. 
The legs resemble those of Aegus roepstorffi in general structure, 
but are without the ventral projections and spiniferous tubercles 
found on the second, third and fourth joints in that species. The 
stridulatory tubercles on the coxae of the second legs are all 
small and scattered. The corresponding ridges on the second 
joint of the third legs are weak. 

The stigmata and the integuments of the thorax and abdomen 
resemble those of the preceding species. 

The only larva previously described belonging to the subfamily 
Figulinae is that of Figulus striaius. Unfortunately I have not 
been able to refer to this description. Of the larvae described by 
Schi^dte, the nearest to that of Nigidius dawnae appears to be 
Sinodendron cylindricum, but the latter has not got transversely 
striate stigmata like those of Dorcus, etc., in general form it is 
not even faintly clavate, and its stridulating organs appear to be 
slightly different. 

Nigidius impressicollis, Boileau. 

(PI. xxi, figs. 14-17.) 

Locality. — Assam : Maflong. Khasi Hills, 5900 ft. (in damp and 
thoroughly decayed wood)." 

Two larvae, about 27 and 31 mm. long respectively, found in 
association with adults of various sizes. They are scarcely as 
slender as larvae of N. dawnae, but are much slenderer than larvae 
of Aegus roepstorffi. 

The head is very like that of A. roepstorffi but has a some- 
what shorter clypeus and less distinct anterior marginal depres- 
sions. The antennae resemble those of A^. dawnae. The man- 



150 Records of the Indian Museum. [Voiv. XII , 

dibles resemble those of N . dawnae^ except that the right one is 
distinctly tridentate at its apex, the lowest terminal tooth being, 
however, a little weaker than the uppermost; the middle terminal 
tooth is the strongest of the three. 

The maxillae and labium resemble those of N . dawnae. The 
legs resemble those of A^. dawnae, except in the structure of the 
stridulating organ, which is transitional between those found in A. 
roepstorffi and N. dawnae. The ridges on the second joint of the 
third leg are weak as in the latter species ; but there is a row of 
special tubercles, as in the former, on the basal joint of the second 
leg. Similar but stronger tubercles are found in Aegus roepstorffi, 
but they are absent in Nigidius dawnae. Small tubercles are 
present on both sides of them in the present species, however, and 
oi one side of t\iQva. onXy in Aegus roepstorffi , The stigmata and 
integuments of the thorax and abdomen resemble those of N. daw- 
nae and A. roepstorffi. 

This larva is not unlike the last — the only larva of its genus 
known — but the stridulating organ is more highly specialized 
along the same lines as, but to a less extent than, the stridulating 
organs of Dorcus, Aegus^ etc. 

CUCUJIDAE. 

A list of the Cucujid larvae hitherto described will be found 
at the end of the account of the development of Uleiota indica, 
Arrow {Rec.Ind. Mus., XI, pp. 353-358, pi. xxi,figs. 13-19).' None 
of these larvae bear any resemblance to the larva of Hectarthrum 
trigeminum now to be described. The larvae of Hectarthrum were 
found in decaying wood with all stages of a weevil belonging to the 
genus Mecistocerus.^ Often the}' were found in a cavit)'' of the wood 
with a larva or pupa of this insect, and sometimes with the remains 
of such. Other Cucujid larvae, although found under the bark of 
trees, have the appearance of actively predaceous insects. These 
have rather the appearance of lignophagous larvae. But in view of 
the circumstances under which they were found, and of the struc- 
ture of their mandibles, there can, I think, be little doubt that the 
reduction of legs and mouthparts which gives rise to this appear- 
ance is due not to their having adapted themselves to a diet of 
wood, but to their having become parasitic rather than preda- 
ceous.^ They must, however, move about in search of their victims, 
for the weevil larvae and pupae are not much larger than they are 
when full grown, and it cannot be supposed that one weevil larva 
affords all the food needed for complete development. 



1 To this list may now be added Herrick's account of the habits and develop- 
ment of Silvainis sitrinanieytsis in " Insects Injurious to the Household and 
Annoyino^ to Man " (New York, 1914), pp. 236-239, text-figs. 70-71. 

■' Mr. G. A. K. Marshall, to whom I am indebted for this identification, in- 
forms me that this weevil is near and perhaps identical with M. corticeiis, Faust. 

2 Compare M'adsworth's figures of the mouthparts of the endoparasitic 
Staphylinid larva, Aleochara biliueata, jfouru. Ec. Biol. X, pi. ii, figs. 14-18. 



1916.] F. H. Gravely : Lignicolous Beetle-Larvae. 151 

Hcctarthrum trigeminum, Newman.^ 

(PI. xxii, figs. 18-22.) 

Locality. — E. Himalayas: Kalimpong, ca. 2500 ft., Darjiling 
District (in decaying wood with all stages of 
Mecistocerus sp.). 

Several larvae and pupae, the former 4*o-i5"6 mm. long, the 
latter 9-o-i2"0 mm., found together with adults. The pupae and 
adults clearly belong to one and the same species; a cast larval 
skin secured with one of the pupae establishes the identity of the 
latter with the larvae, while in the largest of these larvae the skin 
is wrinkled and the spines of the pupa are clearly visible beneath 
it dorsally and laterally. 

The larva is a white fleshy and almost hairless grub. Its ab- 
domen is somewhat barrel-shaped, being thickest at about the 
fourth segment. The thorax is conical, and slenderer than the ab- 
domen, tapering away to the base of the small semicircular head, 
which bears a few minute hairs on its dorsal surface. 

The form of the head is shown in figs. 18 and 21 (pi. xxii). 
Each antenna arises from a low lateral convexity just behind the 
mandible; it is unjointed but isbiramous, a small pointed branch 
being situated immediately below a stouter and slightly longer 
rounded one (pi. xxii, fig. 20). The mandibles are small and con- 
cave ; they do not appear suitable for grinding fragments of wood. 
Their outer surface is whitish near the base, but they are narrowly 
bordered and extensively tipped with dark brown. They are 
tridentate at the tip (pi. xxii, figs. 19 and 21), the middle one of the 
three teeth being much longer than the other two, of which the 
dorsal is much broader than the ventral ; there are no other teeth 
on the dorsal margin of the mandible, but the ventral terminal 
tooth is followed by another tooth of about the same shape and 
size, and this is followed by a strong convexity of the raised mar- 
gin (pi. xxii, fig. 19). The maxillae and labium (pi. xxi', fig. 22) are 
rudimentary like the antennae. The blade and palp of the maxillae 
are imperfectly^ separated ; the former is broader but no longer 
than the latter, and each is tipped with a cluster of small spines. 
The labium is a bilobed structure, with a papilla mounted on each 
lobe, tipped with small spines and doubtless representing a palp. 

The legs are short, stout and conical ; they have two well- 
marked white fleshy joints and a stout terminal claw ; as seen from 
the outer side there appears to be a third joint at the base, but it 
is not clearly marked off from the body on the inner side. The 
second thoracic segment, and each abdominal segment except the 
ninth (anal), bears a pair of circular stigmata a little behind the 
anterior margin ; but the last pair is much smaller than the others. 
The anal segment bears a pair of black forwardly curved hooks on 
the posterior margin of its dorsal surface. 



i I am indebted to M. A. Grouvelle tor this identification. 



152 Records of the Indian Museum. [Vol. XII, 

BUPRESTIDAE. 

The habits and metamorphoses of Buprestid beetles form the 
subject of a monograph published by Xambeu in 1892-3 (" Moeurs 
et Metamorphoses d'Insectes III — Buprestides." Rev. d'Ent. 
XI, 1892, pp. 202-252; XII, 1893, pp. 54-126). This work con- 
tains an excellent bibliography which may now, however, be 
supplemented. In tlie following list of supplementary references 
the species are arranged in the order adopted by Kerremans in the 
Genera Insectorum. 

Julodis onopordi, Fabricius. 
Julodis albopilosa, Chevrolat. 

1893. Herculais, J. Kiinckel d'. Bull. Soc. eni. France, 1893, pp. 

cxii-cxv, 7 figs. 
1898. Lesne, P. '' Description de la larve adulte du Julodis 

albopilosa, Chevr., et remarques sur divers caracteres 

des larves de Buprestides." Bull. Soc. ent. France, 1898, 

PP- 69-75, 7 text-figs. 

Polycesta californica, Leconte. 

Polycesta elata, Leconte. 

1891. Angell, G. W. J. "Larva of Polycesta elata, Lee." Ent. 
News, i8gi, pp. 106-107, text-figs. 

Acmaeodera adspersula, lUiger. 

1900. Seurat, L. G. " Observations biologiques sur les parasites 

des 'chenes de la Tunisie." Ann. Sci. Nat., Zool. (8) XI, 
1900, pp. 1-34, 10 text-figs. {Acmaeodera, pp. 22-26, 
text-figs. 9-10). 

Chrysochroa (Megaloxantha nee Catoxantha) bicolor, 

Fabricius, var. gigantea, Shallerr. 

1901. Zehntner, L. Bull. Proefstation voor Cacao te Salatiga. No. 

I, 10 pp. 

Chalcophora ? virginiensis, Drury. 

Chalcophora virginiaca, Gmelin. 

1883. Packard, A. S. " Descriptions of the Larvae of Injurious 
Forest Insects." Rep. U. S. Ent. Comm., Ill, pp. 252- 
262, pi. vi-xv {Chalcophora? virginiensis, pp. 252-253, 
pi. vi, fig. I). 



1916,] F. H. Gravely : Lignicolous Beetle-Larvae. 153 

Sphcnoptera lamellata. 

1880. Lamey. Nouv. et Fails, II, p. 113. 

Sphenoptera ? neglecta^ Klug. 

? Sphenoptera gossypii, Cotes. 

1911. King, Harold H. " The Cotton Stem-borer." Rep. Well- 
comeTrop. Res. Lahs., IV, pp. 134-137, pi. vii, figs. 1-6. 

Sphenoptera gossypii, Cotes. 

1906. Lefroy, H. :\I. "Indian Insect Pests" (Calcutta, 1906), 

pp. 100-103, text-figs. 1 14-119. 
1909. Lefroy, H. M. "Indian Insect Life" (Calcutta, 1909), 

pi. XX. (No description). 
1914. Fletcher, T. B. " Some South Indian Insects " (Madras, 

1914), p. 298, pi. viii. 

Sphenoptera arachidis, Fletcher. 

1914. Fletcher, T. B. " Some South Indian Insects " (Madras, 
1914), pp. 298-299, text-figs. 141-142. 

Dicerca divaricata. Say. 

1881. Packard, A. S. "Insects injurious to Forest and Shade 

Trees." Bull. U. S. Ent. Comm., no. 7, 275 pp., 100 text- 
figs. {Dicerca divaricata, p. 108). 
1883. Packard, A. S. '' Descriptions of the Larvae of Injurious 
Forest Insects " Rep. U. S. Ent. Comm., Ill, pp. 251- 
262, pi. vi-xv [Dicerca divaricata, p. 255, pi. vi, fig. 2). 

Lampra solieri, Castelnau and Gory. 

Poecilonota solieri, Castelnau and Gory. 

1908. Escalera, M. de la. " Observaciones sobre la ninfosis de 
Poecilonota solieri. Cast." Boll. Soc. Esp. Hist. Nat., 
1908, pp. 269-271. 

Lampra rutilans, Fabricius. 

1881. Altum, B. " Forstzoologie, III (i) Allgemeines und Kafer " 
(Berlin, 1881), pp. 1-380 (Lampra rutilans, pp. 121-123, 
text-fig. 7.) 

Buprestis douei, Lucas. 

Ancylocheira douei, Lucas. 

1896. Xambeu. " Moeurs et Metamorphoses d'Insectes V." 
Ann. Soc. Linn. Lyon, XLII, pp. 53-100 and 123-188 
{Ancyclocheira douei, p. S^). 



154 Records of the Indian Museum. [Vol. XII, 

Melobasis cupriceps, Kirby. 

Melohasis m'f^gscefjs, Castelnau and Gory. 

1895. Froggatt, W. W. " Life-Histories of Australian Coleoptera 
III." Proc. Linn. Soc. N. W. Wales, (2) X, 1895 (1895-6), 
PP- 325-336 {Melobasis, pp. 332-333)- 

Mclanophila sp. 

1883. Packard, A. S. " Descriptions of the Lar\^ae of Injurious 
Forest Insects." Rep. U. S. Ent. Comm., Ill, pp. 252- 
262, pi. vi-xv {Melanophila sp., pp. 253-354, pi. vi, 
fig. 4, pi. xii, fig. I). 

Anthaxia umbellatarutn, Fabricius. 

Anthaxia incuUa, Germar. 

1895. Xambeu. " Moeurs et Metamorphoses d'Insectes VI." 
Echange, 1895, supplement {Anthaxia inculta, p. 84). 

Chrysobothris dentipes, Oermar. 

1881. Packard, A. S. "Insects Injurious to Forest and Shade 
Trees." Bull. U. S. Ent. Com w., No. 7, 275 pp., 100 text- 
figs. {Chrysobothris dentipes, pp. 12-15, fig. i). 

Chrysobothris femorata, Olivier. 

1881. Packard, A. S. '' Insects Injurious to Forest and Shade 
Trees." Bull. U. S. Ent. Comm., No. 7, 275 pp., 100 
text-figs. {Chrysobothris feynorata, pp. 16-20, figs 2-3). 

1883. Packard, A. S. " Descriptions of the Larvae of Injurious 
Forest Insects." Rep. U. S. Ent. Comm., Ill, pp. 251- 
262 {Chrysobothris femorata, pp. 251-252). 

Chrysobothris affinis, Fabricius. 

i88r. Altum, B. " Forstzoologie, III (i) Allgemeines und Kafer " 
(Berlin, 1881), 380 pp., 55 text-figs. {Chrysobothris affinis, 
pp. 124-128, text-fig. 8). 

Stigmodera rufipennis, Kirby. 

1893. Froggatt, W. W. " On the Life-Histories of Australian 
Coleoptera I." Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. Wales, (2) VIII, 
1893 (1893-4), pp. 27-42 {Stigmodera rufipennis, p. 36). 

Coraebus bifasciatus, Olivier. 

1881. Altum, B. " Forstzoologie, III (i) Allgemeines und Kafer" 
(Berlin, 1881), 380 pp., 55 text-figs. {Coraebus bifasciatus, 
pp. 128-130, text-fig. 9). 



i9i<^.] F. H. Gravei<y : Lignicolous Beetle-Larvae. 155 

Agrilus ruficollis, Fabricius. 

1870. Wielandy. Amer. Ent., II, pp. 128 and 133, figs. 68, 69 
and 90. 

Agrilus granulatus, Say. 

1884. Burrill. Rep. Ins. Illinois, XII, pp. 121-122. 

' Agrilus anxius, Gory. 

1898. Chittenden, F. H. "A destructive Borer Enemy of Birch 
Trees, with Notes on Related Species." Bull. U. S. 
Dept. Agric. Div. Ent., (n. s.) No. 18, pp. 44-51, text- 
figs. 15-17. 

Agrilus auricollis, Kiesenwetter. 

1888. Wachtl, F. A. '' EinUndenverwuster." Wien Ent. Zeii., 

VII, 1888, pp 293-297, pi. iii, 

Paracephala cyaneipennis, Blackburn. 

1894. Froggatt, W. W. " On the Life-Histories of AustraUan 
Coleoptera." Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. Wales, IX, 1894 
(1894-5), pp. 113-125 {Paracephala cyaneipennis, p. 122). 

Aphanisticus krugcri^ Ritsema, 

1889. Ritsema. Tijdschr. Ent., XXXIII, 1889-90, pp. xxii-xxiii, 

I text-fig. 
1897. Zehntner, L. '' De Mineerlarven van het Suikerriet op 
Java II-III." Med. Proef station Ost Java, (n. s.) No. 42, 
1897, I4PP-, I pl- 

Aphanisticus consanguineus, Ritsema. 

1897. Zehntner, L. '' De Mineerlarven van het Suikerriet op 
Java II-III." Med. Proef station Ost Java, (n. s.) No. 
42, 1897, 14 pp., I pl. 

Pachyschelus sp. 

1908. Friebrig, K. ' ' Eine Schaum bildende Kaferlarve.' ' Zeifschr. 
wiss. InsektenUoL, IV, 1908, pp. 333-339 and 353-363. 

Brachys aeruginosa, Gory. 

1881. Packard, A. S. "Insects Injurious to Forest and Shade 
Trees." Bull. U. S. Ent. Conim., No. 7, 275 pp., 100 
text-figs. {Brachys aeruginosa , p. 130, fig. 6o|-). 

The Indian Museum collection contains larvae of Sphenoptera 
gossypii from the material from which this species was originally 



156 Records of the Indian Museum. [Vol. XII, 

described, and larvae found with pupae and adults in a tree prob- 
ably belonging to the genus Swietenia on the Calcutta Maidan. 
There can be little doubt, from the state of the tree when it was 
cut down, that these larvae, together with many others of the same 
, species, were responsible for its death. The adults agree closely 
with Thery's description of Cardiaspis pisciformis from Mysore 
{Bull. Sac. ent. France, 1904, pp. 73-74, text-fig. 2), the only appar- 
ent differences being that the sides of the pronotum are practi- 
cally parallel in their latter half, and that the posterior tibiae are 
straight except in one specimen and are almost imperceptibly 
curved in this. Equally great differences exist, however, between 
Thery's figure of C. mouhoti, Saunders, and our specimens of this 
species, and I have no hesitation in referring the specimens from 
P Swietenia to Thery's species. Their larvae may now be described. 

Cardiaspis pisciformis, Thery. 
(PI. xxii, figs. 23-28.) 
Locality. — Calcutta (? in Swietenia sp.). 

Four specimens varying in length from 23-33 mm. 

The clypeus is about 5 times as wide as long and bears a 
small but deep and clearly defined puncture on either side of the 
middle line, which is more or less faintly keeled between and behind 
them. The anterior margin is lightly concave and the anterior 
border strongly depressed laterally, the depressions being bounded 
behind by keels. 

The labrum is mounted on a membraneous peduncle. The 
labrum and peduncle are each fully as wide as the clypeus is long, 
and are together fully as long as wide, the labrum. being about 
twice as long as the peduncle. The anterior and lateral margins 
of the labrum are lightly convex, the angles are rounded ; the sur- 
face is grooved in the middle line in front, this groove being sur- 
rounded by a semicircular or more or less V-shaped groove which 
crosses the middle line behind it. The peduncle is depressed or 
grooved in the middle line. 

The antennae are three-jointed. The basal joint is large and 
fleshy, almost white in colour. The second joint is smaller and 
harder, much yellower in colour, obliquely truncate and fringed 
with short close hair distaljy, the truncation facing downwards. 
The terminal joint is much smaller still, the distal fringe being in- 
deed its most conspicuous part ; as it is set on the oblique distal 
face of the second joint it is directed downwards. A (? sensory) 
hair arises dorsally at the base of the terminal joint ; whether this 
hair arises from the middle or terminal joint I have been unable 
to determine. The mandibles are small, tridentate distally, and 
very hard. The maxillae are weak ; the blade of each is cylindri- 
cal, and is rounded and unarmed distally ; the palp is two-jointed, 
the basal joint is as large as the blade and not unlike it in shape, the 
terminal joint conical, slightly longer than it is broad at the base and 
scarcely half as long as the basal joint The labium is even less 



1916.] F. H. Gravei,y : Lignicolous Beetle-Larvae, 157 

well developed than are the maxillae. It consists of a pair of whit- 
ish pilose fleshy convex lobes, each about twice as long as broad, 
with a pair of brown rudimentary palps, the former being fused 
with, and the latter closely apposed to, the surface of the highly 
polished, densely fringed but otherwise hairless hypopharynx, 
which fills up the space between the maxillae. The strongly chitin- 
ized ventral plate behind the mouth parts is much shorter than the 
clypeus ; it bears a pair of longitudinal grooves close to the middle- 
line, and its anterior margin is lightly concave as a whole. 

Both the dorsal and ventral plates of the prothorax are dull 
as a whole, owing to an even and almost microscopically fine 
granulation ; but the median ventral groove with a strongly fan- 
shaped area in front of it, and the dorsal V with a less expanded 
area in front of it, are polished. The rest of the body is dull 
except for the posterior end which is polished. 

This larva closely resembles larvae of the allied genus Dicerca, 
as these are defined in Xambeu's key to the genera of Buprestid 
larvae. 

TENEBRIONIDAE. 

A key to the genera of Tenebrionid larvae was published by 
Schi«?)dte (Nat. Tidsskr., XI, 1877-1878, pp. 491-522). This has been 
republished by Kiesenwetter and Seidlitz, who also give a new 
key (Naturg. Ins. Deutschl., Coleoptera V [ij, pp. 210-216). 

The following is a list of the references I have been able to 
find to descriptions of Tenebrionid larvae. Those not available in 
Calcutta are marked with an asterisk. 

TENTYRIINAE. 

Pachychilc scrvillei, Soc. 

1898. *Xambeu. " Moeurs et Metamorphoses des Insectes VII 
(I)." Ann. Soc. Linn. Lyon, XLV, pp. 9-66 (? 197). 

Tentyria interrupta. 

1877. Ferris, E. " Larves de Coleopteres " (Paris, 1877), 590 
pp., 14 pi. {T. interrupta, pp. 253-255), reprinted from 
Ann. Soc. Linn. Lyon, (n. s.) XXIII, pp. 1-430 (T. inter- 
rupta, p. 94). 

Tentyria mucronata, Steven. 
1877. Ferris, E. Loc. cit., p. 255. 

ELENOPHORINAE. 

Elenophorus collaris, L. 

1856. Mulsant, E. and Mulsant, V. " Description de la larve de 
V Elenophorus collaris, coleoptere de la tribe Latigenes." 



158 Records of the Indian Museum. [Vol. XII, 

Opusc. Ent., VII, 1856, pp. 133-134 (? reprinted from 
Ann. Soc. Linn. Lyon, 1856, II, 3, p. 133). 

ASIDINAE. 
Asida Corsica, Cast. 
1877. Ferris, E. Loc. cit., pp. 256-57 and 96 respectively. 

Asida dejeani, Sol. 

1887. *Rey, C. '' Essai d'etudes sur certaines larves de Coleop- 
teres et descriptions de quelques especes inedites ou 
pen connus." Ann. Soc. Linn. Lyow, (n. s.) XXXIII, 
pp. 131-259, pis. i and ii {Asida dejeani, p. 223, pi. ii, 
fig- 23). 

Asida jurinei, Sol. 

Asida bigorrensis , Sol. 

1877. Ferris, E. Loc. c/^., pp. 257 and 97 respectively. 

1893. *Xambeu. " Moeurs et metamorphoses d'insectes." Ann. 

Soc. Linn. Lyon, XL, 1893, pp. r-52, and 101-185 

{Asida jurinei, p. 28). 

Asida sericca, Ol. 

1887. *Rey, C. '' Essai d'etudes sur certaines larves de Coleop- 
teres et descriptions de quelques especes inedites ou peu 
connus." Ann. Soc. Linn. Lyon, (n. s.) XXXIII, pp. 
131-259, pis. i and ii {Asida sericea, p. 224). 

MOLURINAE. 

Psammodes reichei, Sol. 

1909. *Mally, C. W. "The Tok-Tokje {Psammodes) as a grain 
pest." Cape Town Agricult. /., 1909, text-figs, 

AKIDINAE. 

Akis bacarozzo, Schrank. 

Akis reflexa, 01. 

Akis punctata, Thunb. 

1844 *Mulsant, E. Mem. Soc. Linn. Lyon, I, 1844. 

1877-8. Schi'^dte, J. C. ''Le metamorphosi Eleutheratorum obser- 

vationes." Natur. Tidsskr., XI, pp. 479-59^ {Akis 

bacarozzo, pp. 507, 508, 529-531, pi. v, figs. 12-21). 
1898. Kiesen wetter, H. v., and Seidlitz, G. " Tenebrionidae." 

Naturg. Ins. Deutschl. (Berlin. 1898), V, p. 213 (foot 

note). 



19 1 6.] F. H, Gravely : Lignicolous Beetle-Larvae. 159 

SCAURINAE. 
Scaurus atratus, F, 
1877-8. Schi^dte, J. C, Loc. cit., pp. 526-29, pi. vi, figs. 14-20. 

? Scaurus tristis, Ol. 

1854. *Mulsant, E. " Histoire naturelle des Coleop teres de 
France, Latigenes," (Paris & Ivyon, 1854), pp. x, 396 
[Scaurus tristis, p. 51). See also Perris, 1877, loc. cit., 
p. 252. 

PIMELIINAE. 

Pimelia bipunctata, F. 

1877. Perris, E. Loc. cit., p. 259. 

Pimelia boyeri, Sol. 

1898. *Xambeu. ''Moeurs et metamorphoses des Insectes " 
VII (i). Ann. Soc. Linn. Lyon, XLV, pp. 9-66 {Pimelia 
boyeri, p. 59). 

Pimelia grossa, F. 

Pimelia inflata, Herbst. 
1877-8. Schii^dte, J. C. Loc. cit., p. 523, pi. v, figs. i-ii. 

Pimelia pilifera, Sen. 

1898. *Xambeu. " Moeurs et metamorphoses des Insectes" 
VII (i). Ann. Soc. Linn. Lyon, XLV, pp. 9-66 {Pimelia 
pilijera, p. 57). 

Pimelia sardea, Sol. 
1877. Ferris, E. Loc. cit., pp. 258 and 98 respectively. 

BLAPTINAE. 
Blaps gigas, Linn. 

1872. *Mulsant. Mem. Acad. Lyon, XIX, 1872, pp. 340-342. 

1873. Mulsant, E., andMayet, V. " Histoire des metamorphoses 

de diverses especes de Coleopteres." Opusc. Ent., 
XIV, 1873, pp. 65-100 {Blaps gigas, pp. 92-96). 
1898. Kiesenwetter, H. v., and Seidlitz, G. Loc. cit., pp. 245, 
246. 



i6o Records of the Indian Museum. [Vol. XII, 

Blaps lethifcra, Marsh. 

Blaps fatidica, Sturm. 

1843. *Ivetzner. Uebers. Schles., 1843, p. 4. 

1852. Ferris, E. " Histoire des metamorphoses du Blaps pro- 

ducta Be]. '^ et Blaps fatidica, Stu.nn.''' Ann. Sac. Ent. 

France (2) X, 1852, pp. 603-612, pi. xv {Blaps fatidica, 

pp. 609-612, pi. XV, figs. 20-21). 
1877-8. Schi(/)dte, J. C. Loc. cit., p. 532, pi. vi, figs. 1-13. 

Blaps lusitanica, Herbst. 
Blaps producta, Cast. 

1852. Ferris, E. " Histoire des metamorphoses du Blaps 

producta, Dej.? et Blaps fatidica, St." Ann. Soc. Ent. 
France, (2) X, 1852, pp. 603-612, pi. xv {Blaps pro- 
ducta, pp. 606-608, pi. XV, figs. 13-18). 
1898. Kiesenwetter, H. v., and Seidlitz, G. Loc. cit., p. 246. 

Blaps mucronata, Latr. 

Blaps chevrolati, Sol. 

Blaps moriisaga, Ol. 

Blaps obtusa, Sturm 

1838. Fatterson, R. and Haliday, A. H. "Note respecting the 

larva of Blaps mortisaga, OL, with a description of the 
larva by A. H. Haliday." Trans. Ent. Soc. London, 
1838, II, pp. 99-102, pi. xi, figs. i-ig. 

1839. Westwood, J. O. ^'An Introduction to the Modern Classi- 

fication of Insects" I (London 1839), PP- 1-462 {B. 
mortisaga, p. 321, text-fig. 39, 11). 

1853. Chapuis, F. and Candeze, E. A. C. '' Catalogue des larves 

des coleopteres, connues jusqu'a ce jour avec la descrip- 
tion de plusieurs especes nouvelles," pp. 343-653, 9 pis. 
Mem. Soc. Roy. Sci. Liege, VIII, 1853 {Blaps obtusa, 
p. 515, pi. vi, fig. 5). 
1893. Kiesenwetter, H. v., and Seidlitz, G. Loc. cit., p. 246. 

Blaps plana, Sol. 

1893. *Xambeu. " Moeurs et metamorphoses des Insectes." 
E change, 1893 {Blaps plana, p. 49). 

ELEODINAE. 

Eleodes detitipcs, Eschsch. 

1878-9. *Gissler, C. F. Bull. Brooklyn Ent. Soc, I, 1878-79, p. 19, 
figs. 4-5. 



iqi6.J F. H. Gravely : Ltgnicolous Beetle-Larvae. i-6i 

1909. Blaisdell, F. E. " A monographic revision of the Coleop- 
tera belonging to the Tenebrionide tribe Eleodiini, etc." 
Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 1^X111, 1909, pp. r-524, pis. 
i-xiii {Eleodes deniipes, pp. 496, 497-499, pi. xiii, figs. 
4-14). 

Elcodes gigantea, Mannerh. 

1878-9. *Gissler, C. F. Bull. Brooklyn Ent. Soc, I, 1878-79, p. 19, 

figs. 4-5. 
1909. Blaisdell, F. E. "A monographic revision of the Coleop- 

tera belonging to the Tenebrionide tribe Eleodiini, etc." 

Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus.., LXIII, 1909, pp. 1-524, pis. i-xiii 

[Eleodes gigantea, p. 496). 

Elcodes opaca, vSay. 

1909. *Swenk, M. H. '' Eleodes as an enemy of planted grain." 
/. Econ. Ent. Concord N. H., 2, 1909, pp. 332-336, pis. 
ix-x. 

PLATYSCELINAE. 

Platyscelis gages, Fisch. 

1888. *Lindeman; K. " Die schadlichsten Insekten des Tabak 
in Bessarabien," Bull. Mosc., 1888, pp. 10-77 [Platys- 
celis gages, pp. 56-57)- 

1898. Kiesenwetter, H. v., and Seidlitz, G. Loc. cit., p. 340. 

PEDININAE. 
Isocerus purpurascens, Herbst. 

1898. *? Xarabeu. " Moeurs et metamorphoses des Insectes, 
VII (i)." Ann. Soc. Linn. Lyon, XLV, pp. 9-66 
[Isocerus purpura scens , p. 63). 

Heliophilus ibericus, Muls. 

Heliopathes ibencuSy Muls. 
1877. Perris, E. Loc. cit., p. 263 and 103 respectively. 

Phylan abbreviatus, Ol. 

Heliopathes abbreviatus, Ol. 

1887. *Rey, C. " Essai d' etudes sur certaines larves de Coleop- 
teres et descriptions de quelques especes inedites ou 
peu connus." Ann. Soc. Linn. Lyon, (n. s.) 
XXXIII, pp. 131-259, pis. i-ii {Heliopathes abbreviatus, 
p. 224). 

1898. Kiesenwetter, H. v., and Seidlitz, G. Loc. cit., p. 403. 



i62 Records of the Indian Museum. [Vol. XII, 

1901. , Xambeu. " Moeurs et metamorphoses des Insectes, IX 
(3)." Rev. d'Entom., XX, pp. 7-68 [Heliopathes abbre- 
viatus, pp. 21-23). 

Phylan gibbus, F. 

Holocrates gibbus, F. 

1877. Ferris, E. Loc. ciL, pp. 261-63 and loi respectively. 

1877-8. Schi'^xite, J. C. Loc. cit;, pp. 538=540, pi. vii, figs. 7-14. 

1898. Kiesenwetter, H. v., and Seidlitz, G. Loc. cit., p. 403. 

1895. Judeich, J. and Nitsche, H. " Die iibrigen forstschadli- 
chen Familien der Pentameren und Heteromeren." 
Lehrbuch Mitt. Forstins., 11 (Wein, 1895), PP- 1299-1303 
{Heliopathes gibbiis, p. 1301). 

Pedinus femoralis, L,. 

1887. Lindeman, K. " Opatrmn verrucosum und Pedinus 

femoralis als Schadiger des Tabak in Bessarabien. " 
Entom. Nachr., XIII, pp. 241-244 {Pedinus femoralis, 
p. 244). 

1888. *Ivindeman, K. 'Die schadlichsten Insekten des Tabak 

in Bessarabien." Bull. Mosc, 1888, pp. 10-77 {Pedinus 
femoralis, pp. 50-56). 
1898. Kiesenwetter, H. v., and Seidlitz, G. Loc. cit., p. 362. 

OPATRINAE. 
Phylax picipes, Ol. 

Phylax littoralis, Mulsant. 

1873. Mulsant, E. and Mayet, V., '' Histoire des metamorphoses 
de diverses especes de Coleopteres." Opusc. Ent.,XlV, 
1873, pp. 65-100 {Phylax littoralis, p. 90). See also Fer- 
ris, 1877, loc. cit., p. 263. 

Melanimon tibiale, F. 

Microzoum tibiale, F. 
Opatrum tibiale, F. 

1877. Ferris, E. Loc. cit., pp. 264 and 104 respectively. 

1895. Judeich, J. and Nitsche, H. " Die iibrigen forstschadli- 
chen Familien der Fentameren und Heteromeren " 
Lehrbuch Mitt. Forstins. ,11 (Wein, 1895), pp. 1299-1303 
{Opatrum [Microzoum] tibiale, p. 1302). 

Gonocephalum intermedium, Fisch. 

*Lindeman, K. " Die schadlichsten Insekten des Tabak 
Bessarabien." Bull. Mosc, 1888, pp. 10-77 {Opatrum 
intermedium, pp. 19-49). 



1916.] F. H. Gravely : Li^nicolous Beetle- Larvae. 163 

Gonoccphalum pusillum, F. 

1888. *Ivindeman, K. " Die schadlichsten Insekten des Tabak 
in Bessarabien." Bull. Mosc, 1888, pp. 10-77 {Opatrum 
pusillum, p. 58). 

Gonocephalum pygfmacum, Stev. 
1839. Westwood, J. O. Loc. cit., p. 319, text-fig. 39, 6. 

Gonocephalum simplex, F. 

Gonocephalum micans, Germ. 

1902. *Xambeu. '' Moeurs et metamorphoses des Insectes." 
Ann. Soc. Linn. Lyon, 1902, XI^IX, pp. 1-53 and 95-160 
{Gonocephalum micans, p. 122). 

Opatrum sabulosum, ly. 

1870. lyucas, M. H. Bull. Soc. Ent. France, 1870, pp. Ixxxii- 

Ixxxiii. 

1871. Lucas, M. H. ''Note sur la vie evolutive de 1' Opatrum 

sabulosum." Ann. Soc. Ent. France, i8yi, pp. ^^2-460, 
pi. 7, figs. 9-17. 
1877-8. Schi(/)dte, J. C. Loc. cit., pp. 541-543, 585, pi. vii, figs. 

15-19- 
1895. Judeich, J. and Nitsche, H. " Die iibrigen forstschadlichen 

Familien der Pentameren und Heteromeren." Lehrbuch 
Mitt. Forstins., II (Wien, 1895), pp. 1299-1303 {Opa- 
trum sabulosum, pp. 1301-1302). 
1898. Kiesenwetter, H. v., and Seidlitz, G. Loc. cit., p. 422. 

Opatrum yerrucosum, Germ. 

1888. *Iyindeman, K. " Die schadlichsten Insekten des Tabak 
in Bessarabien." Bull. Mosc, 1888, pp. 10-77 {Opa- 
trum verrucosum, p. 43). 

1887. Lindeman, K. ''Opatrum verrucosum nnd Pedinus femora- 
lis als Schadiger des Tabak in Bessarabien." Entom. 
Nachr., XIII, pp. 241-244 {Opatrum verrucosum, pp. 242- 
43). 

Sinorus colliardi, Fairm. 
1877. Perris, E. Loc. cit., pp. 263-264 and 103 respectively. 

Bycrea villosa Pasc. 

1885. Duges, E. "Metamorphoses de la Bycrea villosa, Pasc." 
Ann. Soc. Ent. Belgique, XXIX (2), 1885. pp. 51-55, pl- 
iv, figs. 1-25. 



164 Records of the Indian Museum. [Vol. XII, 

PHALERIINAE. 
Phaleria bimaculata,' L. 

Phaleria cadaverina , Latr. nee cadaverina, F. 

1865. Fairmaire, L. " Note explicative des figures i a 9 de la 
planche 11 au sujet de la larve de la Phaleria cadaver- 
nia." Ann. Soc. Ent. France, (4) V, 1865, p. 657, pi. xi, 
figs. 1-9. 

1877. Ferris, E. Loc. cit., pp. 269-271, fig. 277 and p. 109, fig. 
277 respectively. 

1898. Kiesenwetter, H. v., and .Seidlitz, G. Loc. cit., p. 478. 

Phaleria cadaverina, F. 

1889. Fowler, W. *' Description of the larva of Phaleria cada- 
verina, F." Ent. Mo. Mag., XXV, pp. 304-305. 

Halammobia pellucida, Herbst. 

Phaleria hemisphaerica, Kust. 

1877. Ferris, E. Loc. cit., p. 272, fig. 278 and p. 112, fig. 278 

respectively. 
1898. Kiesenwetter, H. v., and Seidlitz, G. Loc. c^Y., p. 478. 

CRYPTICINAE. 
Crypticus quisquilius, L. 

Crypticus glaber, Dej. 

1834. *Bouche, P. F. " Naturgeschichte der Insekten, beson- 
ders in Hinsicht ihrer ersten Zustande als Larven und 
Puppen " (Berlin, 1834), PP- v, 216, 10 pis. [Crypticus 
glaber, p. 191). 

1839. Westwood, J. O. Loc. cit., p. 319. 

1877. Ferris, E. Loc. cit., pp. 259-261 and 99 respectively. 

1877-8. SchiMte, J. C. Loc. cit , pp. 535-538, pi vii, figs. 1-4. 

BOLITOPHAGINAE. 

Bolitotherus cornutus, Panz. 

1861. Candeze, E. C. A. " Histoire des metamorphoses de quel- 
ques Coleopteres exotiques." Mem. Soc. R. Sci. Liege, 
XVI, pp. 325-408 {Bolitotherus cornutus, p. 365, pi. iii, 
fig. 9). 

^ Gebien (Junk's Coleoptevoritm Catalogns, Tenebrionidae, p. 346) refers 
this description to Phaleria cadaverina, Latr., which is synonymous with P. bima- 
ciilata, \^., Sind rxoi to P. cadaverina, ¥ab., under which name Perris described 
the larva. 



1916.] F, H. Gravely : Lignicolous Beetle- Larvae. 165 

Bolitophagus armatus, Panz. 

1877. Perris, E. Loc. cit., pp. 276-278, figs, 288-89 and p. 116, 

figs. 288-89 respectively, 
1877-8, Schl^dte, J. C. Loc. cit., p 546, pi. ix, figs. 1-4. 
1898. Kiesenwetter, H. v., and Seidlitz, G. Loc. cit., pp. 493, 494. 

Bolitophagus reticulatus, Linn. 

1854. Curtis, J. " Descriptions of some Coleopterous Larvae, 
etc." Trans. Ent Soc. London, (n. s.) Ill, 1854, PP- 33" 
40 {Bolitophagus reticulatus, p. 36, pi. v, figs. 13-22). 

1859. Kraatz, G. " Ueber die ersten Stande einiger Coleopteren." 
Berlin Ent. Zeils., Ill, 1S59, pp. 304-312 {Bolitophagus 
reticulatus , pp. 309-310, pi. iv, fig. 5). 

1877. Perris, E. Loc. cit., pp. 273-275, figs. 279-287 and p. 113, 
figs. 279-287 respectively. 

i8yy-8. Schi(|>dte, J. C. Loc. cit., pp. 544-546, pi. viii, figs. 1-7. 

Bolitonaeus quadridentatus, Cand. 

1861. Candeze, E. C. A. " Histoire des metamorphoses de quel" 
ques Coleopteres exotiques." Mem. Soc. R. Sci. Liege, 
XVI, pp. 325-408 {Bolitotherus quadridentatus , p. 368). 

Megeleatcs scquoiarum, Cas. 

1896. *Wickham, H. F. '' Descriptions of the larvae of some 
Heteromerous and Rhynchophorous beetles." /. ISIeiv 
York Ent. Soc, IV, pp. 118-124, pi. iv {Megeleatcs 
sequoiarum, p. 118). 

RHIPIDANDRINAE. 

Eledona agaricola, Hbst. 

Bolitophagus agaricola, F. 

Boletophagus agricola. 
Eledona agaricicola , Latr. 

1834. *Bouche, P. F. " Naturgeschichte der Insekten beson- 
ders in Hinsicht ihrer ersten Zustande als Larven und 
Pappen " (Berlin, 1834), PP- v, 216, . 10 pis. {Bolito- 
phagus agaricola, p. 191, pi. ix, fig. 7), 

1839. Westwood, J. O. Loc. cit., p. 315, text-fig. 38, 4. 

1842. Erichson. W. F. " Zur systematischen Kenntniss der 

Insectenlarven." Arch. fUr Naturg., VIII (i), pp. 363- 
379 {Boletophagus agricola, p. 366). 

1843. Dufour, M. L. " Histoire des metamorphoses de 1' £/e^OMa 

agaricicola, Latr." Ann. Sci. Na/!., (2) XX, 1843, pp. 
284-289, pi. xii B, figs. 1-7. 



i66 Records of the Indian Museum. [Vol. XII, 

1867. Frauenfeld, G. von. " Zoologische Miscellen. XII." Verh. 

zool.-hot. Ges.inWien, XVII, pp. 775-804 {Bolitophagus 

agaricola, p. 780). 
1877-8. Schi(^dte, J. C. Loc. cit., p. 547. 
1898. Kiesenwetter, H. v., and Seidlitz, G. Loc. cit., p. 502. 

DIAPERINAE. 

Diaperis boleti, L. 

1795- Olivier, M. Entomologie, III, 1795, No. 55. 

1832. *Hammerschmidt, C. E. " De ins. agric. damn." 1832, 

pi. i. 
1843. Dufour, M. Iv. " Histoire des metamorphoses du Diaperis 

boleti."' Ami. Sci. Nat., (2) XX, 1843, pp. 290-291, pi. 

xii B, figs. 10-14. 
1867. Frauenfeld, G. von. " Zoologische Miscellen . XII. ' ' Verh. 

zool.-bot. Ges. in Wien, XVII, pp. 775-804 (Diaperis boleti, 

p. 780). 
1877-8. Schic^dte, J. C. Loc. cit., pp. 547-49, pi. viii, figs. 14-22. 

1898. Kiesenwetter, H. v., and Seidlitz, G. Loc. cit., p. 513. 

Hoplocephala haemorrhoidaliSt F. 

1869. Gernet, C. v. " Beitrage zur Kaferlarvenkunde." Horae 
Soc. Entom. Ross., VI, 1869, pp. 3-16 [Hoplocephala 
haemorrhoidalis, p. 8, pi. ii, fig. 9). 

1877. Perris, E. Loc. cit., pp. 280-81, figs. 297-299 and p .120, 
figs. 297-299 respectively. 

Scaphidcma mctallicum, F. 

Diaperis aenea, Panz. 

Scaphidema aeneum, Panz. 

1839. Westwood, J. O. Loc. cit., p. 314, text-fig. 37, 11-19. 
I'&j-j-B). Schi(^dte, J. C. Loc. cit., pp. 552-54, pi. ix, figs. 10-16. 

Platydema ellipticum, F. 

186 1. *Candeze, E. C. A. " Histoire des metamorphoses de 
quelques Coleopteres exotiques." Mem. Soc. R. Sci. 
Liege, XVI, pp. 325-408 {Platydema ellipticum, p. 370). 

Platydema europaeum, Cast, et Brll. 

1857. Perris, E. "Histoire des Insectes du Pin Maritime." 
Ann. Soc. Ent. France, (3) V, pp. 341-395, pis. viii-ix 
{Platydema europaea, pp. 343-45, pi. viii, figs. 401-412). 



1916.J F. H. GkavkIvY : Lipiicolous Beetle- Larvae. idy 

Platydema palliditarse, Cast, et Brll. 

1904. *Xambeu. " Moeurs et metamorphoses des insectes XIV\" 
Ann. Soc. Linn. Lyon, hi, 1904, pp. 67-154 {Platydema 
palliditarae , p. 123). 

Platydema violaccum, F. 

1857. Ferris, E. " Histoire des Insectes du Pin Maritime." 
Ann. Soc. Ent. France, (3) V, pp. 341-395 [Platydema 
violacea, p. 346). 

1877. Ferris, E. Loc. cit., pp. 278-80, figs. 290-296 and p. 118, 
figs. 290-296 respectively. 

1877-8. Schit)dte, J. C. Loc. cit., pp. 550-52, pl. viii, figs. 25-29. 

Alphitophagus bifasciatus, Say. 
Phylethus quadripustulatus , Step. 
1877-8. Schi^dte, J. C. Loc. cit., p. 555, pl. vi, figs. 17-27. 

Ceropria subocellata, Cast, et Brll. 

186 1. *Candeze, E. C. A. " Histoire des metamorphoses de 
quelques Coleopteres exotiques." Mem. Soc. R. Sci. 
Liege, XVI, pp. 325-408 {Ceropria subocellata, p. 369). 

Pentaphyllus testaceus, Hellw. 

1842. Erichson, W. F. " Zur systematischen Kenntniss der 
Insectenlarven." Arch. fiivNaturg., VIII (i), pp. 363-379 
{Pentaphyllus testaceus, p. 366). 

1877. Ferris, E. Loc. cit., pp. 281-283, figs. 300-303 and p. 121, 
figs. 300-303 respectively. 

1877-8. Schi(^dte, J. C. Loc. cit., pp. 557-559, pl- x, figs. r-5. 

ULOMINAE. 
Gnathocerus cornutus, F. 

Cerandria cornuta, F. 
Echocerus cornutus, F. 

1854. Motschulsky, V. de. '*Sur la larve et chrysalide de la 
Cerandria cornuta." Etud. Entom., Ill (Helsingfors, 1854), 
pp. 67-68. 

1869. Gernet, C v. " Beitrage zur Kaferlarvenkunde." 
Horae Soc. Ent. Ross., VI, 1869, pp. 3-1^ {Gnathocera 
[^Cerandria] cornuta, pp. 11-15, pl- ii, fig- 10). 

1907. *Reineck, G. '' Neue Beobachtungen iiber Echocerus cor- 
nutus, F." Zeitschr. wiss. Insektenbiol. ,111 , pp. 128-129. 



i68 Records oj Ike Indian Museum. [Vol. XII, 

Lyphia tctraphylla, Fairm. 

Lyphia ficicola, INIuls. et Rey. 

1877. Perris, E. Loc. a7., pp. 283-285, figs. 304-309 and p. 123, 
figs. 304-309 respectively. 

Tribolium confusum, Jacq du Val. 

1901. Xambeu. " Moeurs et metamorphoses des Insects, 
IX (3)" Rev. d'Entom., XX, pp. 7-68 {Tribolium confu- 
sum, p. 63), 

Tribolium fcrrugineum, F. 

Tribolium castaneum, Herbst. 

1839. Westwood, J. O. Loc. cit. , p. 319, text-fig. 39, 2-3. 

1855. Lucas, M. H. "Observations sur les metamorphoses du 
Tribolium castaneum, Herbst., coleoptere heteromere de 
la tribu des Diaperiens." A nn. Soc. Ent. France, (3) III, 
pp. 249-259, pi. xiii, no. iii. 

1877-8. Schi(|)dte, J. C. Loc. cit., pp. 563-565, pi. x, figs. 18-20. 

1898. Kiesenwetter, H. v., and Seidlitz, G. Loc. cit., p. 579. 

Phthora crenata, Muls. 

1857. Perris, E. " Histoire des insectes du Pin Maritime." 
Ann. Soc. Ent. France, (3) V, pp. 341-359 {Phthora 
crenata, pp. 351-52, pi viii, figs, 421-429). 

Palorus depressus, F. 

1877-8. vSchi(^dte, J. C. Loc. cit., pp. 561-63, pi. x, figs. 12-15. 

Uloma culinaris, L, 
1877. Perris, E. Loc. cit., pp. 265-267 and 105 respectively. 

Uloma perroudi, Muls. et Guilleb. 

1857. Perris, E. " Histoire des insectes du Pin Maritime." 
Ann. Soc. Ent. France, (3) V, pp. 341-395 {Uloma per- 
roudi, pp. 347-49, pi. viii, figs. 413-420). 

Alphitobius diaperinus, Panz. 

Heterophaga opatroides, Brll. 

1848. Ivucas, M. H. Bull Soc. En'.om. France, 1848, (2) VI 

{Heterophaga opatroides, p. xiii). 
1877-8. Schi</)dte, J. C. Loc. cit., pp. 56.5-68, pi. xi, figs. 1-3. 
1898. Kiesenwetter, H. v., and Seidlitz, G. Loc. cit., p. 601. 



191D.J F. H. Gravely . Lignicolous Beetle- Larvae. 169 

Alphitobius piceus, Ol. 

Alphitohiiis fagi, Curt. 

Alphitobius mauritanicus , L. 

1839. Westwood, J. O. Loc. cit., p. 319, fig. 38, 20. 

1857. Lucas, M. H. "Note sur les matamorphoses de 1'. -!//)/« - 

tobiits mauritanicus , Linne." Ann. Soc. Ent. France, 

(3) V, pp. 71-84, pi. iv, no. iii. 
1^77-%. Schi^dte, J. C. Loc. cit., p. 568, pi. xi, figs. 4, 5. 
1898. Kiesen wetter, H. v., and Seidlitz, G. Loc. cit., p. 602. 

Hypophloeus bicolor, Ol. 

1839. Westwood, J. O. Loc. cit., p. 315, fig. 38, 5. 

1877-8. Schi^dte, J. C. Loc. cit., pp. 559-5^^, pl- ^, figs- 8-1 1. 

1898. Kiesenwetter, H. v., and Seidlitz, G. Loc. cit., p. 551. 

Hypophloeus fasciatus, F. 

1877. Ferris, E. Loc. cit., pp. 2%y-^^ and 127 respectively. 
1898. Kiesenwetter, H. v., and Seidlitz, G. Loc. cit., p. 551. 

Hypophloeus linearis, F. 

1857. Penis, E. " Histoire des insectes du Pin Maritime." 
Ann. Soc. Ent. France, (3) V, pp. 341-395 {Hypophloeus 
linearis, pp. 358-360, pi. viii, figs. 439-443). 

1898. Kiesenwetter, H. v., and Seidlitz, G. Loc. cit., p. 551. 

'? Hypophloeus pini, Panz. 

Hypophloeus (errugineus, Crtz. 

1857. Perils, B. '* Histoire des insectes du Pin Maritime." 
Ann. Soc. Ent. France, (3) V, pp. 341-395 {Hypophloeus 
ferrugineus, Creutz., pp. 354-356, pi. viii, figs. 430-438). 

Hypophloeus unicolor, Pill, et Mitterp. 

1877. Perris, E. Loc. cit., pp. 285-287 and 125 respectively. 
1898. Kiesenwetter, H. v., and Seidlitz, G. Loc. cit., p. 551. 

TENEBRIONINAE. 

Iphthimus italicus, Truqui. 

1859. Mulsant, E., and Reveliere, E. " Notes pour servir a 1' 
histoire de quelques Coleopteres." Opusc. Ent., XI, 
pp. 63-68 {Iphthimus italicus, p. 63-65). 

Upis ceramboides, L. 

1912-3. *vSaalas, U. "' Die Larven der Stenotrachelus aeneus, 
Payk. und Upis ceramboides, h., sowie die Puppe der 



170 Records of the Indian Museum. [Voi,. XII, 

letzteren." Helsingfors Acta Soc. Fauna et Fl. Fenn, 
XXXVII, No. 8, 1912-13, 12 pp., 2 pis. 

Menephilus cylindricus, Herbst. 

Men£.philus [Tenebrio) curvipes. Fab. 

1857. Ferris, E. " Histoire des insectes du Pin Maritime." 
Ann. Soc. Ent. France, (3) V, pp. 341-395 {Menephilus 
[Tenebrio] curvipes, Fab., pp. 361-364, pi. viii, figs. 444- 

457)- 

Tenebrio molitor, Iv. 

1 72 1. Frisch, J. Iv. (" Von dem gelben meel-wurm und dem 
Schwarzen kefer, so daraus wird," pp. 1-3, pi. i, figs. 
1-6). Beschreibung von allerley Insecten in Teutschland^ 
nebst nUtzlichen Anmerckungen, III." (Berlin, 1721). 

1775. De Geer, C. Mem. Hist. Ins , V (Stockholm, 1775) {Tene- 
brio molitor, pp. 35-3 7 » pi- ii, figs. 6-1 1). 

1788-93. Gmelin, J. F. In C. a Linne " Systema Naturae ", Ed. 
13, 1 {Tenebrio molitor , p. 1995). 

1795. Olivier, M. Entomologie, 1795, IV, No. 57. 

1802-5. Latreille, P. A. Hist. nat. des. Crust, et Insectes, X, pp. 
289-292. 

1804. *Posselt, C. F. Beytrdge zur Anat. der Tnsekt. (Tubingen, 
1804), 36 pp., 3 pis. {Tenebrio molitor, p. 25, pi. iii, 
figs. 1-14). 

1807. *Sturm. Deutsch. Insekt., 1807, II, p. 214, pi. xlvi. 

1817. Cuvier, G. Regne Animal, Les Insectes, pt. I {Tenebrio 
molitor, p. 371). 

1839. Westwood, J. O. Loc. cit., p. 317, text- fig. 38, 14-16. 

1853. Chapuis, F. and Candeze, E. A. C. " Catalogue deslarves 
Coleopteres connues jusqu'a ce jour avec la description 
deplusieursespecesnouvelles," pp. 343-653, 9 pis. Mem. 
Soc. R. Sci. Liege, VIII, 1853 {Tenebrio molitor, p. 176). 

i%yj-^. Schif^dte, J. C. Loc. cit., pp. 568-571, pi. xi, figs. 6-11. 

1893. Ivintner, J. A. " Eighth report on the injurious and other 
Insects of the state of New York for the year 1891." 
(Albany, 1893). {Tenebrio molitor, p. 177, text-fig. 29a.) 

1896. Chittenden, F. H. " The principal Household Insects of 
the United States. Insects affecting cereals and other 
dry vegetable foods." Bull. U. S. Dept. Agri. Ent., 
IV (Washington, 1896), 130 pp., 64 text-figs. {Tenebrio 
molitor, p. 116, text-fig. 54a). 

1898. Kiesenwetter, H. v., and Seidlitz, G. Loc. cit., p. 630. 
? 1901. *Manger, K. " Einiges iiberdie Entwicklung von Tenebrio 
molitor." Soc. Ent. (Zurich), XVI, pp. 73, 74- 

1908. *Lindner, A. " Schwarze Mehlwiirmer." Gefied. Welt. 
(Magdeburg, 1908), XXXVII, pp. 92-93. 



1916.] F. H. Gravely : Lignicolous Beetle-Larvae. 171 

19 14. Herrick, G. W. Insects injurious to the Household. (New 
York, 1914), 470 pp., 152 text-figs., 8 pis. [Tenehrio 
niolitor , p. 229). 

Tcnebrio obscurus, F. 

1839. Westwood, J. O. Lac. cit., p. 318, text-fig. 38, 17. 

1893. Lintner, J. A. " Ninth report on the injurious and other 
Insects of the state of New York for the year 1892". 
(Alban}^, 1893). (Tenebrio obsmrus, p. 307 j text-fig. 5«.) 

1896. Chittenden, F. H. •' The principal Household Insects of 
the United States. Insects affecting cereals and other 
dry vegetable foods." BiilL U. S. Dept. Agri. Ent., IV 
(Washington, 1896), 130 pp., 64 text- figs. {Tenebrw 
obsciirus, pp. 1 1 7- 1 18). 

1898. Kiesenwetter, H. v., and Seidlitz, G. Loc. cit., p. 630. 

1914. Herrick, G. W. Insects injurious to the Household. (New 

York, 1914), 470 pp., 152 text-figs., 8 pis. {Tenebrio 
obscurus, p. 227-229, pi. iii). 

Tenebrio opacus, Duft. 
1855. Mulsant, E. and Guillebeau. " Notes pour servir a I'his- 

toire des Tenebrions." Opusc. Ent., VI, 1855, pp. 9-13 

[Tenebrio opacus, pp. 9-1 1) ? reprinted from Ann. Sac. 

Linn. Lyon, I, 1855. See also Ferris, 1877, ^^^- ^^^-y P- 

290. 
1877-8. Schi^dte, J. C. Loc. cit., p. 571. 
1898. Kiesenwetter, H. v., and Seidlitz, G. Loc. cit., p. 630. 

Tenebrio picipes, Herbst. 
Tenebrio transversalis , Duft. 

1839. Westwood, J. O. Loc. cit., p. 317, text-fig. 38, 14-16. 

1855. Mulsant, E. and Guillebeau. " Notes pour servir a I'his- 
toire des Tenebrions." Opus Ent., VI, 1855, pp. 9-13 
{Tenebrio transversalis, pp. 11-13) '^ reprinted from 
Ann. Soc. Linn. Lyon, I, 1855, p. 11. 

1898. Kiesenwetter, H. v., and Seidlitz, G. Loc. cit., p. 630. 

Catapiestus indicus, Fairm. 

1915. Gravely, F. H. "The larvae and pupae of some beetles 

fromCochin." Z^ec./w^. Mws., XI, pp. 353-366, pis. xx-xxi 
{Catapiestus indicus, pp. 363-365, pi. xxi, figs. 20-21). 

PYCNOCERINAE. 

Prioscclis serrata, F. 

1897. *Kolbe, H. J. " Coleopteren (Kafer und Netzflugler).'" 
Deutsch. Ostajr., IV (Uef vi, vii, viii), 364 pp., 3 pis. 
[Prioscelis serrata, p. 244, pi. iii, fig. 25). 



172 Records of the Indian Museum. [Voi,. XII, 

HELOPINAE. 

Helops angustatus, lyuc. 

Helops agomis, Muls. 

1887. *Rey, C. " Essai d'etudes sur certaines larves de coleop- 
teres et descriptions de quelques especes inedites ou 
peu connus." Ann. Soc. Linn. Lyon, (n. s.) XXXIII, 
pp. 131-259, pis. i-ii {Helops agonus, p. 225), 

Helops assimilis, Kust. 
1877. Ferris, E. Loc. cit., pp. 292-293 and 132 respectively. 

Helops coeruleus, L. 

1836. Waterhouse, G. R. " Descriptions of the I^arvae and 
Pupae of various species of Coleopterous Insects." 
Trans. Ent. Soc. London, I, 1836, pp. 27-33, P^s. iv-v 
{Helops coeruleus, p. 29^ pi. iv, fig. 3). 

1839. Westwood, J. O. Loc. cit., p. 312, text-fig. 36, 20-25. 

1840. Perris, M. E. " Observations sur quelques Larves Xylo- 

phages." Ann. Sci. Nat., {2) XIV, pp. 81-96, pi. iiiA 
{Helops coeruleus, pp. 81-83, pi. iiiA, figs. j-5). 

1877. Perris, E. Loc. cit,, pp. 290-291, fig. 310 and p. 131, fig. 
310 respectively. 

1877-8, Schi<^dte, J. C. Loc. cit., pp. 571-574, pi. xi, figs. 15-22. 

1898. Kiesen wetter, H. v., and vSeidlitz, G Loc. cit., p. 687. 

Helops ecoffeti, Kust. 

1887. *Rey, C. " Essai d'etudes sur certaines larves de coleop- 
teres et descriptions de quelques especes inedites ou peu 
connus." Ann. Soc. Linn. Lyon, (n. s.) XXXIII, pp. 
131-259, pis. i. and ii {Helops ecoffeti, p. 224). 

? 1896. *Xambeu. " Moeurs et metamorphoses d'insectes, V." 
Ann. Soc. Linn. Lyon, XLIH, pp. 53-100 and 123-188 
{Helops ecoffeti, p. 128). 

Helops laevioctostriatus, Goeze. 
Helops striatus, Geoffr. 

1857, Perris, E. " Histoire des Insectes du Pin Maritime." 
Ann. Soc. Ent. France, (3) V, pp. 341-395 {Helops striatus, 
p. 367, figs 458-465). 

?i890. *Planet, L. Le Naturaliste (Paris, 1890), XII {Helops 
striatus, p. 17). 

1898. Kiesenwetter, H. v., and Seidlitz, G. Loc. cit., p. 688. 



1916.J F. H. Gravely : Lignicolous Beetle-Layvae. 173 

Helops lanipes, h. 

1837. Blanchard, E. " Helops lanipes, 'Pah:' Ma^. Zool., iS^j , 
class IX, pi. 175, figs. 1-2. 

Helops laticollis, Kust. 
Helops cerberus, Mills. 

1892. Xambeu. " Moeurs et metamorphoses d'insectes (II)." 

Echange, suppl. (Lyon, 1892), pp. 1-46 {Helops cerberus, 
p. II)- 

Helops pellucidus, Muls. et Rey. 

1877. Ferris, E- Loc. cit., pp. 293-294 and 133 respectively. 
1898. Kiesen wetter, H. v., and Seidlitz, G. Loc. cit., p. 687. 

Helops pyrenaeus, Muls. 

?i890. *Xambeu. Le Naturaliste (Paris, 1890), XII [Helops 
pyrenaeiis, p. 279). 

1893. *Xambeu. " Moeurs et metamorphoses d'insectes." Ann. 

Soa. Linn. Lyon, XL, pp. 1-52 {Helops pyrenaeus, p. 30). 

Hydromedion nitidum^ Mjoberg. 

1906. Mjoberg, E. " Zur Kenntnis der Insektenfauna von Siid- 
Georgien." Ark. f. ZooL,Ill (13), pp. 1-14 {Hydromedion 
nitiduni, p. 10, pi. i, fig. 4). 

Hydromedion sparsutum, Miill. 

1906. Mjoberg, E. '' Zur Kenntnis der Insektenfauna von Siid- 
Georgien." /I yyfe. /. Zoo/., Ill (13), pp. \-i^ {Hydromedion 
sparsutum, pp. 6-7, text-fig. -\a-e, pi. i, fig. 2). 

Perimylops antarcticus, Miill. 

1906. Mjoberg, E. " Zur Kenntnis der Insektenfauna von Siid- 
Georgien." Ark. f. Zool., Ill (13), pp. 1-14 {Perimylops 
antarcticus, pp. 11- 14, text-figs. S(^-d, pi. i, fig. 5). 

MERACANTHINAE. 
Meracantha contracta, Beauv. 

1896. *Wickham, H. F. " Descriptions of the larvae of some 
Heteromerous and Rhynchophorous beetles." Journ. 
New- York Ent. Soc, IV, pp. 118-124 {Meracantha con- 
tracta, p. 119, pi. V, fig. 2). 

1915. *Hyslop. " Observations on the life-history of Meracantha 
contracta, Beau." Psyche, XXII, pp. 44-48, pi. xxii. 



174 Records of the Indian Museum. [Voi,. XII, 

STRONGYLIINAE. 

? Strongylium tenuicolle, Say. 

1874. Riley, C. A, " Sixth annual report on the noxious, bene- 
ficial and other Insects of the State of Missouri." 1874, 
pp. 1 17-1 18, text-fig. 32. 

The Indian Museum collection of Tenebrionidae includes larvae 
of Catapiestus indicus and a cast larval skin of Strongylium sohri- 
num. The larvae of Catapiestus indicus have already been des- 
cribed {loc. cit.) ; but as the characteristic structures of the 
posterior end of the abdomen do not show well in the plate I take 
this opportunity of figuring them on a larger scale (pi. xx, fig. 5). 

The cast larval skin of Strongylium sobrinum was found with 
a newly emerged adult in rotten wood. The adult was soft and 
quite white, but quickly hardened and assumed the characteristic 
dark olive colour when put alive into a tube with some of the 
wood from which it was taken. The larva of this species is as yet 
unknown. Many of its characters can, however, be determined 
from the skin, and these may now be described. It is unfortunate 
ihat the general form of the body cannot be determined. It seems 
unlikely, however, that the anus protruded in the living larva to 
anything like the extent that it does in the larva believed bv 
Packard to be that of Strongylium tenuicolle, Say. 

Strongylium sobrinum, Dohrn. 

(PI. XX, figs. 6-7.) 

Locality. — Darjeeling District : Kalimpong, ca. 2000 ft. (in 
rotten wood). 

The head bears a number of very large spines which appear 
to have had a definite arrangement. What this arrangement was, 
however, is not clear in the somewhat contorted state of the 
exuvium. 

The labrum is more or less oval, and quite twice as broad as 
long. The antennae appear to be two-jointed, the basal joint 
being both shorter and broader than the other, which is about twice 
as long as broad and bears a few spines distally ; but it is possible 
that they are incomplete. The mandibles are massive; they are 
much worn, but each appears to have had three terminal teeth 
and one large molar tooth. The blades of the maxillae are fringed 
with very strong spines ; there are a number of finer spines behind 
the margin at the tip, and a few very long slender ones behind 
these. The maxillary palps are three-jointed, and are a little shorter 
than the blades ; the first joint is about twice as broad as long; 
the second is scarcely as long as the first is broad, and scarcely 
as broad as long ; the third is about as long as the second is 
broad and nearly twice as long as broad. The labrum is squarish 



1916.] F. H. Gravely : Lignicolous Beetle-Larvae. 175 

with almost straight sides. Its palps are two-jointed ; the basal 
joint is stout, but scarcely as broad as long; the distal joint is 
only about half as broad as the basal, and is distinctly longer than 
broad. 

The legs appear to have been soft and fleshy, but are each 
tipped with a strong claw. 

All segments of the body except the anal are much shrivelled. 
There is a row of about eight ^ strong hairs in front of the anus, 
and a pair of smaller hairs a little in front of these on the same 
segment. On the ventral margin of the flattened posterior surface 
of the anal segment is a pair of large upwardly curved horns near 
the middle line, with a pair of strong hairs between them. Ten 
similar hairs are arranged on each side of the segment (pi. xx, 
fig. 7). The dorsal margin is thickly dentate, and there is a pair 
of transverse fossae situated laterally on the posterior surface 
immediately above a small tooth (see pi. xx, fig. 6). 

^ Four on one side, three and a small one a little out of the row on the other. 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE XX. 

Fig. 1. Larva of Pleurarius byachyphyllus, towards the end of the 

stage with spiniform bristles. X 5. 
,, 2. Fourth segment of fully developed larva of Pleurarius 

brachyphyllus. X 5. 
,, 3. Claviform bristle of same larva more highly magnified. 
,, 4. Fourth segment of larva of Aceraius kuwerti. X 5. 
,, 5. Anal segment of larva of Catapiestus indicus from below. 

X 12. 
,, 6. Anal segment of last larval exuvium of Strongylium 

sobrinum, cleared and viewed as a transparency, from 

behind. 
, , 7. The same from the side. 



P^ec. Ind. Mus..Vol.XlI. 1916. 



Plate XX. 




/j^A^^'^Hv.y 




Bemrose. Co'-lo^ Derby 



PASSALIDAE and TEN EBRIONI DAE. 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE XXI. 

Fig. 8. Third right leg of larva of Aegus roepstorffi, showing 
stridulating surface. 

,, 9. Second right leg of larva of Aegus roepstorffi, showing 
stridulating surface. 

,, 10. Right mandible of larva of Aegus roepstorffi. 

,, II. Left mandible of larva of Aegus roepstorffi. 

,, 12. Third right leg of larva of Nigidius dawnae, showing 
stridulating surface. 

,, 13. vSecond right leg of X^x-vSi oi Nigidius dawnae, showing 
stridulating surface. 

,, 14. Third right leg of larva of Nigidius impressicollis. show- 
ing stridulating surface. 

,, 15. Second right leg of larva of Nigidius impressicollis, 
showing stridulating surface 

,, 16. Right mandible of larva of Nigidius impressicollis. 

,, 17. Left mandible of larva of Nigidius impressicollis. 



P.ec. Ind, MUS..V0I.XII, 1916. 



Plate XXI. 




Hsmrose. Col'o .Derby 



LUCANIDAE. 



Fig. 


i8 




IQ. 




20. 




21. 




22. 




23- 




24 




25. 




26. 




27, 




28, 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE XXIL 

Larva of Hectarthrum trigeminum. 

Mandible of same larva. 

Antenna of same larva. 

Head of same larva from front. 

Maxillae and labium of same larva. 

Larva of Cardiaspis pisciformis from below. 

Anterior part of head of same larva from below. 

Anterior part of head of same larva from above. 

Pupa of same species from below. 

Adult of same species from below. 

Adult of same species from above. 



P^ec, IiLcl. Mus.,Vo].XlI, 19]6. 



Plate XXII. 





> >f 



r 



b. 






18. 





21. 




22. 





24. 




25. 



26. 




27. 





CUCUvJIDAE AND BUPRESTIDAE. 



Bemros*?. Co-lo^Derby 



XV. NOTES ON THE CILIATE PROTOZOA 
OF LAHORE. 

By B. ly. Bhatia, M.Sc, Assistant Professor of Zoology , 
Government College^ Lahore. 

I. On the Occurrence of three Contractile Vacuoi^es in 
Specimens of Paramaecium caudatum. 

Paramaecium caudatum, Ehrbg., is found in large numbers 
both in infusions and in stagnant water in Lahore and is studied 
as a type by the students. Recently (June, 1916) when my B.Sc. 
class were examining this animal, my attention was drawn by two 
students, Mr. Sham Nath and Mr. Prashar, to the existence of a 
third contractile vacuole in the specimen which was being studied 
by each. None of the other specimens from the same tube showed 
this peculiarity. The water had been collected from a ditch outside 
the laboratory compound. 

In both these specimens the two normal vacuoles, each with 
its own system of radiating canals, were situated at about one- 
fourth of the length of the animal from either end, as is usually 
the case. The third contractile vacuole was situated nearer to the 
posterior vacuole at one- fourth of the distance between the two 
vacuoles in one specimen, and midway between the two vacuoles 
in the other. In both specimens the third vacuole had its own 
system of radiating canals and showed its systole and diastole 
independently of the other two, the three contracting regularly 
one after the other. 

So far as I am aware, this occurrence of a third contractile 
vacuole has not been observed in this species before though it was 
observed b3' Butschli in P. putrinum, as recorded in the following 
extract from Bronn's Thier-Reichs (i, p. 1417):^- 

" Erhohung der vacuolenzahl ist nur von Paramaecium und 
Ophryoglena bekannt. Bei ersterer Gattung scheint die Zweizahl 
Regel zu sein (3 beobachtete Biitschli zuweilen bei P. purtrinum 
1876, p. 88) ; beide Vacuolen liegen ungefahr auf den Grenzen des 
I und 2 sowie des 3 und 4 Korperviertel hintereinander." 

II. Records and Descriptions of Species. 

The object of this paper is to record and describe a number 
of the more striking Ciliata that the writer has come across during 
the last two years in the water collected at various times from 
ditches, ponds, etc., in and about Lahore. The list represents 



178 



Records of the Indian Museum. 



[Vol. XII 



only a very small proportion of the Ciliate fauna of this place, and 
it is hoped to add to it occasionally in future communications. 

Family KNCHELINA. 

Subfamily HOLOPHRYINA. 

Genus Holophrya, Ehrbg. 

Holophrya indica, sp. nov. 

Body evenly elliptical, a little more than one and a half times 
as long as broad ; cuticular surface presenting distinct alternating 
longitudinal striae and furrows, ciliation uniform, cilia fairly long 
and distinct, disposed along the longitudinal striae ; colourless ; 



.N 




Fig. I. — Holophrya indica, sp. nov., la. posterior end showing one principal 
and six subsidiary vacuoles; ib. posterior end showing one principal and two 
subsidiary vacuoles. 

(n. macronucleus ; c. v. contractile vacviole or vacuoles.) 



border of the oral aperture not projecting, pharynx absent; con- 
tractile vacuole single, spherical, postero-terminal , with a number 
of small circular feeding vacuoles in its neighbourhood which are 
not arranged in longitudinal rows ; macronucleus large, band- 
shaped, curved in a horseshoe-shaped manner, situated in the 
anterior half of the body. Length 105 m, width 63 /^ Habitat, 
stagnant water. 

A few specimens of a new species of Holophrya, as defined 
above, were found in a temporarj' collection of water in a ditch 
on the roadside in front of the College compound in March, 1914. 
The body showed only a slight degree of flexibility, and was almost 
equally rounded at the anterior and posterior ends. On the sur- 
face presented to view, thirteen longitudinal striae, along which 
the cilia were disposed, were distinctly made out. So the animal 



i()i6.] B. L. Bhatia : Ciliate Protozoa of Lahore. 179 

presented, both in its form and in its ciliary arrangement, a close 
resemblance to the theoretical diagram in Bronn's Thier-Reichs, 
fig. 17 a. The single spherical contractile vacuole situated near 
the posterior pole was seen to be surrounded by 5 to 7 small feed- 
ing vacuoles at the commencement of its diastolic phase. These 
were seen to contract and there would remain 3 only, the central 
one considerably larger than the 2 subsidiary ones now left. This 
main contractile vacuole then contracted and disappeared, the 
others following almost simultaneously and contributing to the 
formation of the vacuole afresh, the neighbouring subsidiary ones 
soon making their appearance again (figs, i, la, lb). 

Of the several existing species of Holophrya, it shows some 
resemblance to H. simplex in the absence of trichocysts and 
pharynx, but differs considerably from it in the size of the body 
and the form of the macron ucleus, specimens of thati species being 
only about 35/1 in size and the macronucleus globular. The only 
other species possessing a band-like nucleus is H. coleps, Khrbg., 
ia which, however, it is curved in a spiral and the subsidiary 
vacuoles arranged in an elongated row. So the form described 
belongs to a new species, for which the name H. indica is suggested. 

Genus Urotricha, Clap. u. L. 

Urotricha globosa, Schewiakoff. 

Forms belonging to this species were found in the same locality 
as H. indica in April, 1914, and resembled closely the description 
given in Eyferth (3, p. 392); body egg-shaped with an anterior 
terminal mouth, and a posterior springing bristle elongated in the 
direction of the long axis of the body. A few points of difference 
were however observed. The macronucleus, which is spherical, is 
proportionately larger in size than there figured (tafel xii, 2), the 
contractile vacuole is placed in the median line near the posterior 
end and not on one side, and there are cilia on the posterior part 
of the body in the neighbourhood of the springing bristle also. 

Genus Enchelys, Hill. 

Enchelys arcuata, Clap. u. L. 

Members of this species were found in an infusion of dry 
leaves in September, 19 15, the dry leaves having been steeped in a 
dish of water about 10 days previously. Body rounded posteriorly, 
attenuated anteriorl}*. I.ength 8o/<, maximum width 30 //. The 
animal is broadest at one-fourth of the length of the body from the 
posterior end, and begins to taper rapidly in the anterior fourth. 
Anterior end truncate, occupied by the mouth. Cilia covering the 
whole body, but very fine, rather longer ones at the oral end. 
Contractile vacuoles several, arranged in an arch along the margin 
of the body. 



I So 



Records of the Indian Museum. 



[Vol. XII, 



Genus Lacrymaria, Ehrbg. 
Lacrymaria vermicularis (Elirbg.)- 
(Syn. Phialina vermicularis, Ehrbg., CI. u. I^., and Kent.) 
This animal was found in the same locality as H. indica in 
March^ 19^4- Body sub-cylindrical, or bottle-shaped if the apical 
lobe is taken into consideration, flexible and contractile, two and 
a half times as long as broad (Kent, 4, p. 519) appears to refer to 
the contracted state of the animal ; in the ftdly extended condi- 
tion in which I was able to observe it, it was 4 to 6 times as long 
as broad (figs, 2, 2a, 2b). Length about 104 /x. Apical portion in 
advance of the annular furrow short and cylindrical, anterior 
margin of the body truncate and bearing a single circlet of cilia 






.N 




(^. 




Fig. 2. — Lacrymai'ia vermicularis (P^hrbg.), fully extended , la. moderately 
extended ; 2h. fully contracted. 

(N. macronucleus ; c. v. contractile vacuole or vacuoles.) 

which are directed backwards, the rest of the body appeared, how- 
ever, to be glabrous. The nucleus was seen to be oval in outline, 
and the single contractile vacuole situated near the posterior end. 

Subfamily COLEPINA. 
Genus Coleps, Nitzsch. 
Colcps hirtus, O. F. Miill. 
From a pond near Chota Ravi. Size 40/u, X20^. 



Subfamily CYCLODININA. 
Genus Didiniunit Stein, 
Didinium nasutum, St. 
From the pond in front of the Municipal Office. 

I23;.X84/., 



Size 



191&.] B. L. Bhatia : Ciliate Protozoa of Lahore. 181 

Family TRACHELINA. 

Genus Loxophyllum, Duj. 

Loxophyllum fasciola (Ehrbg.), CI. u. L. 

(Syn. Amphilephus fasciola, Ehr., Litonotus fasciola, Kent., 
Litonotus varsaviensis, Wrz.) 

subsp. punjabcnsis, subsp. nov. 

Body elongate, transparent, flexible but scarcely contractile, 
three and a half times as long as broad, pointed posteriorly but 
not prolonged into a distinct tail-like portion, tapering gradually 
towards the anterior extremity which is curved towards the right ; 



N. 




\^M CM. 



Fig. 3. — Loxophyllum fasciola fiiinjabeusis, subsp. nov. 

(N. macronucleus ; c, v. contractile vacuole or vacuoles.) 



oral aperture nearly median; cuticular surface striate longitudi- 
nally ; cilia on the neck region most conspicuous ; contractile 
vacuoles arranged in two rows, seven along each border ; macro- 
nuclei two in number, not united by a filament, spheroidal, sub- 
central. I^ength about 100 /.. Habitat, stagnant water. 

A single specimen of this form, from water from the ditch in 
front of the College compound, came under my observation in 
March, 1914. The animal showed slow locomotion, now moving 
forwards, then suddenly in a backward direction. The length of the 
specimen was 147 /x and the maximum width 42 /x. The form 
showed closest resemblance to Litonotus varsaviensis , Wrz. (Kent, 
p. 744, pi. xlii, fig. 4), from which, however, it differed in the 
absence of trichocysts, number of contractile vacuoles, and their 
arrangement in two longitudinal rows instead of one containing 
five contractile vacuoles only (fig. 3). In the footnote Kent 



i82 Records of the Indian Museum. [Vol.. XII, 

observes as follows: "The large number of contractile vesicles 
serve to distinguish this species from L. fasciola, which in other 
respects it closely resembles." On this consideration there would 
be abundant justification for the erection of a new species for the 
present form, but by later writers L. varsaviensis, Wrz., does not 
appear to have been considered as specifically distinct from L. fas- 
ciola, which it closely resembles and in which there is only one 
contractile vacuole. I should think that L. varsaviensis, Wrz., 
and the form under consideration are sufficiently distinct to rank 
as subspecies. Lionotus fasciola has however since been separated 
from the genus Lionotus (falslich zuerst Litonotus genannt — Bronn), 
which is reserved for species with a verj^ long neck (in some being 
even longer than the body) and placed again under Loxophyllum , 
to which indeed it originally belonged (Clap. u. L.). So the form 
described above may be identified with Loxophyllum fasciola, and 
the name punjahensis given to the subspecies to indicate its special 
peculiarities. 

Family CHLAMYDODONTA. 

Genus Nassula, Ehrbg. 

Nassula stromphii (Ehrbg.) 

(Syn. Liosiphon stromphii Ehrbg.). 

Found in water from a ditch on the roadside outside the 
College compound in March, 1914. The animals examined are 
referable to Nassula stromphii (Ehrbg.) as described in Kent 
(p. 496), but the description given there is inadequate, and so the 
following description is appended : — 

Body ovate, with a distinct large prolongation of the anterior 
region beyond the oral aperture, anterior portion flexible ; length 
57 /L-, width 36 nx ; colour green owing to the ingestion of algae as 
food particles; cilia uniform; pharynx armed, tubular, with a 
cylindrical fascicle of rod-like teeth; contractile vacuole large, 
posteriorly situated, with pinkish contents, with two or more 
smaller vacuoles irregularly distributed; macronucleus oval, sub- 
central and eccentric. 

Family CHIUFERA. 
Genus Trichoda, O. F. Mull. 
Trichoda pura, Ehrbg. 
In infusions of dr}' leaves. 

Genus Colpoda, Miill. 
Colpoda cucullus, Ehrbg. 
In infusions of hay. 



1916.J B. L. Bhatia : Ciliate Protozoa of Lahore. 183 

Family PARAMAECINA. 
Genus Paramaecium, Hill. 
Paramaecium caudatum, Ehrbg. 
In pond water and infusions of dry leaves. 

Family PLAGIOTOMINA. 

Genus Spirostomum, Ehrbg, 

Spirostomum ambiguum, Ehrbg., var. minor, Eyf. 

In large numbers among the roots of Eichhornia growing in 
an aquarium. Length about 765 u. 

REFERENCES TO UTERATURE. 

1. Biitschli, O. .. Protozoa. In Broan' s Klassen iind Ordnun- 

gen des Thier-Reichs , Vol. I, Dritte Abtheilung. 
(I/cipzig u. Heidelberg : 1889.) 

2. Doflein.F. .. Lehrbuch der Protozoenkunde. (Jena: 

1909.) 

3. Eyferth, B. Einfachste lyebensformen der Tier- und Pflan- 

zenreiches. Vierte Auflage von W. Schoenichen 
und A. Kalberlah. (Braunschweig : 1909.) 

4. Kent, S. .. A Manual of the Infusoria. (London: 

1880- 1882.) 

5. Minchin, E. A... An Introduction to the study of the Pro- 

tozoa. (London: 1912.) 

In addition to the works cited above, current literature in 
Archiv fur Protistenkunde, Journal of the Royal Microscopical 
Society, etc., have also been consulted. 



XVI. THE CEPHALOPODA OF THE 
INDIAN M U S E U xM . 

By Anne L. Massy. 

(Plates XXIII— XXIV.) 

The collection described in this paper includes all the speci- 
mens of Cephalopoda (except shells of Nautilus) that have 
accumulated in the Indian Museum in the course of the last 
30 years, since Mr. Goodrich published his '■' Report on the collec- 
tion of Cephalopods in the Indian Museum " in the '' Transactions 
of the Linnean Society'" in 1896. 

The Cephalopods in the present list have been taken in most 
instances by the ' Investigator ' off the Indian and Burmese coasts 
at depths varying from 5 to 947 fathoms, and in one instance a 
haul was made at 2000 fathoms. Reference to the text will show 
that many specimens were also collected on shore, and that the 
area covered extends from the Persian Gulf to China and Japan, 
and southwards to the Andaman Islands. It will be noted that 
many interesting specimens owe their capture to the energy of 
private collectors. Over four hundred specimens are enumerated, 
consisting of sixteen genera and lorty-three species, only cne of 
which, a small Sepia, appears to have been hitherto undescribed. 
There are also some specimens which are too young or in too bad 
a state of preservation for specific indentitication. Over half the 
collection is comprised of individuals of Loligo indica, Pfeffer, and 
Sepiella inermis (van Hasselt), in about equal numbers. Goodrich 
(1896) enumerates fifteen genera and twenty-eight species, five 
genera and twelve species of which are absent from the present 
list, but the results of both collections produce a total of twenty- 
one genera and fifty-five species. 

Of these genera Polypus comes first with twenty species, and 
it may be thought that the eighteen members of this genus noted 
in the present paper have been described at undue length, but 
anyone who has made a study of these creatures is aware of the 
difficulties lying in the path to correct identification and will not, 
I think, regret having as many details as possible, especially as it 
seems probable that future research may reduce the number of 
species ascribed to this genus. The Sepia family comes next with 
nine species. In this family so many differences occur in colour, 
surface and shape, from individual variation, and different modes 
of preservation, that in many cases specimens very unlike each 
other have proved to be the same species when the shell was 
examined. Measurements of a number of shells will be found in 



r86 Records of the Indian Museum. [Vol. XII, 

the text showing that the index is longest in young shells (at 
which period it is natural to expect that growth would be more 
rapid) and becomes shorter with age. 

I have to thank Mr. Robson of the British Museum, and Mr. 
Nichols of the Dublin Museum, for giving me every facility to 
examine eastern Cephalopods in their charge. 

I am indebted to M. Edouard Lamy for taking much trouble 
to find a number of specimens in the Paris Museum, and to my 
colleague Mr. Farran for much help and advice. Mrs. Russell is 
responsible for the illustrations. The three parts of Dr. Hoyle's 
" Catalogue of Recent Cephalopoda " ' have of course been invalu- 
able, as they must always be to anyone working out a large collec- 
tion of Cephalopoda. All the specimens except where otherwise 
stated have been preserved in alcohol. 

Family CIRROTEUTHIDAE. 
Cirroteuthis grimaldii, Joubin. 

Cirroteiithis grimaldii, Joubin, Pull. L.'Insf. Ocean., No. 226, pp. 
I-13, figs. 1-7 (1912). 

M ^-p 'Investigator' station 233: 6-xii-i897, Andaman Sea, 13° 17' 

15" N., 93° 10' 25" E., 185 fathoms — One. 
M i^'-i ' Investigator ' station 332 : i2-iv-i904, .\ndaman Sea, 10° 21' 

N., 92° 46' 15'' E., 279 fathoms — One. 
M ^^-S- ' Investigator' station 333 : ig-iv-1904, S. W. of Ceylon, 6° 31' 

N., 79° 38' 45" E., 401 fathoms— One. 
M ^i^ ' Investigator' station 361 : 24-iii-i9o6, Arabian Sea, 13° 9' 27" 

N,, 46° 45' 15" E., 540 fathoms— One. 
M ^^2,3 I Investigator' station 381 : 28-ii-i9o8, off Akyab, Burma, iS^ S' 

N., 93° 40' E., 298 fathoms — One. 

These are all in very bad condition but appear to be of the 
same species. The two last-named and specimen M -f- are in 
sufficiently good condition to show that their general contour 
bears a strong resemblance to the photographs of C. grimaldii, 
Joubin, which is characterized by its egg-shaped body, enormous 
eyes, and small fins set in a line with the posterior end of the 
body. Specimens M -V and M '¥* are much larger than the 
others and are in fragmentary condition. The dorsal cartilages 
of M --V" and M 4^ were examined as they were protruding from 
the integument, and resemble fairly well the scheme of Joubin 
[I.e., fig. 7) designed after feeling the cartilage through the skin. 

The dorsal cartilage of the other specimens, felt through the 
skin, seems to be of the same shape. 

It is very like that of C. meangensis, Hoyle (1886, fig. 5) 
except that the outer curves of the '' horse-shoe " are less angular. 

The fin cartilage resembles that of C. grimaldii. All the 
specimens agree with the type in the arrangement of the single 
row of arm suckers. The three or four next the mouth are very 
minute, and are suddenly succeeded by very large ones until 

i Proc. Royal Phys. Soc. Edinburgh, 1886, 1897 and 1909. 



1916.] A. L. Massy : Cephalopoda of the Indian Museum. 187 

about the seventh or eighth sucker, after which they become 
much smaller and continue gradually diminishing in size until the 
tip is reached. The cirri commence at about the second or 
third sucker. Specimen M "'r' has enormously enlarged suckers 
on the ventral arms at the edge of umbrella. One of the arms is 
mutilated and only shows one large sucker, the other has five. 
Probably these enlarged suckers are connected with a hectocotylus 
but as the specimen is the best in the collection I have not dissected 
it. Specimen M ~nr" which has lost almost all of its internal 
organs has three very large suckers at the edge of umbrella on 
four of the arms. The fragments of mantle remaining are so 
twisted that it is impossible to say if these are the four ventral 
arms. 

With regard to measurements M. Joubin has already pointed 
out the difficulty of obtaining accurate figures from placing a 
compass on such soft tissues. A few approximate measurements 
and the number of suckers on some of the arms may be of use. 

Eight3'-six suckers were found on the type specimen on an arm 
of 214 mm. Specimen M --¥- possesses fifty-six suckers on the 
second left arm of 126 mm. less tip, seventy-two on the first right 
arm of 140 mm., and seventy-six on the third left of 130 mm.; 
specimen M - t"- has eighty-six suckers on the first right arm of 
163 mm., seventy-one on the second left arm of 147 mm. less tip, and 
ninety on the fourth left of 150 mm. less tip. The proportionately 
larger number of suckers on the arms of the present specimens is 
probably due to the arm lengths being contracted from preserva- 
tion in alcohol. 

All the specimens have the surface inside the umbrella of a 
deep chocolate colour and the outer surface and fins much paler. 

Specimen number ... M ^f^, M ^Y"-' M ^^-f-^, M ^-^-, M ^Y-^. 

mm. mm. mm. mm. mm. 

End of body to dorsal edge of umbrella .. 6i ... . 6i 51 

Breadth of body ... ... ... 21 ... ... t,^ 22 

,, across eyes ... ...22 ... ... -I.5 25 

Diameter of eye measured through skin .. 10 iS 17 12 12 

Fm length, insertion to tip ... ... 21 48 ... 20 17 

anterior to posterior margin ... 5 12 ... 10 g 

Diameter of ordinary largest sucker 2 
,, ,, enlarged sucker . , 



o J .1 :5' 



Distribution. — Azores, 1900 m. [Joubin, 19 12). 
Cirroteuthis macrope, Berry. 

Cirroteuthis macyope, Berry, Bull. Bur. Fish., XXX, pp. 273-4, pi. 32, 
figs. 1-3 (1912). 

M ^^-^ ' Investigator' station 109: 25-x-i89(), S. of Cape Cormorin, 
7° 41' N., 78° 21' E., 738 fathoms— One. 

This is a damaged specimen intermediate in size between the 
two examples described by Berry. It is in sufficiently good 
condition to show clearly the wide mantle-opening, oar-like fins, 



I. MM 



l\rti>ril\ i>j lltr liiilhiii l\l it;(inii . |V<M,. \II, 



iiikI liii^M' lti'.i'<l M|ili<Mi v\il|i iii)',:iii ol I \v<> Mil. ill itViii |)iiils on 
I'illifi '.idi' mI (joi .iI will IK ,1! .i|i(s. 'iMic iiimI)IiII:i , wliicli is vciy 
• Irliciilr and posMihly mill iliilcd . « xicnds lor id)oul Iwo-lliiids ol 
(lie IcMic.lli <»i llic ainr. Tlic latlti have losi almost sill ilicii 
f^lU'kciM ami tinl\' doiiMliil lia<(', ol ( iiii aic pic'.cnl H(>11i eyes 
rr\\\ lo niriislllc alioiil lli< ■.mn- diaimlci In llic I ypc spccinMMIS 
lliclcll cyr is miu-Ji l;ii|^M-i llim lli<ii^dil 'I'lir inside ol iinil»icll:i , 
iind :iny pal< li<". ol cpidcnnis irinaiiiiii" on ollut pail', ol lln' 
liody , ail- dai I. pni pie In own. 

Som<° appioHiinalc nn-a an >-ni<-nl '. air appcndrd : 



I uImI Ii iiplli 

I' ml (il I Mii|\ jo iii.llll li n|irillll).; 
W hilll mI \„„\\ 

I' I lltll |l(MIII III lll'.l'l I II III I il llll 
I (l (Ml llll III llll .ll IIIM'I I II III 
\\ l.llll iii'lwrrn r\i"- 
I I nrlli .ll Mil 



I.< 



Type- In U.S. Nnticma! IVhiSfiim 

7'\7'f' loathly \^iriiiil\' id San I Mcr.o, i\ililoinia. .;n i-2^'i<) 
latlioiii'.. Iiolliiin ol Milt r,i.i\' mud. Two i.pci nmir. (//f'/'^y, I()I2). 



\>:\\\\\\\ .\K(;( )NAii'ni>;\i-:. 

Ai>;un.iut.i bolt)i(Ci'i, l\l(dl/.aii. 

Ar^othiiifii /»iV/^' ('»"(', Mall/;in, 'yninii.i/rl'inhii.. \\l\, |i. iii(, |tl.ij, 
iiK- 7 (iHSi)i llidal^o, A'i'f. AVi//. Aiiitf, ('/(/.•.)' wi nju.si, Aii<vii(iiitii 
h»^ltg(>ii, D.ill, Ihill. Mils, ('iiiii/i, /ii()/,, \l 111, |>|> ','(>, ,'.M) ( loiiH) i 
Ai\i<oiiiiiifii lii\fff;^i'ri, St\\\i\\, Anil. Miii>, Xiif, Hist.. \\l, p. juii, pi. 17, 
liuV i-r» (1HH7I; Ui'in, />'ii//. A'llf. f''is/i., \.\\ll, lip •//■ •''^•'i 

pV |S, li^;, >,, lr\l litMiii". ; ; I nil I ), 
M 'I' ' lii\ r'.lu',.il<'i ,' \ II. 1,1111. iir., M.ii nil' Sill \'i'\ III lii.li.i On. y 

This is in vcw '.oil «'ondilion and lln- n\.inl If is diMmdi'd ol 
rpi.lci inis The dor.al '.nilarc ol llic head and ni>piM aims is 
Itiill, spoiled Willi anall Mnr.li I da i U elit imialoplioies. The 
expiimlod poitioir.ol I he In;. I pan ol .line, ate about ^ mm in 
<linmetei The .um snekeis. o\eepl on I hi> expanded poilioiis. 
lur \'ei V pioininenl The W(d) is ahoiil ecpi.d on all the arms and 
(loos not e\((nd hit'.hei Ih.in I he ihiid snekei aiiNwheii', The 
lu'uk appeals lo he hhnk when '.een wilh the naked t>\e, and dark 
hiowu when viewed Ihioiiy'Ji .1 leir. The inaiit le opeiiiiu; oxtiMids 
to I ho doisal mau;iii '»! eai'h e\e The I'niuiel i-. \i-iy lonj; and ils 
o|■^;lU^ is similai lolhal lip.uied 1)\' Heir\' (i<)i|, le\l lii^, 'S). Tin- 
hianehes ol' Ihe median pad ineaMiu' IS*' mm. in len\;th and the 
hiteial pads aie .| mm. in hMir.th. The etui ot the mantle is 
hiokiMi, di>'.elo?anv*, the v'.ouad W'ith ova. The piiiuipal measure- 
ment', .lie appended 

111111. 

'I 

10 

7 



I'liil .il Imii1> 1.1 il.>i'..il III. mil.' iiiaikMii 
r\r 

UllMlllll III I..id\ ... 



., h.'.ul 



1916.J A. r,. Massy : Cephalopoda of Ihr fndian Museum. 189 

inm. 

l,(-n)^lli ol liiiiii(.-l ,,, .., S 

Diameter of cytt ,, ,_ ^ 

M I. I'lrgest sucker ... ... i 

1st ri^ht arm to ex|j;iii(l< d |jottioii 12 

2nfi MM .,, ., iH 

.-?rd „ ,, ... ,5 



4th ,, 

1st Icll ,, to cxpaiKled [jorlion \j 

2r\(\ ,, ,, \() 

.3rd „ „ ,., \(, 

4th .. .1 14 

iJisLrihuLion. —Manntm?, and Chagos Islands {Smith) ; Ma^hate, 
Philipjjinos {Smilh^ Hidalp/j); China .S^a and Australia (Smith); 
Hawaiian Islands {berry). 

Family POLVP(')iMhAE. 
Polypus rugosus (Hose) d'Orbigiiy. 

Si-pia riigdsii, lios< , Actcs Soc. tl' liistoirc nut. /'afis, \). j^, u\. ^, hirs 
I, 2 (1792) ; Or/opus rugosus, d'CJrljij^ny, Caphalupodes acriahultferes, 
p. 45, pis. 6, 23, fi^. 2 U838J ; Hrock, Zoc//. Jahrb., II, pp. 591-614, 
taf. 16, figs. 1-4, Jena ^887; ; Joiibin, Hull. Sue. Zool. France, XXII, 
p. 99 C1897;; ('ctopiis graiiulatiis, Lamarck, Mam. Soc. d'histoii'c 
nai. Paris, p. 20 (iy<)<)) ; Hoyl(-, ' Challenger' Rep. XVI (^Cephalopoda), 
pp. 80-81 ('(886); Cioodrich, Trans. Linn. .Soc. Zool., VII, p. 19 
(189O;; Wiilker, Abh..d. II. Kl.d. k. Ak.d. Wiss., Ill Suppl.-Bd., 
I Afjh., pp. 5, 6 ('1910;; Oclopns hoscii var. pallida, Hoyjc, /.r., 
\i\>. 81-83, P'- '/ p'- 3. ^K' '^ ■ Octopus polyzenia, Cray, British Museum 
Catalogue, p. 13 (1849;; K. A. Smilli, Rep. Zool. Coll. Indo-I'acific 
Ocean during voyage 11. M.S. 'Alert' p. 34, |>l, 4, \\<^. A (1884^ ; 
(?j Octopus kagosliimensis, Ortmann, Zool. Jahrb., V, |j. 644, pi. 2r, 
fig, 2 ('1888;. 

.M <Y'^ ' Investigator,' Palk St. Ceylon, Marine Survey of India (Jne ^ • 
M -I'-'j" ' Investigator ' station 267 : <)-'\v-i<)<)ii. VV. of Ceylon, 7'^ 2' .30" 

N'-» 79'^ 3'^'' ''-■. 457- =5^9 fathoms On;: ? . 
M "^Y^ I'ersian Ciilf (7'ow/7.vt'//d'; — One V • 
M '^V' ^" Santapily, Madras Presidency, x-t<)>>(,, tra\v'l<r ' f, olden 

Crown,' Bengal I'ish. DepI CJne rj". 
M yy Persian (iiilf, 19-V-1914, K. I. M. .S, /'alimirus' One r^ . 

These possess a round body with ventral furrow, a narrower 
head, and roh)Ust arms tapering to fine points, and measuring 
about two and a half times the length of the ventral mantle. 

The umbrella, which is about one-quarter the length of the 
arms, and extends on their outer margins nearly to the tip, is 
lowest dorsally and about equal on the other arms It is tuber- 
clcd and covered with chromatophores inside and outside between 
the dorsal pair, and smooth and colourless elsewhere. 

The mantle opens just below the eye and aV>outhalf way between 
eye and siphon. vSiphon conical, free for half its length and 
extending to, or above, the level of the eyes, and less than half way 
to umbrella margin ; funnel organ W-fornied and composed of 
narrow bands. Hectocotylized arm with well-marked sperm 
canal and very small terminal organ. Some suckers are enlarged 
on the lateral arms of both male specimens. In colour, all show 



IQO 



Records of the Indian Museum. 



[Vol.. XII 



the very pronounced difference commented upon by Brock be- 
tween the dorsal and ventral surface, the scoop out of the 
umbrella between the dorsal arms being also very marked. The 
Santapily specimen is of a reddish-purple colour above with an 
immense number of tubercles and oblong ridges, and a large 
cirrus at the posterior dorsal edge of e^^e. The examples M -V", 
M - t'- and M -%-- resemble each other very closely hi size and 
appearance, and are dark grey above with no oblong ridges, but 
with a great number of roufid tubercles regularly disposed, and 
surrounded and intersected by small dark chromatophores, 
arranged sometimes in masses which causes a handsome appear- 
ance like black veins all over the dorsal surface of head, mantle 
and arms. A trace of this marbling occurs on one side of the 
Santapily specimen. Ocular cirri are present on specimen M -t^— 
and faintly visible on M "¥■" and suppressed entirely on M *¥--• 
All four specimens possess a smooth ventral surface scattered 
thinly with reddish or brown chromatophores on a pale ground. 
The young specimen M -¥- is obviously the same species as the 
three just mentioned, but is without the dark veinings, and shows 
two rows of large dark chromatophores on the upper arms, in 
addition to the small chromatophores. Ocular cirri are present, 
and there are close-set tubercles on the dorsal surface of head and 
umbrella, but the mantle is nearly smooth. Specimen M -¥- 
closely resembled two specimens in the British Museum, one of 
which labelled "0. graimlatus," came from the Cape, and the 
other labelled "P. polyzenia-granulatus," came from Thursday 
Island, Torres Straits. 

Many arms are in course of regeneration in M "¥-. The 
principal measurements of the other specimens are appended : — 



Specimen number 

End of body to mantle-margin 

, , . I M .1 eye 
Eye to umbrella 
Breadth of body 
,, head 
1st right arm ' 
2nd ,, 
3rd ,, 
4th , , 
1st left ,, 
2nd ,, ,, 
3rd ,, 
4th ,, 

Hectocotylus 
Length of funnel 
Diameter of largest sucker 



mm, 
26 
35 
19 



... 18 

ca. 66 

,, 62 

,, 80 

,, 81 

mutilated. 

77 



mm. 

'^5 
30 
19 

28 
18 
70 
81 
S3 

.^7 
mutilated. 

8u 



M 



39 
52 
29 

39 



75 less tip. 86 
77 72 



12 

4 



3*;' 
117 
123 
102 

159 
116 
119 
146 
142 

.3 
15 

6 



mm. 

8 

10 
6 

8 

7 

15 

17 
18 
18 

15 

16 

mutilated. 

17 

2'5o 
ca. "IS 



Distribution — Africa, west and south, Peru, Indo-Malayan 
Region, Japan, Australia. 



' Anns much curled up. 



1916.] A. L. Massy : Cephalopoda of the Indian Museum. rgr 

Polypus aculeatus (d'Orbigny). 

Octopus aculeatus, d'Orbigny, Cvphalopodes acetabuliferes, p, 53, pi. 7, 
figs. I, 2 (1825) ; pi. 8, fig. I, pi. 23, figs, 3, 4 (1838J. 

M -^-i Investigator,' 25-viii-igi i , Byikhvvaaw Bay, Burm.i, Marine 

Survey of India — One ^. 
M i^isz? (?) Burma {W. T. Blanfoi'd) from coral reef— Five $. 

These are characterized b}' a short body, narrower head, and 
arms about seven times the length of the mantle. The umbrella 
is highest laterally, attains from one eighth to one-tenth of the 
length of the arms, and continues on their outer margins almost 
to the tip, forming wide membranous expansions. The mantle 
opens midway between the eye and the siphon, and on a line with 
the base of the eye. vSiphon conical, with a narrow opening, free 
for about half its length, and reaching above the level of the eyes ; 
funnel organ, in the only specimen examined, W-shaped, and dark 
red on a pale ground; hectocotylized arm relatively long, with a 
wide membranous sperm canal; terminal organ small, narrow, 
with crenulated edges folded over the transversely-grooved inner 
channel. Some suckers on the lateral arms are moderately 
enlarged. 

One specimen has had four of its arms mutilated near the 
base, a sharply-projecting point indicating the commencement of 
a new limb in each case. Very large cirri occur on the head and 
near the eyes in all the specimens, and are dispersed also on th& 
dorsal surface of the mantle and umbrella and on the proximal parts 
of the arms. Some cirri measure as much as 2 mm, in length. In 
two of the specimens the surface between the large cirri is almost 
smooth, in others it is very rugose. All have the ventral surface 
smooth. Colour dull lilac, heavily marked on the dorsal surface 
with minute purple-black chromatophores. The specimen M ~-V^ 
was compared with the type in the Paris Museum and appeared 
to resemble it very closely. 

The latter was carefully set up in such a manner that a good 
comparison could be made. The Indian Museum s{)ecimens are, 
perhaps, a little more purple than the type but nevertheless the 
colouring and sculpture are very like. 

The umbrella in the type is very short and much continued 
up the arms, and the tip of the hectocotylized arm is very minute. 
Enlarged suckers are present on the second and third arms, the 
largest being just above the umbrella. 

The principal measurements of three specimens are ap- 
pended : — 

Specimen nmniber ... M ^Y" M ^^^a M ^Y'i 

mm. mm. mm. 

End of bodv to mantle-margin 11 17 22 

32 



eye... 18 31 

L " ... ... 12 22 

^ ... ... 14 21 

head ... 10 15 20 



Eye to umbrella ... ... 12 22 24 

Breadth of body ... ... 14 21 24 



192 







Records 


; of th 


e Indian Mi 


'4,Si 


zum. 


[Vol. XII, 


Specimen 


number 




... M ^V" 


M ^t^ 


]y/j ji2_!_ii 










mm. 




mm. 


mm. 


1st right arm 






57 




no' 


157 


2nd ,, 








80 less ti 


ip. 


141 


1 8-1 


3>-d „ 








80 




127 


156 


4th „ 








... mutilated. 




1.17 


172 


I St left 


,, 






... 63 




i.^o 


150 


2nd ,, 


,, 






98 




147 


2 11) 


3rd ,. , 


,, 






62 less ti 


P- 


168 


223 


4th „ , 


, 






82 




163 


182 


Hectocoty 


'lus 






... 1-25 




2-50 


2-25 » 


Length of fun 


nel 




6 




12 


15 


Diameter 


of largest suci 


ker 


1-5.) 




4 


5 



Distribution. — Indo-Malayan and Insular Pacific Regions. 
Type. — In Paris Museum, a male from Manila. 

Polypus macropus (Risso). 

Octo{)us niacrupits, Risso, Hist /laf. Eiirop. mi'diten'., p. ,3, pi. iv 
(1826; ; Hoyle, ' Challenger' Rep. XVI (Cephalopoda), p. 95 (1886) ; 
Ortmann, Zool. 'Jahrb., Ill, p. 643, pi. 21 (1888) ; Jatta, / Cefalopodi 
viventi nel Golfo di Napoli, p. 117, pis. 6, 23, 24 1^1896); Joubin, 
Bull. Soc. Zool. France, XXI, p. 90 (1897); Octopus cwvieri, d'Or- 
bigny-Ferussac, Cephalopodes acetahnliferes, p 18, pis. i, 4, 24, 27 
(1838) ; Appellof, K. Svensk. Vetensk. Akad. Handl.. XX 1, p. 6, pi. i 
(1886); Polypus macropus, Hoyle, Bull. Mus. Conip. Zool., XLIII, 
p. 195 (1904); (?) Hoyle, Trans. Linn. Soc. Zool., XXXI, pp. 36-37 
(1907) ; walker,' Ahh . d. II. Kl. d. k. Ak. d. Wiss., Ill Suppl.-Bd , i 
Abh., p. 6 (1910); Berry, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phil., pp. 389-90 
(1912^?). 

M ^fs Indian Seas {Dr. Armstrong)— One ,$ . 
M «^2j2o Persian Gulf [R. Hugh Butler)— One ^. 

M i^fi"^- Singgora, Tale Sap, Gulf of Siam, i-ii-igiA (.V. Annandale) — 
One ? . 

Specimen M "F agrees closely with a male example from 
Naples Bay, purchased by the Dublin Museum from the Zoological 
Station at Naples. The loose skin, which forms many thick rolls 
on the nuchal region is a remarkable feature, and both specimens 
have a closely noduled surface with minute chromatophores, and 
a long funnel indented laterally at the apex so as to produce a lip 
on the dorsal and ventral walls. The example M -f- has a ventral 
median groove of which there is no trace in the Naples specimen. 
The main characters of M 't' are, briefly, arms about seven times 
the length of the mantle ; the first pair the thickest and longest, 
and the only arms with enlarged suckers ; umbrella about one- 
fifth of the arms and continued on their outer margins, highest 
dorsally ; mantle-opening 6 mm. behind the eye and on a level with 
its lower edge; siphon long, two-thirds of it above the level of the 
eye, and reaching to within 3 mm. of the edge of umbrella; sperm 
canal striated faintly in proximal part, smooth elsewhere ; termi- 
nal organ of hectocotylized arm very small ^, and narrower than 
the part of arm immediately preceding it ; surface more or less 

1 In course of regeneration. 

2 In the Naples specimen, the terminal organ measures 6*5() mm. on an 
arm of 140 mm. 



1916.] A. L. Massy : Cephalopoda of the Indian Museum. 193 

closely granulated all over, including inside of arms and umbrella ; 
colour buff with minute dark chromatophores on dorsal surface of 
mantle and head. Specimen M -¥" is a dried-up sand-coated 
specimen, but closely resembles a female from Yokohama in the 
British Museum which was got by the * Challenger ' Expedition. 
It differs a good deal from specimen M "V > but like it, has the 
first pair of arms the longest and thickest. Enlarged suckers are 
present on the four upper arms. The sperm canal is not striated. 
The hectocotylus is mutilated, but was probably very small and 
narrower than the part of arm immediately preceding it. The 
funnel is indented at the apex but does not extend so far as in 
specimen M -'r* • The umbrella is about one-seventh the length 
of the arms and is much higher dorsally than ventrally. It does 
not seem to extend up the arms, which are, however, much 
shrivelled and each possesses a remarkable dark line on the 
dorsal surface. A distinct trace of this line occurs in the 
Yokohama specimen, but it is absent in specimen M -t^« 
The principal measurements are appended : — 

Specimen number ... 

End of body to mantle-margin . . . 

,, eye ... 
Eye to umbrella 
Breadth of body 
,, ,, head 

1st right arm 
2nd ,, 
3rd , , 
4th ,, ,, 
1st left 
2nd ,, 

3rd 

4th ,, 

Hectocotylus 
Length of funnel 
Diameter of largest sucker 

The female from the Gulf of Siam, which was received too 
late to incorporate full particulars, has the mantle 44 mm. long. 

Dislrihution. — Mediterranean, Azores, Canary Islands, Red 
Sea, Indo-Malayan Region, Japan, Pacific Ocean. 



M ^^ 


W S220 


mm. 


mm. 


19 


32 


28 


43 


27 
26 


27 
23 


21 


20 


137 


mutilated. 


133 
62 


170 

83 


90 

145 
128 


137 
196 
146 less tip 


105 

87 
3 


153 
148 
mutilated. 


17 


15 


3 


5 



Polypus areolatus (de Haan). 

Octopus (ireolatits. de Haan MS., 1835 (fide d'Orbigny) ; d'Orbigny 
and Ferussac, Cephalopodes acefabuliferes, p. 65 (1838), p. 186 (1845 I ' 
Hoyle, ' Challenger' Rep. XVI (Cephalopoda), pp. 86-88, pi. 3, figs. 
6,7(1886); \irock, Zool. J ahrb., H, pp. 610-611 (1887); Ortmann, 
Zool. Jahi-b., HI, p. 662 (1888; ; Joubin, Revue Suisse ZooL, H, 
p. 28 (1894) ; Notes Leyden Miis., XX, p. 22 (1898) ; Octopjis ocellatiis, 
Gray, Cat. Moll. B.M. parti, p. 15 (1849); Appellof, K. Svensk. 
Veteusk. Akad. Handl., XXI, p. 8, pi. i, figs. I, 3 (1886); Octopus 
brocki, Ortmann, Zool. Jahrb., V, p. 645 (1888) ; Polypus areolatus, 
Hoyle, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., XLIII, p. 16 (1904) ; Wulker. ^Z./z. 
d. II. Kl. d. k. Ak. d. Wiss. Ill Supple.-Bd., I Abh., p. 6 (1910) ; Berry 
Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phi , pp. 393-396, text-fig. i (1912a). 



194 Records of the Indian Museum. [Vol. XII, 

M ^'-2- 'Investigator' station 328: 7-iii-i9o4, Gu!f of Marlaban, 14° 
46' N., 95° 52' E., 61 fathoms— One ^. 

Brock objects to Hoyle's view that the 0. ocellatus of Appellof 
is the same species as O.areolatus, and states that the umbrella 
in Appellof s species is weakly developed and that the ocellus is 
placed close to its edge, A glance at Appellof's fig. 2 of pi. i 
shows, however, that he placed the ocellus at fully 8 mm. from 
the edge of the umbrella, and in his description he states that the 
umbrella is " well developed " (Val utvecklad) and describes the 
situation of the ocellus as being " between the base of the second 
and third arm pair " Appellof's description and illustration of the 
terminal organ of the hectocotylized arm, and the widely devel- 
oped membranous sperm canal with its transverse grooves, closely 
agrees with the form of hectocotylus in the present specimen, which 
is, however, characterized by a somewhat shorter body than that 
of the example figured by Appellof. It has the mantle widest 
posteriorly and with a conspicuous ventral furrow. Arms two and 
a half to three times the length of the body and with prominent 
suckers, some of which are enlarged on the lateral arms. Umbrella 
extending to about one-third of the length of the arms, thin, 
smooth and membranous, except between the dorsal pair, where 
it is much shorter, thick and tubercled. Umbrella continued on 
outer margin of arms for more than two- thirds of their length. 
Ocelli placed midway between eye and edge of umbrella, each con- 
sisting of a dark core surrounded by a white ring, and succeeded 
by a dark outer ring. Mantle opening placed a little below and 
behind eye, and on a line with ocellus, visible from above. Funnel 
free for half its length and reaching considerably above level of 
eye. Funnel organ more like the typical printer's W than Berry's 
illustration (1912a, fig. i). Dorsal surface of head and mantle close- 
ly set with round tubercles ; traces of cirri on dorsal edge of eye. 
The space between each tubercle is covered with minute dark 
chromatophores which are thinly scattered on the ventral surf ace , 
causing the colour to appear grey above and buff beneath. Hoyle 
(1886, p. 87) remarks that " on the outer surface of each of the 
four ventral arm^s are two rows of dark elongated spots, ' ' All the 
arms of the present specimen are thus adorned. 

The principal measurements are appended : — 



Knd of b 


:)dy to mantle-margin 


20 


,, ,, 


, , , eye 


... 25 


Eye to umbrella 


II 


Breadth 


of body 


K) 


, , 


, , head 


K\ 


1st riifht 


arm 


44 


2nd ',, 


M 


... 49 


3rd „ 


M ... ... 


... 45 


4th ., 




... 61 


I St left 


, , 


■ •• 39 


2nd ,, 


>) 


... 52 


3rd ,, 


... • • • 


... 58 


4th ,, 


, , 


... 56 


Hectocotylus 


6 



igi6.] A. ly. Massy : Cephalopoda of the Indian Museum. 195 

mm. 
Length ot tunnel ... ... ... ... S 

Diameter of largest sucker ... ... ... 2 

,, eye opening ... ... .,, 2 

Ocellus ... ... ... ... ... c^ 

Distribution. — Japan {Wiilker, Ortmann, Appellof, Berry) ; 
Hong Kong and south of Papua {Hoyle). 

Polypus cyanea (Gray). 

Octopus cyaiiea, Gra}', Brit, Miis. Cat., p. 15 (184.9 1 > Brazier, Atts. .U/is. 
Cat. Sydney, p. 7 (1892). 

M S2_s3 AkyaB, Burma (/. //. Biirkill)— One ? . 

This has an elongate body, widest at centre, and quite smooth 
except for a few very minute tubercles on dorsal mantle and arms. 
Eyes not prominent and without cirri. Mantle-opening placed 
just behind eye but much below it. Apex of siphon about on 
level with eyes and reaching nearly half way to umbrella. Siphon 
free for almost half its length and appearing to be without a 
funnel organ. Arms about four and a half times the length of the 
body and head, and six times the length of the body alone, very 
robust and long in proportion to size of body ; semi-equal, the 
second and third being the longest, and the fourth a little longer 
than the first. Suckers very prominent and not very close ; in 
two alternate rows except at the base where a few are placed 
singly. About the eleventh sucker from the base is very large 
and has eighteen to twenty radial grooves. The umbrella attains 
one-third to one-quarter the length of the arms, and is highest 
laterally, and considerably higher dorsally than ventrally. Colour 
pale lilac, produced by a sprinkling of minute black or purple dots 
on a buff ground ; ventral surface paler with brownish and purple- 
red dots. A male specimen in the British Museum, labelled 
" Octopus cyanea^ Gray, Moreton Bay, between tide marks, Queens- 
land Museum," very closely resembles this in general appearance, 
as well as in the absence of ocular cirri, the almost smooth body, 
the position of the mantle-opening, the shape of the siphon, the 
order and length of arms and the prominence of the suckers. The 
colouring of the Australian specimen is a little darker and the 
chromatophores on the arms are sometimes arranged in circles 
which is not the case with specimen M -'^f-^. It may be useful to 
add that the hectocotylized arm of the Australian specimen has a 
minute terminal organ measuring only 2 mm. on an arm of 
340 mm. The sperm canal is unusually broad and its clear buff 
colour is sharply defined from the mottled oral and dorsal surface. 
Some suckers at the margin of the umbrella are much enlarged on 
the second and third arms. The principal measurements of 
specimen M ^\'-' are appended : — 

m m . 
End of body to mantle-margin ... ... ... 108 

, eye ... ... ... ... 125 

Kve to umbrella ... ... ... ... 100 



196 Records of the Indian Museum. [Vol. XII, 

mm. 

Breadth of body (flattened) ... ... ... 78 

Breadth of head ... ... ... ... 46 

1st right arm ... ... ... ... 342 

2nd ':, ,. ... ... ... ... 455 

3rd ,, M ... ... ... ... 427 

4th ,, ,, ... ... ... ... 422 

l^mbrella between dorsal arms ... ... ... 98 

,, ,, ventral ,, ... ... ••■73 

,, ,, 1st and 2nd left arms ... ... 128 

Diameter of largest sucker ... ... ... 10 

,, ,, eye-opening- ... ... ... 7 

Length of funnel ... ... ... ... 32 

Breadth of funnel at apex ... ... ... 15 

Distribution. — New South Wales, Queensland, Solomon Islands 
{Brazier, 1892). 

Polypus defilippi (Veran}^). 

Octopus defilippi, Verany, Cephalopodes de la Mediterranee, p. 30, pi. xi, 
figs. d. f. (1851) ; Hoyle, ' Challenger ' Rep., XVI (Cephalopoda), p. 
8 (1886); Jatta, / Cefalnpodi viveiiti nel Golfo di Napoli, pp. 221- 
22|, pi. 4, fig. 2 ; pi. 24, figs. 4-13 ; pi. 25, fig. I (1896); Octopus De 
Filippi, Targioni-Tozzetti, Commentario siii Cefalopodi mediterranei 
del R. Museo di Fireuze, p. 20 (1869') ; Tiberi, Bull. Soc. Mai. ItaL, 
V, p. 2 (1880) ; Carus, Prodj-omits Faunae Mediterraueae, etc., II, 
Cephalopoda, p. 460 (1890) ; Octopus Defilippi, Tryon, Manual of 
Conchology, I, Cephalopoda, p. 3 (1879); Octopus de-filippt, Berg- 
mann, Sitz.-Ber. Ges. Nat. Freunde Berlin, pp. 104-109, 3 figs. [Re- 
ceptaculum seminis] (1903). 

M ^ti 'Investigator' station 503: 25-1-1913, Mergui Archipelago, 
.shore 'collecting. Marine Survey of India — One $. 

Except that it is a little smaller, this specimen exactly resem- 
bles the illustration of Jatta {I.e., tav. 4, fig. 2) having the same 
long narrow body, prominent eyes, and pale greenish-yellow 
colouring with delicate slightly-defined dark reticulations. The 
fourth arms are much the longest and thickest, being six or seven 
times the length of the mantle, while the dorsal pair is only about 
three times of this length. None of the suckers is specially en- 
larged. Umbrella attaining about one-eighth of the length of the 
arms, widest ventrally, and extending prominently on the upper 
part of arms forming large crests. The mantle opens a little below 
and at the ventral edge of eye. Funnel small and extending about 
half way to the margin of umbrella. Two ocular cirri are present 
over each eye and a few tubercles are scattered on the dorsal sur- 
face of the head and mantle. Ventral surface smooth except for 
a faintly-indicated median groove. The striated sperm canal and 
small terminal organ of the hectocotylized arm agree with Jatta's 
description. A Bay of Naples specimen, purchased from the 
Zoological Station of Naples by the Dublin Museum, has the typi- 
cal round body represented by Verany, and by Jatta on pi. 24, 
figs. 10, 12. Jatta mentions that this is due to the mantle of 
specimens in alcohol becoming contracted, and, therefore, swollen 
in the middle, restricted at each end, and furnished with a median 
ventral groove. He describes the surface as being perfectly smooth 



1916.J A. L. Massy : Cephalopoda of the Indian Museum. 197 

except for two ocular cirri. The Dublin Museum specimen is 
however, much tubercled, even on the ventral surface, where there 
is also a strong median groove, and in the centre of the posterior 
end of the mantle there is a slight projection surrounded by a ring 
of tubercles.^ The specimen is of a pale purple-gray tint, but 
agrees with the example M " V' - in having the first four suckers 
placed singly on all the arms, and also in the width of the mantle- 
opening, the size of the funnel, and its distance from the umbrella- 
margin, as also in the size of umbrella and the conspicuous 
development of the white transparent portion of it between the 
ventral arms. Try on remarks that this species is certainly very 
near P. aranea, d'Orb., and I thought at first that the example 
M -V* would probably prove to be it, particularly as P. defilippi 
had not been observed outside the Mediterranean. On comparing 
M -¥ ", however, with the type of d'Orbigny in the Paris Museum, 
I found that the umbrella in P. aranea is lower ventrally than 
dorsally and does not appear to be continued on the arms, which 
are much slighter in proportion to the size of the body than in 
P. defilippi ; the body also is quite round, but that, as in P. defilippi, 
may be due to contraction. P. aranea has a very smooth surface 
and a pale body with very minute round red-brown chromatophores. 
In the specimen M '¥- the chromatophores are minute, oblong 
and almost black. The principal measurements are appended: — 



End of body to man 


tie-margin 


23 


,. ,, ,, M eye 
Eye to umbrella 




12 

14 


Breadth of body 
„ head 




15 
II 


ist right arm 




82 


2nd ,, ,, 

3rd ,, „ 
4th „ „ 
I St left ,, 




... 135 
... 46 
... 1572 
... 80 


2nd ,, ,, 




... 115 


3rd ,, ,, 
4th „ „ 
Hectocotvlus 




... >o7 
.. 1382 
1-50 


Diameter of largest 


sucker 




Distribution. — Mediterranean. 





Polypus hongkongcnsis (Hoyle). 

(?) Octopus piiHctatits, Gabb, Proc. Calif. Acad. Nat. Set'., II, p. 170 
(1S62); Dall, Ibid., Ill, p. 243, fig. 27 ( 1866) ; Verrill, ' Blake', Suppl., 
p. 117, pis. 4, 5, fig. 2 (1883); Octopus hongkougensis, Hoyle, 
Diagnoses I, p. 224; Prelim. Rep., I, p. 99 (1885); Octopus punc- 
tatus, Hoyle, 'Challenger' Rep., XVI (Cephalopoda), p. loo, pi. 5 
(1886); Ortmann, Zool. Jahrb., Ill, p. 662 (1888); ]o\\h\n, Mem. 
Soc. Zool. France, X, p. no, pi. 9 (1897) ; Bull. Soc. Zool. Fra)ice. 

' This would appear to be an abnormality common to several species. It is 
noted by Hoyle (1886, p. 93 j for Polypus pictus {^vocV), and is figured by Joubin 
(1 903, pi. I, figs. 7 and 8) for P. fontanianus, d'Orb. 

2 l^ess tip. 



198 



Records of the Indian Museum, 



[VOL. XII, 



XXII, p. 98 (1897); Puhp/is piinctntus, Wi'ilkei', Abh. d. 11. Kl. d. 
k. Ak. d. IViss. Ill Supple. -Bd., I Abh., p. 7 (1910) ; Polypus ho ng- 
kongoisis, Beny, Bull. Buy. Fi's/i., XXX, pp. 280-4, pis. 35, fig. 3; 
36, rig. I ; 39, rigs. 3-4; 40, fig. I ('1912) ; Pi'oc. Acad. Nat. Sci. PliiL, 
p. 391 (1912). 

M ^y-^ ' Investigator ' station 237: i3-iv-l89S, .\ndaman Sea, 13° 17' 

N., 93° 7' E., 90 fathoms— One (J 
M si_4i . Investigator' station 465: 22-iv-i9i2, S. of Ceylon, 5° 56' N., 

81° 22' E., iog-132 fathoms — One $ . 

Specimen M -\" agrees exactly with the ' Challenger ' example 
in the British Museum in shape of body and general appearance, 
distribution of web, brown coloured chromatophores, round 
tubercles and large cirri under eyes. 

The funnel organ was apparently W-shaped but the lateral 
pads have become very indistinct 

Specimen M -V' is darker, being of a reddish-brown mottled 
with black on the upper surface. The web is highest laterally 
but the ventral arms and web are longer than the dorsal. The 
entire surface, including inside of web, is tubercled, and there are 
also oblong wart-like folds on the dorsal surface of the body and 
arms. Funnel organ W-shaped. 

The principal dimensions are appended : — 



Specimen number ... 


... M ^\i-^ 


M «V^ 




mm. 


mm. 


End of body to mantle-margin 


14 


54 


,, ,. ,, eye 


16 


63 


Breadth of body 


12 


51 


,, head 


9 


32 


Eye to umbrella 


... ■ 15 


51 


1st right arm 


70 


140 


2nd ,, 


62 less t 


ip. 170 


3rd 


38 


190 


4th „ „ 


mutilated. 


170 


1st left 


70 


150 


2nd ,, 


60 less tip. 172 


3rd „ „ 


79 


187 


4th „ „ 


67 


133 less tip, 


Diameter of largest sucker 


I 


6 


Hectocotylus 


... ' 3 less t 


ip. 



Distribution. — Indo-Malayan Region, Japan, Alaska, British 
Columbia, California. 

Type, — A male in the British Museum. 

Type locality. — Off Ino Sima Island, Japan, 345 fathoms. 



Polypus levis, Hoyle. 

Octopus levis, Hoyle, Diagnoses I, p. 229; Prelim. Rep., I, p. 104 
(1885); ' Challenger' Rep., X\'I (Cephalopoda), pp. 98-99, pi. 2, fisfs. 
1-4, pi. 3, fig. 1 fi886). 

M i-^y6_8 . Investigator,' Indian seas. Marine Survey of India — One 9 . 

Compared with the large type male this has the same shaped 
head and body, and wide web not attaining much development on 



1916.] A. L. Massy : Cephalopoda of the Indian Museum. 199 

the arms. The large type specimen shows no colour but a smaller 
example exhibits the same peculiar large chocolate coloured 
chromatophores distinguishing M -V*-, which is further charac- 
terized by a hard dried-up body with ventral furrow, narrow 
mantle opening, and siphon extending one- third of the distance to 
margin of web between ventral arms and having its apex above 
the line of the eyes. Surface smooth, colour slate-blue' above 
with large chromatophores at sides ^ paler beneath and freckled 
with minute dots and paler large chromatophores. Funnel organ 
W-shaped. 

Principal measurements: — 

mm. 

End of bod}- to eye ... ... ... ... 30 

Eye to umbrella ... ... ... ... 21 

Breadth of body ... ... ... ... 20 

,, head .. ... ... ... 17 

End of body to ventral mantle ... ... ... 24 

1st right arm ... ... ... ... 59 

2nd ,, ,, ... ... ... ... 60 

3rd ,, ,, ... ... ... .S7 

4th ,, ,, ... ... . ... 5(1 

1st left ,, ... ... ... 60 

2nd ,, ,, ... ... ... ... 62 

3rd ,, ,, ... ... ... 56 

4th ., ,, ... ... ... ... 57 

Diameter of lar^fst sucker ... .. ... 2 

Distribution. — 52° 59' 30" S., 73° 33' 30" W., 75 fathoms. 
Type. — In British Museum, two males (one immature) and 
two immature females. 

Polypus januarii (Steenstrup). 

Octopus -januayii, "Steenstrup, MS.," Hoyle, Diagnoses I, p. 229; 
Prelim. Rep., p. 105 (1885), ' Challenger'' Rep.. XVI (Cephalopoda), 
pp. 97-98, pi. 7, figs. 1-4 (1886) ; Octopus januarii, Goodrich, Trans. 
Linn. Sac. ZooL, 2, VII, part i, p. 19 (1896); Polypus januarii, 
Hoyle, Bull. Mus. Coynp. Zool... XI.III, p. 18, pi, 5. fig". 2 (1904^) ; 
Berry, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phil., p. 392 (1912). 

M ^■^ ' Investigator' station 222 : 2i-xii-i896, .\ndaman Sea, 13° 27' N., 

93° 14' 30" E., 405 fathoms— One ? . 
M ^i-i ' investigator' station t,?,'^ ■ i2-iv-i904, 10° 21' N., 92^46' 15" E, 

279 fathoms — One $ . 
M J-\*— 'Investigator' station 297 : i3-iv-l902. Gulf of Oman, 25° 11' 30" 

N., 57° 15' E., 689-700 fathoms— One (^ . 
M ^-\*-5^ ' Investigator' station 343 : ig-x-1904, Gulf of Oman, 23° 46' 15" 

N., 58° 31' 50" E., 609 fathoms — One ? . 

These are all characterized by a round body of very soft con- 
sistency, enormous eyes, and arms of from three and a half to five 
times the length of the ventral mantle. The arms are not so long 
in proportion to the body as in Hoyle 's description, but this is a 
character depending much on preservation. The first and second 
pairs seem to be always longer than the others, and slightly thicker 



This tint seems like a deposit over a reddish-brown colour. 



200 Records of the Indian Museum. [Vol. XII , 

than the ventral pair. The suckers are small, prominent and far 
apart ; none are enlarged in the male. The umbrella attains to one- 
third or one-fourth of the arms, is lowest ventrally and about 
equal elsewhere. It is continued on the outer margins of the 
arms, but not remarkably so except in the largest specimen. The 
mantle-opening is placed just below the eye. The funnel is much 
fused to the head and reaches to about one-third of the distance 
to the umbrella margin. Two specimens were examined with 
regard to the funnel organ. One is in too bad condition ; but the 
other, M -V-, possesses an oval, somewhat shield-like median 
pad, and two oblong lateral pads of about half the width of the 
median one. It is possible that these may have been joined to the 
median pad at the posterior end. The tip of the hectocotylized 
arm resembles that figured by Hoyle (1886, pi. 7, fig 2) except 
that, as in the examples recorded by Goodrich, the ridges are more 
marked. All the examples are quite smooth and pinkish in colour. 
The chromatophores are very minute, and of various tints from 
yellow-brown to purple-red. The principal measurements are ap- 
pended : — 

Specimen number 

End of body to mantle-margin 

,, ,, ,, ,, eye 
Eye to umbrella 
Breadth of body 
,, ,, head 

1st right arm 
2nd ,, „ 
3rd „ „ 
4th ., 
1st left 
2nd ,, ,, 

3rd ,, „ ... '.; 

4th ,, ,, 

Hectocotylus 

Diameter of largest sucker 

Distrihulion. — Off Barra Grande, Brazil (type locality) ; Rio 
de Janeiro, Brazil, and North Pacific, east of Japan [Hoyle) ; Bay 
of Bengal and Andaman vSea {Goodrich) ; Off the Cocos Islands 

{Hoyle). 

Polypus tonganus^ Hoyle. 

Octopus to)iganus. Hoyle, Diagnoses I, p. 225 (1885) ; Prelim. Rep., 
p. 100 (1885); ' Challengey' Rep., XVI (Cephalopoda), pp. 83-84, 
pi. 8, figs. I, 2 (1886); Hedley, Mem. Aitstr. M us. Sydney, 111, pp. 
520, 550 (1899) i Polypus touganiis, Hoyle, Bull. Mas. Camp. ZooL, 
XLHI, no. I, p. 17 (1904); Fauna and Geogr. Maldive Laccadive 
Archip., \\, suppl. i, p. 978 UQ'^S)- 

M ^f^ ' Investigator ' station 242 : 2-X-1898, Arabian Sea, 17° 27 
N., 71° 41' E., 56-58 fathoms— One ,$ 



VI H^ 


M ^V- 


M liV'i 


AT ^^ 


mm. 


mm. 


mm. 


mm. 


24 


25 


37 


42 


29 


31 


54 


60 




37 


4*> 


7" 


24 

18 


21 
20 


30 

18 1 


26 I 


118 2 


96 


140 


182 


1152 


go 


136 


201 


112 


mutilate 


d. 65 


201 


115 
135 
130 


93 

85-2 


mutilated. 
124 


192 

185 
16S 


122 
76 3 


84 
75 


114 

122 

13 


'72 
180 


[•50 


2 


I '5" 


3 



1 In bad condition. 2 l^ess tip. ^ In course of regeneration. 



1916.] A. L. Massy : Cephalopoda of the Indian Museum. 201 

This resembles the type male in the British Museum very 
closely but is a little lighter in colour on the lower surface. 

The hectocotylus is exactly like that of the type. It will be 
remembered that the latter has four enlarged suckers on each 
lateral arm ; the present specimen does not show these probably 
because the arms are in course of regeneration. The first and third 
pairs are the most slender at the base and the second and fourth 
the strongest and thickest. 

The web is very short, highest laterally and lowest ventrally. 
The funnel organ appears to be W-shaped but is not in good 
condition. A few very small tubercles are present on the head and 
dorsal mantle Colour buff densely covered above with very 
minute dark brown chromatophores, paler beneath. The dark 
dorsal surface of arms presents a strong contrast to the flesh- 
coloured ventral surface. 

The principal measurements are appended : — 



End of body to mantle-margin 

M eye 

Eye to umbrella 

Breadth of body 

1 St right arm ' 

2nd ,, ,, 

3rd „ „ 

4th ,, ,, 

I St left 

2nd ,, ,, 

3rd ,, ,, 

4th „ ,. 

Hectocotylus 

Diameter of lara-esl sucker 



m m . 

31 
38 
16 
22 
92 

148 
73 

200 
86 

145 
69 

72 
ca. I 



Distribution. — Pacific Insalar Region ; Indian Ocean. 
Type. — In British Museum, one male, two females. 



Polypus bandcnsis (Hoyle) 



Octopus baiideiisis, Hoyle, Diagnoses I, p. 227 ; Prelim. Rep , I, p. 109 
(1885); 'Challenger' Rep., XVI (Cephalopoda), p. 96, pi. 7, figs. 2 
and 10 ri886); Appellof, Abh. d. Senckenb. naturf. Ges., XXIV, 
p. 566(1898). 



M ^ijfis 'Investigator' station 152: i2-xii-i89:: 
Colombo Lt., 26J fathoms — One $. 



iii miles S. 83° W. of 



The extreme length of the third arms is the most important 
character of this species. 

The present example has a roundish body separated from the 
head by a constriction, and the head is wider than the body owing 
to the large prominent eyes. The third arms are about six times 
the length of the mantle and nearly twice as long as any of the 
other arms. Umbrella very short and membranous, about equal 
all round, continued on the outer surface of the arms, and forming 



1 A study of the base of the arms shows that the short ones are evidently in 
course of regfeneration. 



202 



Records of the Indian Museum. 



[Vol. XIT, 



large webs on the third pair. Siphon pointed, and reaching 
halfwa3" between the mantle and margin of umbrella. Prominent 
tubercles surround the eyes and a few are scattered on the dorsal 
surface of the mantle. The ventral mantle has a median furrow, 
and eight little pits arranged in a row of four pairs at i mm. from 
the posterior end. As indications of similar pits appear elsewhere, 
I believe them to be surface indentations due to accidental 
pressure sustained in transit ^ 

Colour buff with reddish-brown chromatophores, usually thinly 
distributed, but forming definite patches below each eye on the 
constriction between head and body, and also on each side of the 
mantle at about half way between the first patch and the end of 
the body. The arms show dark patches on their outer surface 
arranged either in pairs or in single bars. 

The principal measurements are appended: — 

mm. 

End of body to mantle-margin ... ... ... 6 

M , , , . eye . . ... • ■ • 7 

Eye to umbrella ... .. ...650 

Breadth of body ... ... ... ... 5'5" 

,, head ... ... ■■ ..e-so 

1st right arm ... ... -. 26 

2nd ,, ,, ... ... ... 27 

yd ,, ,, ... ... ... 46 less tip. 

4th ,, ., ... ... ... ■■ 3+ 

istleft ,, ... ... ... 39 

2nd,, ,, ... ... •■• 36 

3rd ,, ,, . ... •.. 59 

4th ,, ,, ... ... ■ ■ .35 

biameter of largest sucker . ... ca. '50 

Distribution. — Banda, Ternate. 

Type.— In British Museum, one young specimen. 

Polypus globosus (Appellof). 

Octopus globosiis, Appellof, K. Svensk. Vetensk. Akad. Handl., XXI, pp. 
7, 8, pi. I, figs. 4, 5 (1886); Ortmann, Zool. Jahrb., Ill, p. 662 
(1888); Octopus riigosus (pars), Ortmann, Zool. Jalirb., V, p. 669 
(1891); Octopus globosus, Goodrich, Trans. Linn. Soc, VII, p. 19, pi. 
5, f^g. 81 (1896) ; Joubin, Bull. Soc. Zool. France, XXII. p. 98 (1897) ; 
Appellof, Abh. d. Senckenb. natnrf. Ges., XXIV, pp. 565, 566(1898) ; 
Polypus globosus, Hoyle, Proc. Roy. Pliys. Soc. Edinburgh, XVII, 
p. 259 (no description) (1909); Berry, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phil., 

p. 388 (l9I2rt). 

M ^ Bombay— One c^. 

M 82J.S Qff Gopalpore, 25-28 fms., Sept., 1909, trawler ' Golden Croivn ', 

Bengal Fish. Dept.— One ^. 
M i+f-i' Bandra, near Bombay ("J. W. Gaunter)— One (^ . 

The globular body, small mantle-opening, ventral furrow, 
order of arms, and the colouring and sculpture of these three 
little specimens closely agrees with the description of the type. 
The umbrella, which is about one quarter the length of the arms, 



1 All the specimens were wrapped in muslin and closely packed in soldered 
in boxes, and a few specimens had metal labels. 



1916.] A. L. Massy : Cephalopoda of the Indian Museum. 203 

and about equal all round, is so membranous as to be almost 
transparent, while that of the type is described as " quite thick ", 
but the much smaller size of the present examples may account 
for the difference. It is continued up the arms, as in Appellof's 
(1886, p. 8) description, " in the form of two keels on their outer 
sides." The terminal organ of the hectocotylized arm resembles 
Goodrich's illustration, and appears to have no striae in the 
concave part; the sperm canal, on the contrary, is transversely 
striate throughout. In the two largest specimens the arms are 
bent back over the head, and one or two suckers are markedly 
enlarged on the lateral arms. In the specimen M -V ~ the arms 
are only partially bent over the head, the terminal organ of the 
hectocotylized arm is very short, and looks as if it was only in 
process of formation, and no suckers appear to be enlarged on the 
lateral arms ; two rows of large dark chromatophores are present 
on all the arms, and on the dorsal mantle a few large, almost black, 
chromatophores are interspersed with small brown ones, while on 
the ventral mantle the large dark spots only are present, being 
placed about i mm. apart. The specimen M -y'" was found in a 
hole in a rock at low tide. 

The principal measurements are appended : — 



Specimen number ... 


M ^f ^ 


M ■'^Y" 


M ^^^ 




mm. 


mm. 


mm 


End of body to mantle-marg-in 


12 


13 


6 


• . M ,. M eye 


17 


15 


9 


Breadth of body ... 


14 


14 


7 


,, ,, hfad 


12 


12 


8 


1st right arm 


64 


43 


19 i( 


?nd ,, 


72 


50 


24 


:.rd ,. „ 


59 


44 


20 


4th 


69 


48 


22 


ist left 


60 


44 


20 


2nd ,, 


71 


53 


22 If 


3rcl „ „ 


6S 


51 


22 


Ath „ „ 


62 


44 


22 


Hectocotylus 


4 


ca. 3 


ca. '25 


Length of funnel ... 


5 


ca. 5 


2 -50 


Diameter of largest sucker 




2 


I 



ess tip. 



ess tip. 



Distribution.— Japan {Appellof, Joubin) ; Straits of Malacca, 
Kabusa Islands, Nicobar Islands, Bombay, Ceylon {Goodrich). 

Type.— In Zoological Museum, Upsala University, two females. 

Polypus fusiformis (Brock). 

Octopus fusiformis, Brock, Zool. jfahrb.. V, p. 6ui, pi. 16, figs, i and 
2 (1887) ; Octopus pisiformis, Hoyle, Proc. Royal Phys. Sac. Edin- 
burgh, p. 5 (inerely listed^ (1897). 

M «2-a2^s pai]^ Straits, south of India— Two ? . 

These are characterized by a vQ.xy long narrow body with 
extremely narrow neck and prominent eyes ; mantle-opening so 
wide that it is visible from above ; arms of about five times the 
length of the body and tapering to very fine points ; umbrella 



204 Records of the Indian Museum. [Vol. XII, 

extending about one-fifth of the length of the arms, and with in- 
dications showing that it was continued on their outer margins ; 
funnel long, conical, and adherent for two- thirds of its length ; 
funnel organ in bad condition in both specimens ; surface smooth, 
except for a few small tubercles, chiefl^^ on the dorsal surface of 
the mantle, head and umbrella ; no cirri ; colour brownish above, 
paler below ; dorsal surface with very many minute dark chro- 
matophores, which are fewer, and of a reddish-brown colour, ven- 
trally. These seem to agree with Brock's description very closely, 
except that he describes the umbrella in his specimen to be highest 
ventrally, and prolonged in a well developed swimming membrane 
to the points of the arms. In the largest of the present specimens 
the umbrella is slightly highest dorsally, and in the other example 
it is about equally developed all round. Brock remarks that this 
species ' ' is excellently characterized by the long spindle-shaped 
body, which is completely like a Loligo without fins ", and that no 
species already described resembles it. 

An example of Cisiopus indicus, Gray, in the British Museum, 
bears, however, a strong superficial resemblance in colour and 
form, but possesses arms seven or eight times the length of the 
body, and an umbrella about one-eighth of the arms. As, however, 
a careful examination fails to reveal any trace of pouches between 
the arms in the present specimens, I have no doubt that they 
belong to the form described by Brock. Steenstrup is very doubt- 
ful whether d'Orbigny's two figures of Cistopus indicus represent 
the same species. " He is disposed to regard the type of Rapp's 
" species as having been a true Octopus and for the form with 
" pouches between the arms he has adopted the name Cistopus 
bursarius" (Hoyle i886a., p. 19). It seems, therefore, possible 
that Brock's form may be identical with the type of Rapp's 
species. 

The principal measurements of the present examples are ap- 
pended : — 

Specimen number ... ... ... M ^-^.2 M ^\^-^ 

End of body to mantle-margin 

, , , . , , . . eye 
Kye to umbrella at left .side 

M M .. .. right 

Breadth of body 

,, head 

,, neck 
1st right arm 
2nd ,, 
,3rd ,, ,, 

4th 

I.St left arm 

2nd ,, 

3rd „ ,. 

4th ., ,, 

i .ength of funnel 

Diameter of largest sucker 

Distribution. — Amboina, a male presented by the natives. 



mm. 


mm, 


43 


43 


67 


60 


5" 


36 


35 


36 


24 


21 


22 


16 


15 


9 


200 


155 


185 


143 


128 


156 


135 


143 


162 


151 


167 


160 


135 


137 


125 


1 10 


22 


16 


6 


.^ 



1916.] A. Iv. Massy : Cephalopoda of the Indian Museum. 205 
Polypus microphthalmus (Goodrich). 

Octopus microphtlialiiuis, Goodrich, Trans. Liu)}. Soc, V'll, p. 20, pi. 5, 
figs. 83, 84 (1896). 

io.(i7_7.:s Karnaphuli River Chittagono-, Dec, 1914 (A. C. Cliowdliury) 
— Two ? . 

These have a long narrow body with a yet narrower head, 
wide mantle- opening placed a little below and in line with the eye/ 
visible from above ; eyes small ; siphon with broad apex extend- 
ing above the eyes and half-way to umbrella margin ; free for half 
its length ; no trace of funnel organ in either, although the 
specimens are in very good condition ; arms not very tapering at 
the tips, and about two and a half times the length of the body. 
Web lowest ventrally, and highest in both at the right side, ex- 
tending to about one-third of the length of the arms but not 
continued up them. Suckers small and much elevated, very like 
Goodrich's illustration (pi. 5, fig. ?>2t). Surface quite smooth every- 
where. Colour white, speckled with minute, dark-grey or purple- 
black, round chromatophores, which are most numerous on the 
dorsal surface of head and mantle where they form occasionally 
elongate grey smears. Larger chromatophores, measuring about 
50 mm., are also present on the mantle and form two rows up each 
arm, each spot being placed about 3 mm. apart. These rows are 
very ornamental, and are especially distinct on the umbrella region. 
The inner surface of web and oral aspect of arms is sparsely 
sprinkled with small dots. There is a tendency, especially in the 
smaller specimen, to form pockets in the umbrella. These are not 
to be compared to the aquiferous pouches of Cislopus indicus, Gra}^ 
as they are merely tranverse or oblique folds of the web extending 
from one arm to the next at about the middle of umbrella. They 
are not confined to any particular pair of arms but are most 
developed between the laterals, where the umbrella is widest, and 
are scarcely indicated between the ventral pair. 

This delicately-pretty species seems to differ from the other 
more or less pale and smooth-skinned Polyps of this region chiefly 
by its small eyes, wide mantle-opening, and short arms possessing 
very prominent suckers and with web not continued up them. 
Polypus elegans (Brock), P. fusiformis (Brock) and P. pricei 
(Berry), are perhaps the nearest to it. 

P. elegans has, however, very prominent eyes, a pointed fun- 
nel, much longer arms, and chromatophores which " almost vanish 
in alcohol." P. fusiformis has a narrower body and head, and 
longer arms and web, and P. pricei is of much more delicate 
consistency with huge ej'es and a longer web. 

The principal dimensions are given below : — 



1 One specimen has the mantle-opening at one side placed as in the type, e.g., 
rather more than halfway from the siphon to the eve." 



m. 


[Vol. XII, 


M i-Y-- 


M iiL7^s 


mm. 


mm. 


26 


31 


20 


22 


15 


14 


20 


23 


11 

65 
64 

83 
82 


13 
67 
75 
.81 
76 


175 


175 



206 Records of the Indian Museiitn 

Specimen number 

End of body to mantle-margin ... 
Breadth of body 
,, ,, head 

Eye to umbrella 
Length of funnel 
1st right arm 
2nd ,, 
31'd ,, ,, 
4th „ „ 
Diameter of largest sucker 

Distribution. — Port Blair, Andaman Islands. 
Type.^ln Indian Museum, Calcutta, a female. 

Polypus herdmanit Hoyle. 

Polypus liei'dmiuii, Hoyle, Rep. Pearl Oyster Fish. Gulf of Mauaar. 
p. 187, pi. I (1904) ; Hoyle, Proc. Zool. Soc. Loyidou, p. 454 (1907). 

M ^-Y"^ Pearl Banks, Ceylon {T. So/if/nvel I)— One ?. 

This has a round body with a median ventral groove ; mantle- 
opening placed a short distance below and behind the eyes, and 
extending a little less than half round the body ; arms stout and 
nearly four times the length of the mantle ; suckers apparently 
ceasing at a short distance from the tip of each arm ; umbrella 
extending about one-fourth of the length of the arms, continuing 
moderately on their outer margins, lowest dorsally and highest 
between the two ventral pairs ; siphon small, not passing the level 
of the eye, and reaching nearly half way to the edge of umbrella ; 
ocellar spots (each consisting of a dark oval patch surrounded by 
a narrow lighter coloured ring) placed about half way between the 
eye and the edge of umbrella ; numerous elongated warts and 
tubercles placed chiefly round eyes and on dorsal surface of head and 
umbrella ; inside of umbrella wrinkled but not tubercled. Colour 
greyish-brown, produced by minute brown chromatophores on a 
bufi' ground ; ventral surface paler and browner. It will be seen 
from the above notes that this specimen seems to differ from the 
description of the type only in having a somewhat smaller mantle- 
opening, and that the ocellar spots are placed a little nearer the 
umbrella. The latter difference may be accounted for b}^ contrac- 
tion, many nuchal wrinkles being present. 

The principal measurements are appended : — 

mm. 

PLnd of body to mantle-margin ... ... ... 8 

,, , eye ... ... ... ... 12 

Eye to umbrella ... .. ... ... 8*50 

Breadth of body ... ... ... ... 8 

,, head ... ... ... 9 

1st right arm ... ... ... 25 ' 

2nd ,, ,, . ... ... •• mutilated. 

3rd ,, ,, ... ... ... 31 

I All the arms are much curled up, so that measurements can only he regarded 
as approximate. 



1916.] A. L. Massy : Cephalopoda of the Indian Museum. 207 



4th right ami 

1st left arm 

2nd ,, ,, 

3rd ,, ,, 

4th ,, ., 

Length of funnel 

Diameter of largest sucker 

,, ,, eye-opening 

Ocellus 



m m . 
28 
26 
28 
32 
mutilated. 

3*50 
I 
I 



Distribution, — Ceylon (type locality) ; Zanzibar (Hoyle). 
Polypus arborcscens, Hoyle. 

Polypus arboresceiis, Hoyle, Rep. Pearl Oyster Fish. Gulf of Manaar, 
p. 189, pi. 2, figs. 8, g, 12 ; pi. 3 (.1904) ; Fauna and Geogr. Maldive 
Lnccadive Archip., II, suppl. I, p. 979(1905) ; Proc. Zool.Soc. London, 
P- 454 (1907)- 

M -«-2-j3i Pearl Banks, Ceylon {T. Southivel I)— One J'. 

This possesses a round body with a constriction at the neck, 
and a mantle-opening placed about halfway between the eye. 
and an unusually broad siphon ; the latter has a blunt apex, and 
reaches nearly halfway to the margin of umbrella. The arms are 
about three times the length of the mantle, and are bent back 
over the body revealing that the first four suckers on each arm 
are placed singly, and that all have the eighth, ninth and tenth 
suckers enlarged. Umbrella lowest dorsally, extending about one- 
third of the length of the arms, and continued on their outer 
margins. Terminal organ of hectocotylized arm very small. 
Colour of body grey with dark lines ; arms reddish with light 
coloured patches, each of which is the seat of a cirrus. Cirri very 
numerous even on the ventral surface, many being much branched 
and measuring 2 mm. in length. 

The principal measurements are appended : — 



Knd of body to mantle-margin 

., ,, M M eye 
Breadth of body 
,, head 
1st right arm 
2nd ,, 
3rd ,, 
4th ,, 
1st left 
2nd ,, ,, 
3rd „ „ 
4th ,, 
Hectocotylus 

Distribution. — Indian Ocean ; Zanzibar. 



6 

8 

3 

7 

18 
20 

19 
22 
mutilated. 

19 
21 
21 
■50 



Polypus hoyleij Berry. 

Polypus hoylei Berry, Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus., XXXVII, pp. 407-8. 
text-fig. I (1909) ; Bull. Bur. Fish. U.S. A., XXXII, pp. 296-298, 
text-fig. 15, pi. 48, figs. 2-4, pi. S3, fi.g'- I (1914)-. 



2o8 Records of the Indian Museum. [Vol. XII 

M ^i^-^ ' Investigator ' .station 379 : S-.\-ic)o5, Persian Gulf, 28° 59' N., 

50° 3' E., 25 fathoms — One (J. 
M ^i-^Y^-^ ' Investigator' station 360 ; 2o-.\ii-i905, Arabian Sea, 13° 36' 

N., 47°32'E., 130 fathoms — Two (^ . 
M ^y^-i- 'Investigator' station 464: 22-iv-i9i2, S. of Ceylon, 6° 2' 30" 

N., 81° 29' E., 52-68 fathoms— One ? . 

These agree very closel}- with Berry's full description and 
excellent figures. All are characterized by a soft body ; very large 
eyes with small openings, stout arms of about two and a half 
times the length of the mantle : a semitransparent umbrella ex- 
tending about equally (slightly less between ventral pair) on all 
the arms for from one-third to nearly one half of their length, and 
continued along their outer margins in membranous expansions ; 
a very small mantle-opening ; and funnel organ of two V-shaped 
pads. 

The tip of the hectocotylized arm is stout and broad, and 
the usual transverse grooves are very obscure in two examples, 
and absent in the third. 

The male specimens show no special enlargement of the 
suckers. The ventral mantle is divided by an incipient groove 
in one specimen only. 

In three examples the funnel is free for the anterior third, or 
less, of its length, in the other it is totally fused to the head. The 
latter specimen is from comparatively shallow water, but the fused 
funnel, when opened, disclosed the same peculiar type of organ 
and the specimen did not appear to differ from the rest in any 
other character. Two examples exhibit clearly two cirri near each 
eye, one being placed above and the other below its dorsal edge. 
The sculpture and colouring are very striking ; each of the numer- 
ous tubercles is surrounded by a dotted circle of minute reddish- 
brown chromatophores, producing a somewhat star-like, or white- 
spotted pattern. The tubercles are sometimes continued on the 
ventral surface, and a few may be observed on the inner dorsal 
surface of the umbrella. In two specimens the dorsal chromato- 
phores are so dense as to present a purple-red tone, and the lower 
surface appear much paler by contrast. 

Three of Berry's specimens were taken at 257-460 fathoms, 
and the remaining one off the Hawaiian Islands, depth unknown. 
The present examples show that the species does not restrict its 
range to deep water. 

The principal measurements are appended : — 



Specimen number 




.. M ^yf^^ 


M 


S 1 2 .-, 

1 


M ^L2«- 


M ^-V--* 






mm. 




mm. 


mm. 


mm. 


End of bod}- to mantle 


-margin . 


31 




32 


25 


30 


>y 1. .> >> eye 
Eye to umbrella 
Breadth of body 




40 
28 




49 
42 
30 


38 
22 
26 


48 
31 
38 


,, ,, head 
1st right arm 




29 
65 




29 
I 


22 
67 


29 

06 


2nd ,, 
3rd 




75 
47 




... ' 
60 


70 

45 


92 



' In course of resfeneration. 



10 r6.] A. I,. Massy : Cepludopoda of the Indian Museum. 209 



Specimen number 




... M 


1 


M ''-J^^ 


\I 5 1^« 


.M 


Hl*4 

1 










mm. 


mm. 


mm. 




mm. 


I St left arm 








I 


82 


69 




91 


-Jnd ,, 








80 


...' 


65 




100 


3rd .. „ 
4th ,, ., 
Hectocotylus 
Diameter of largest 


sucker 




I 
2 


""1 

"85 

7 
2 


5 
1-50 




93 
93 

2 



Distribtition. — In the archibenthal region of the Hawaiian 
Islands. 

Type. — In U. S. National Museum, an adult male. 

Polypus pricei, Berry. 
(PI. XXIII, figs. 7-8). 

Polypus pricei, Berry, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. P/iiL, pp. 73-5 (1913) ; 
Polypus ']u\.. Berry, University of California Publications in Zool., 
Vlii, p. 303, 304 (1911). 

M ^i^a"-5-i- ' Investigator ' station 366 : io-iv-igo6, Arabian Sea, 24° 45 ' 
N., 63° 50' 15' E., 544 fathoms — Three ($ . 

This species possesses the delicate and fragile appearance of 
a pelagic organism, and is so transparent that the venous system 
can be distinctly traced, without a lens, all about the head and 
up each arm. The body is soft and elongate, and the head is 
occupied by large prominent eyes. The arms are two and a half 
times the length of the body, and have small but very prominent 
suckers placed rather far apart ; none are specially enlarged. The 
hyaline umbrella attains more than one-third of the length of the 
arms, continues a little on their outer margins, and is slightly less 
between the ventral pair. Berry describes the umbrella as ex- 
tending about equally between all the arms for '' perhaps a twelfth 
of their length " His specimens were, however, all taken from 
the stomach of a salmon and it seems reasonable to suppose that 
the fragile membrane constituting the umbrella might easily 
suffer injury under such conditions. The mantle opens just below 
the eye. The funnel has an unusually broad apex, and the funnel 
organ is so peculiar that two specimens vyere examined, and both 
were found to agree exactly. The median organ consists of two 
very small, oblong, widely-spaced pads, placed rather near the 
anterior margin of the funnel, and single lateral pads of similar 
shape and size are also present. In the smallest specimen the 
median pads measure about i'50 mm. in length, and the space 
between them is about 3 mm. Owing to the condition of Berry's 
specimens, he was unable to give a, drawing of the funnel organs 
which is therefore given here (pi. xxiii, fig. 8). The hectocotylus 
(not observed in the type) is also figured (pi. xxiii, fig. 7). The ter- 
minal organ is small, and the usual transverse furrows are faintly 
marked in the largest specimen, and almost invisible in the others; 



i In course of regeneration. 



210 



Records of tlie Indian Museum. 



[Vol. XII, 



the sperm canal is moderately defined. All the examples have a 
perfectly smooth surface and are pale buff in colour with minute 
yel!ow~brown chromatophores^ interspersed with a few larger ones. 
'' The two alternating longitudinal rows of large light-coloured 
chromatophores " described by Berry as decorating the outer 
surface of each arm are ver^^ conspicuous in the present specimens 
in parts where the outer skin has been rubbed off. 

Some measurements of the largest and smallest examples are 
appended : — 

Specimen number 

End of body to mantle-margin ... 

.. ,, ,, ,, eye 
Eye to umbrella 
Breadth of body 
,, „ head 
1st right arm 
2nd ,, 
3rd ,, ,, 
4th ,, 
ist left ,, 
2nd ,, 
3>-d „ ,. 
4th ,, „ 
Hectocotylus 
Length of funnel 
Diameter of largest sucker 
Diameter of eye 

Distribution. — Off Point Pinos, Monterey Bay, California; 
four specimens from the stomach of a salmon {Onchorhynchus 
tschawytscha) . Santa Catalina Island, California. 

Type. — In the Stanford University Collections, four female 
specimens. 



M ^-ij^i^ 


M ^-V-i 


mm. 


mm. 


26 


20 


34 
28 


27 
13 


20 


13 


14 


10 


70 
64 


54 
53 


41 


30 


71 

70 


47 

48 less tip 


72 
70 


49 
mutilated. 


68 


47 


-'•50 


175 


14 


12 


I 


■75 


7 


5 



Polypus sp. 



M 



l.ocality lost— One ? . 



This would appear to have been preserved in alcohol for a 
long period, all trace of chromatophores having faded, leaving the 
specimen of a uniform dull pale-green colour. Body ovoid, firm, 
much wrinkled, but appearing to possess many tubercles on the 
dorsal surface and to be smooth below. A narrow fold of skin, 
more developed laterally than posteriorly, divides the dorsal from 
the ventral region. Hoyle (1886, p. 89) says with regard to a 
similar character in P. australis : "It is doubtful what value 
" is to be attached to the raised ridge mentioned above ; it is to 
" be seen in other species under certain conditions, possibly due 
' either to different modes of preservation or to varying states 
" of contraction ; nevertheless, in the majority of forms it is never 
" observed, and I am therefore inclined to attribute to it a 
" certain systematic importance." 

This example does not, however, agree with any of the 
species hitherto described as possessing a carinated membrane. 
The head is a little narrower than the bodv and there is a large 



1916.] A. L. Massy : Cephalopoda of the Indian Museum. 21 r 

conical cirrus on the posterior dorsal edge of each eye, with a 
smaller cirrus at the anterior dorsal edge. No nuchal constriction ; 
eyes not prominent. Arms about twice the length of the body, 
thick and muscular, tapering to fine points. Umbrella highest 
laterally, extending nearly one- third of the length of the arms, 
measuring 80 mm. between the dorsal and 70 mm. between the 
ventral pair ; continued on outer margins of arms. Mantle- 
opening placed nearly at the ventral edge of eye and but little 
below it. Siphon conical, about half of its length projecting above 
level of eyes ; funnel organ W-shaped, the median pads being 
very wide and touching one another throughout most of their 
length ; the lines forming the commencement and end of the '' W" 
meet in a point and all the other angles are rounded. 

In the short arms, ocular cirri, and the deep scoop out occur- 
ring on the umbrella margin between dorsal arms, this resembles 
P. rugosus. It differs, however, in the long narrow body and the 
broad funnel organ to the specimens referred to P. rugosus in the 
present paper. Compared with an example of P. vulgaris from 
Plymouth \ this has a longer and narrower body, a wider mantle- 
opening, larger suckers, a higher umbrella dorsally, and a blunter 
apex to the siphon ; the latter also reaches higher above the eye 
than in P. vulgaris. The ventral mantle in the Plymouth specimen 
measures 85 mm. in length and 84 mm. in breadth, and the dis- 
tance from the end of the body to the eye is 100 mm. 

The principal measurements of the specimen M ^V^ are as 
follows : — 



End of body lo manlle-maryin 


... [28 • 


,. n ,, M eye 


... 146 


Eye to umbrella ... • 


... 88 


Breadth of body 


. . 80 


, , head 


.. 67 


1st right arm 


... mutilated 


2nd ,, ,, 


... 287 


3rd ,. ,, 


... 270 


4th ,, ,, 


... 278 


ist left ,, 


... mutilated 


2nd ,, 


,, 


Srd M ,, 


,, 


4th „ „ 


... 277 


Diameter of largest sucker 


16 


,, ,, eye-opening 


9 


I^ength of funnel 


••■ 55 


Breadth of funnel at apex 


... 15 



Polypus sp. 

M S2^2 Kilakarai, Ramnad District, Gulf of Manaar, South India, from 
coral reefs, F"eb. 1913 (.S". W. Kemp) — One ? . 

This is too small to determine with certainty. It is charac- 
terized by an oblong body ; very prominent eyes, each having a 



1914 



' Kindly forwarded by the Marine Biological Laboratory, Plymouth, May 



212 Records of the Indian Museum. [Vol. XII, 

large four-lobed cirrus at the centre of its dorsal edge ; arras 
about three times the length of the mantle ; umbrella about a 
quarter the length of the arms, a little higher laterally, about 
equal elsewhere, not continued on outer margins of arms ; mantle - 
opening placed just behind, and on a level with, the posterior end 
of the eye ; siphon reaching about half way to the edge of umbrella. 
Colour above greyish, produced by minute red-brown chromato- 
phores closely sprinkled on a buff ground; paler below, with 
fewer and larger chromatophores. On the outer surface of each 
arm there is a row of four to six large dark chromatophores which 
cease at about the edge of the umbrella, or, more rarely, a little 
above it. Numerous small pointed tubercles are scattered over 
the dorsal surface. The ventral mantle is smooth except for a 
median groove. Compared with the descriptions of Hoyle, Wiilker 
and Berry of young specimens of this genus, the present example 
seems to be nearest to Polypus H. (Hoyle, 1904, p. 197) and 
Polypus M. (Hoyle, 1907, p. 455). 

The principal measurements are appended : — 

mm. 

End of body to mantle-margin ... . ... 5 

M M ,) M eye ... ... 6 

Eye to umbrella ... ... ... 4 

Breadth of body 4 

,, ,, head ... 5 

1st right arm ... ig 

2nd ,, 



4th 

ist left 
2nd , . 
3rd .. 
4th ., 



mutilated. 

17 
18 

17 
20 

17 
14 



Polypus sp. 

M ^^-^ ' Investigator ' station 557 : i-xi-1913, Port Maria, Elphinstone 
I., 12° 23' 15'' N., 98° 2' 00" E., shore collecting — One ? . 

This 3'^oung example does not seem to agree with the charac- 
ters of an^'- of the described species, and the comparison is rendered 
more difficult by the mutilation of the ventral arms which are 
represented only by stumps with the first two suckers, and as a 
consequence of this much of the umbrella is also absent. The 
principal characters are : elongate body ; prominent eyes ; arms 
two and a half times the length of the mantle, with large suckers, 
the first four being placed singly ; umbrella (where present) about 
one- fifth the length of the arms, continued conspicuously on the 
outer margins of the arms almost to the extremity; mantle-opening 
at ventral edge of e^^e ; siphon somewhat pointed and reaching 
above arm roots, siphonal organ probably W-shaped but is not in 
good condition ; dorsal surface, and inside of umbrella between 
dorsal arms, much wrinkled and with many small tubercles, the 
latter becoming less numerous on the mantle which has a smooth 
ventral surface without a median groove, only a few elongate 



I9i6.] A. ly. Massy : Cephalopoda of the Indian Museum. 213 

wrinkles being present. Ocular cirri not apparent. Colour buff 
with numerous minute dark chromatophores which are equally 
small, but much fewer, ventrally. This approaches P. rugosus 
more than any other species in the collection, but the eye. 
in the examples which have been referred in the present list to 
that species is lower in regard to the position of the siphon than 
it is in M ^"V""-, and this would seem to be a character less depen- 
dent on modes of preservation than such differences as the elongate 
shape of the body and the absence of ocular cirri. 
The principal measurements are appended : — 

mm. 

Knd of body 10 mantle-m;ir^in ... 19 

, eye ... ... 25 

Eye to umbrella ... .10 

Breadth of body ... . ,12 

,, ,, head ... ... ... 12 

I St right arm . .. ••■39 

2nd . , , , ... ... 46 

3rd ,. ,. ... 47 

4th ,. ,, mutilated. 

1st left arm .. .38 

2nd ,, ,. . . ... 45 

.3rd ,. ,, ..50 

4th ,, ,, mutilated. 

Length of funnel . . 6 

Diameter of largest sucker ... 2 

EledoncIIa diaphana (Hoyle). 

^apetella diaphana, Hoyle, Diagnoses, I, p. 232 ; Prelim. Rep., I, p. 
lo8 (1885); Eledonella iiaphaiia, Hoyle, 'Challenger' Rep., XVI 
(Cephlopoda), pp. 187-8, pi. 9, figs. 3-6 (1886) ; Bull. Mus. Comp. 
ZooL, XLHI, No. I, p. 22, pi. 5, fig. II (1904) ; Joubin, Res. Camp. 
Set. Monaco, XVH, pp. 3739, pi. 2, figs. 5-7 (1901); C.R.Acad. 
Paris, XXXVI, p. loi (1903), 

M ^ Y^ ' Investigator ' station 273 : 27-xii-i9oo, Laccadive Sea, 12° 47' 

N., 73° 44' 45" E., 823-870 fathoms — One. 
M i-^i ' Investigator ' station 315 : i2-iv-i903, S. of Andaman Islands, 

10° 6' N., 92° 29' E., 705 fathoms — One. 

vSpecimen M -^- agrees closely with Hoyle's description of the 
type and it is interesting to note that some of the suckers have a 
circular opening and others the quadrangular or triangular form 
which Hoyle thought was probably due to shrinking. The siphon 
extends two-thirds of the distance to the umbrella margin and its 
organ is a /^-shaped pad. The third arms are nearly as long as 
the mantle. Colour pale with red-brown spots. 

Specimen M -y- differs a little from the type but agrees very 
closely with the illustrations and measurements of an almost 
similar sized specimen referred by Joubin (1901) to this species. 
The arms and siphon are shorter and the umbrella higher than in 
the type. The latter is highest between the dorsal arms, extend- 
ing to two- thirds of their length, and attains about half the length 
of the other arms. The mantle extends 6 mm. below and 7 mm. 
at either side of the visceral sac. About eighteen suckers are 



Wl. 


[Vol. XII, 


len shows any trace 


cl:— 


M -i^J-j^i 


mm. 


mm. 


33 
39 

7 

22 


23 

27 

6 

20 


12 

7 

10 

mutilated 


12 
6 

5 
. rrt.7 


19' 
2g I 


crt. II 
mutilated. 


22 
20 
22 


9 

9 

mutilated. 


31' 

21 


14 
10 



214 Records of the Indian Museum. 

present on the longest arm. 
of a hectocotylus. 

The principal measurements are appended: — 

Specimen number 

End of body to dorsal mantle-maroin 

, , , , eye 
Eye to umbrella 
Breadtli of body 
,, head 
I .englh of eye 

,, ,, siphon 
1st riofht arm 
2nd ".. ,. 
3rd ,, .. 
4th .. „ 
i.st lefl .. 
2nd ,, 
3rd ., ., 
4th „ .. 

Distrihtition. — North of Papua (/foy/t', 1886) ; Between Madeira 
and Morocco {Joubin, 1901) ; Tropical Pacific {Hoyle, 1904) ; Off 
Cape \'erde (Joubin, 1903). 

Eledonella sp. 

M ■'' \^ "■ Arabian Sea, 947 fathoms— One. 

M siST. 'Investigator' station 393 : 21-x-igii, Bay of Bengal, 7*^ 21' 6'' 

N., 85° 7^15" E., net at 400 fathoms, soundings 2000 fathoms — One. 
M '?i43- 'Investigator' station 462^ : 2o-iv-i9i2, Bay of Bengal, 9^8' 

N., 87° 25' E., 475 fathoms— One. 

Specimen M -V^ consists of fragments of a very large example. 
The siphon, which has a /^-shaped organ, measures 15 mm. in 
length and 6 mm, at the apex which is flattened. None of the 
arms shows any sign of a hectocotylus, and as they are all detached 
from the bod\' their order cannot be ascertained. The shortest 
measures 100 mm. in length and possesses thirteen suckers 
arranged singly, but unequal gaps and fibres of muscle show that 
many suckers are missing. The six largest are placed on the 
distal half and measure nearly 5 mm. in diameter by 5 ram. in 
height ; the most distal sucker measures r25 mm. in diameter and 
the final 8 mm. of arm is devoid of suckers. All are shaped as 
described by Hoyle for E. diaphana and have a quadrangular 
opening paused b}' four rounded lips folded towards each other as 
in Berry's figure of a single sucker of E. heathi, Berry (1912, pi. 
33, fig. 3). The longest arm measures 171 mm. and has eleven 
suckers, the largest measuring 7 mm. in diameter at the base. 
The other arms measure 166 mm., 167 mm., 135 mm., 130 mm., 
125 mm., and no mm. in length. The mantle is denuded of 
epidermis, but the arms are pale buff with brown spots, and such 
of the animal as is present possesses the delicate hyaline consis- 

1 Less tip. 



igi6.] A. L. Massy : Cephalopoda of the Indian Musewn. 215 

tency of the specimens referred to E. diaphana. Specimen M ^— 
is very young having a mantle-length of only 5 mm., the pallial 
opening is very wide and the eyes large : the siphon extends half 
way to the umbrella margin. The arms are all mutilated. The 
umbrella reaches to about the third sucker on the dorsal arms 
and is much shorter ventrally. Colour pale with a few reddish- 
brown chromatophores. This and the following have been pre- 
served in formalin. Specimen M ^nf~ has a mantle of 8 mm. The 
third arms are the longest, and the siphon extends two-thirds 
of the distance to the umbrella margin. Colour as in specimen 
M -T-. Probably these specimens are referrable to E. diaphana. 

Family SEPIOLIDAE. 
Iniotcuthis japonica, Verrill. 

Iiiioteuthis japoiiicd, Verrill, Rep. i'. S. Fish. Coiinii., p. 417, t(jotiK)te 
(1881); Joubin, Bui/. Soc. Zool. France, XXII, p. lul (1897 1; Berry, 
Proc. Acad. .Yaf. Sci. Phil., pp. 405-8, pi. 5, fig. 5 (igiart). 

M i057 !:« po,.f Yi]n\v. Andaman Islands (.V.TF. Kentp)~T\yo ?, one 
young'. 

The two smallest of these specimens have a mantle-length of 
5 and 9 mm. 

The largest female, compared with a male of /. juaculosa, 
Goodrich, of similar mantle-length, shows that /. japonica has the 
nuchal commissure narrower than the length of the fin at inser- 
tion, while in / maculosa these measurements are about equal. 

The latter has a uniformly narrower body, shorter, rounder 
fins, and larger siphon than 7. japonica. The bell-shaped mantle 
of the latter is very marked in the large female, when viewed 
ventrally. 

In /. maculosa the chromatophores form large, dark-brown 
spots and blotches all over the body and arms, except the siphon 
and lower surface of fins. 

In /. japonica they form very minute bluish-red dots which 
become larger on the head, and the ventral surface of the fins and 
siphon is freckled with orange dots. A note on the label states 
that the specimens were bright yellow when alive. These three 
specimens of /. japonica are all a little contracted, and seem to 
have a thicker skin and harder body than /. maculosa, but these 
differences may be due to varying modes of preservation. 

The valve in the siphon is much longer in the example ex- 
amined than in that of 7. maculosa. 

The measurements of this large female are appended : — 

Specimen number ... ... I\I -'^i^'-"' 

mm. 

End ol body to mande-margin ... 13 

Breadth of body ... ...12 

,, ,, head ... lu 

Nuchal commissure ... 5 

Fin length at in.sertion ... ... ... 6 



2i6 Records of the Indian Museum. [Vol. XII, 

Specimen number . ... ... M i^^- 

mm. 
1st right arm ... ... . 8 

2nd ,, 
3rd ,, 
4th ,, 



Tentacle 
Club 



8 

9 

8 

18 

4 



Distribution. — Japan . 

Type. — Cat. No. 9,639 (part) Yale University Museum, a male. 

Iniotcuthis maculosa, Goodrich. 

hiioteiithis maculosa, (ioodrich, Trans. Linn. .S'tfcVII, pp. 2-.^, pi. i. 
figs. 1-3 (1896). 

M ^V 1 Pu" Beach, Orissa Coast {R. E. Lloyd)— On^ ,$ . 
M ^"-t ' Investigator' station 556 ; off Burma Coast, Marine .Survey ot 
India^ — One $ . 

The hectocotylus in the male specimen closely resembles 
Joubin's (1897, P- 10^^) description of the modified arm in /. japo- 
nica, Vll., e.g., " Une membrane demi-circulaire, en forme de C, 
entoure un tubercule median." 

Such of the tentacular rings as are in a favourable position 
for examination show ten or eleven blunt teeth which seem to 
extend round the entire ring. What appear to be papillae are also 
present in the guise of small, pointed between-teeth. 

Some of the differences between this species and the last 
mentioned have been already pointed out. 

The principal measurements are appended : — 

Specimen number 

End of body to mantle-margin 
Breadth of body 
„ ,, head 
Nuchal commissure 
Length of fin at insertion 
Breadth across fins 
I St right arm 

2nd ,, 

3rd 

4th ., 
Tentacle- 
Club 

Distribution. — Andamans ; Persian Gulf. 

Type. — In Indian Museum, Calcutta, two females. 

Euprymna morsel (Verrill), Steenstrup. 

Jnioteuthis morsei, Verrill, Rep. U. S. Fish Comm., p. 417, footnote 
(1881); Joubin, Bull. Soc. Zool. Fratice,XXll,p. 102(1897); ? Sepiola 
bursa, Pfeffer, Abh. Naturw. Ver. Hamburg, VII, p. 6, fig. 6 (1884) : 
Euprymna moysei, Steenstrup, Overs, K. D. Vidensk. Selsk, Fork,, p. 
66 (1887); Hoyle, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., XLIII, p. 26 (1904); 
Wulker. Abh. d. If. Kl . d. k. Ak. Wiss.. Ill Suppl.-Bd., i Abh.. pp. 9 



M '^V-' 


M »-Y-i 


mm. 


mm. 


13 


8 


10 


7 


9 


6 


3-50 


3 


3'5o 


2-50 


15 


ID 


12 


5 


13 


7 


15 


7 


12 


ca. 6 


20 


12 


7 


3 



iQi6.] A. L. Massv : Cephalof)oda of the Indian Mhscimu. 217 

etc., pi. I, fig. 9; pi. 3, figs. 23, 24; pi. 4, fig. 40 (1919) : Berry, Pmc. 
Acad. Nat. Sci. Phil., pp. 408-14, pi. 6, fig. i (i9i2rt). 



M ^-OyO-B Nyanbyini liay, Burma: 28-viii-i9i i , 
M fiijfi-a Andamans — One (^ . 1899. 
M ^^4 Persian Gulf {Towiisoid)— One ? . 
M ^^e.a Hongkong (/?. Hitngerford)—O\vc (^ . 



fathoms — One $ . 



^Qxty states that the umbrella is *' lacking or at best rudi- 
mentary between the dorsal arms." In the present specimens a 
delicate web extends to the third or fifth sucker between these 
arms. The hectocotylus in both males agrees with Berry's des- 
cription. In specimen M ^^^ enlarged suckers appear on the third 
and fourth right arms, and in specimen M^^on the third right 
and fourth left. Many suckers are missing from the other arms of 
both specimens. The enlarged suckers occur on the two ventral 
rows as noted bv Berry . The principal measurements are appen- 
ded :— 



Specimen 


number 


M «iL9i' M 


s 1 (j_B 
1 


M 


823 4: 


M ^^'' 






mm. 


mm. 




mm. 


mm 


End of body to web between dorsal 


arms _'4 


-'4 




22 


28 


M M . 


, ,, mantlc-margin 


... ifi 


1 8 




15 


14 


Breadth of body 


15 


12 




1 2 


1 1 -50 




, nuchal commissure 


s 


7 




8 


6 




, head 


\2 


1 1 




1 1 


g 


1 , 


, fins 


24 


22 




22 


21 


I si right 


arm 


mutilated. 


15 


mutilatf 


xl. 14 


2nd ,, 




17 


19 






15 


3rd .. 




■ ■■ 15 


17 








16 


4th . 




14 


i() 




, 




14 


ist left 




12 


1 2 




, 




11 


2nd ,, 




... 16 


17 








mutilated 


3rd „ 




14 


16 








16 


4th ,, 




13 


15 








12 


Tentacle 




• •• 15 


14 








^7 


Club 




... 6 ,7 


• 5 








5 



Distribution. — Japan, Philippines (Joubin), Formosa, Hong 
Kong, Andamans, Gulf of Manaar, Maldive Archipelago. 

Type. — Cat. No. 9,638, Yale University Museum, a female. 



Family SEPIOLIDAE. 



jyi aijSi 'Investigator' station 38^ 
94° 8' E., 517 fathoms — One ? ." 



23-xi-i9()8, oft Buinia, 17'^' i8' N., 



This is in such bad condition that it is not possible to say if 
a nuchal commissure was present or if the species was provided 
with a pen. 

The mantle is bell shaped, and the lacerated fins appear to 
have been attached at about the middle portion. The funnel is 
long and its organ consists of two elongate somewhat pyriform 
pads, the narrowest part in each being placed anteriorly. Each 
pad is 10 mm. by 4 mm. in breadth. Eyes very large. First 
pair of arms the shortest, the others semi-equal. The suckers are 
missing but their bases show that the^^ were placed in two rows. 



2l8 



Records^ of the Indian Museum. 



[Vol,. XII, 



The club suckers are very minute and possess a smooth ring ; 
they are placed in about eight rows at the centre of the club. 
The epidermis is wanting in many parts but the colour seems to 
have been buff covered very densely with purple or black 
chromatophores, which are present on both sides of the fins also. 
Such of the surface as is entire seems to be smooth. 

The principal measurements are given below: — 



Knd ot body to ventral mantie-marg'in 


vi 


Breadth of body 




... ca. 22 


Length of fin 




21 


Breadth ,, 




If) 


Diameter of eye 




s 


,, eye- 


opening 


.T 


isl right arm 




^<l 


2nd ,. ,, 




,U 


,^,rd „ „ 




37 


4lh „ „ 




3,1 


I St left ., 




2Q 


2nd ,. ,. 




3' 


3rd ,, ., 




?,3 


4th „ „ 




3- 


Tentacle 




59 


Club 




15 



Family LOUGINIDAE. 

Loligo indica, Pfeffer. 

(PI. XXIII, fig. 9; pi. XXIV, fig. II.) 

Loligo iiidica, Pfeffer, Abh. Natiivv:. Ver. Hamburg, N'Hl, p. 4, hgs. 3, 
T^a (1884) i Hoyle, ' Challenger' Rep.. XVI (Cephalopoda), pp. 156-7, 
pi. 26, figs. l-io (1886) ; Goodrich, Trn)is. Litui. Sac. \'l\ p. 7, pi. 2, 
figs. 20-28 (i8q6). 



M S.Q2 Cochin (F. Day): 26-vi-i877— One 9 Mantle-length 
M ^^ Penang, Malay Peninsula ( Dr. Stoliczka) 

—One J 
M ^'i Akyab, Burma (IF. Dodgson) — One (J 
yi ^iA-A Puri, Orissa Coast (.S'. IF. Kemp\— 

One 9 

y[ A4i6:8 Off Puri Coast, igoS, trawler ' Golden 

Crown', Bengal Fish. Dept. — Three 1^ 

M sos^iao Cochin {F. Day) : 26-vi- 1 877— Two ^ 

One 9 
M ^-\9-i Akyab, Burma {\V. Dodgson)— One 9 
>[ so9_2:7. Madras, purchased — Three (J 

Three 9 

M iiiAlJio . Investigator ' station 481 ; 25-26-xii 

-igi2, Mergui Harbour, 7 fathoms — Two ^ 

One $ 

\[ HiAii 'Investigator' station 522 : 2-iii-iQi3. 
Mergui Archipelago, 12° 35' 15 "N., 98*^ 16' P-^., 
5 fathoms — One 9 ,, 44 

A 5J-Y-- Andamans (y. Wood MasoiA — Two (^ ., 7^-77 

Two 9 ,, 72-80 



mm. 
95 

73 

82 

22 

S3. 1 8: 

^'5-77 
69 

74 
68-94 
45-83 

53-7 J 
58 



Less tip. 



igiC-).] A. Tv. Massy : Cephalopoda of tli.- Indian Museum. 219 

mm. 
>xit*-j±L Pari Beach (?) — Ri.yhtcen young Manilc-lentith 12-26 
1\1 8i92^2on pm-i Orissa Coast (A'. .1. ain/ 

R. E.L.) —Five c? 32-49 

Four 9 ■• 47-9^ 

y\ a2Q^:io piiri Beach (F. 11. Gravely)— 

Three $ .. 36-77 

Two 9 .. 64-75 

M '*2i3:i± Pari Beach (C. Paha), 23-iii-l9o8 

—One ^ ., 9-' 

One 9 110 

M KXIA Puri Beach, Orissa Coast {J. Cauntei') 

31-1-1909 —One ^ .. 43 

]\I 82ia:i8 Varkula\-, Travancore I..V. Aiinaii- 
dale): io-x\-igoo —One ($ .. 220 

Two 9 .. 93-114 

^I s_2_i_9 {Karachi (IF, D. Ciirnming}— One (^ .. 75 

M ^-Y-fi Gangaram, Vizagapatam District, 

Madras Coast {MoH Ram) —One? ,. 9' 

? Small specimen in bad condition. 
M S2^a2 Akyab, Burma (/. H. Burkill)—Or\e 2 .. 72 

M 827_4;a Off Gopalpore, trawler ' Golden 
Crown', Bengal Fish. Dept., 23-27-ix-i909 — 

Three 9 ... 7^*^ 

1 20 
3 4 
yi sajy^i Off Eastern Channel, m. of R. Hughli. 
trawler 'Golden Crown', xi-igoQ, Bengal 
Fish. Dept. —Two J ., 97 -H^ 

M 8 9,9 5^03 i Investigator ' station 565 and 567 : 
i3-2i-xi-i9i3. ii°54'oo"N., 98°i9'oo"E., 

6-7 fathoms — Five cj -^5-^5 

Two 9 ,, 33-42 

(^V) Three young ,. 10-12 

M 9oo|j.a ' Investigator ' station 575 : 20-xii- 

191 2, Off entrance to Mergui Harbour, S. 

Burma, 7-fathoms (?) Six young .. S-o 

M 9_sii.ii9 ' Investigator ' station 590 : 8-9-i- 

1913, Mergui Archipelago 13° 5' 15" N., 97° 

53' E., about 30 fathoms —One ^ .. 17 

Two 9 .. . 72-80 

M .aflso^oGLL ■ Investigator ' station 569 : 29-30- 
xi-i9i3, ii°52'io*N.. 98° i8'4o"E., 5 fathoms 

—Thirty-six ($ .. 16-81 

Thirty-two $ .. 10-102 

M s%'-± Off Gopalpore, 30-38 fathoms, Bay of 
Bengal, trawler ' Golden Crown' , Bengal Fish. 
Dept., Dec, 1909 — One 9 .. no 

These twenty-live records of seventy males and sixt^^-two 
females show that the present species occurs all round the coast 
of India from Karachi to the mouth of the River Hughli, and also 
off the Burmese coast and Andaman Islands. The length and 
breadth of the fins with regard to the length of the mantle exhibits 
a certain amount of individual variation, but, except in the case 
of several small females in the haul M ^"-^^^^a^^^ which showed much 
wider fins than males of the same size, there seems to be no 



220 Records of the Indian Museuui. [Vor,. XII, 

marked difference as regards this between the sexes. The small 
specimens M ^^^^ possess a fin measuring one-third of the length 
of the mantle and resemble the useful illustration of Hoyle (/. c, 
p. 156, text-fig.). Sixteen males from various hauls, with mantle- 
length of 21-97 mm., possess a fin measuring about half the length 
of the mantle, and the same proportion is shown by eleven females 
with mantle of 16-120 mm. In three females with mantle of 63- 
75 mm. the fin does not attain quite half the length of the mantle, 
and in two others with mantle of 30-42 mm. the fin measures two- 
thirds of the mantle. The largest sized specimens of both sexes 
possess a fin measuring more than half and less than one-third of 
the mantle. 

The rings of the arm suckers in the young specimens M ^^f ^^ 
show five to eight teeth, and some large tentacle rings possess 
sixteen to nineteen teeth round the ring ; suckers occur on the 
buccal membrane but there is no trace of a hectocotylus. 

Large males, frequently, but not always, have the largest 
rings of the lateral arms larger than the largest rings of the club. 
In females these rings are almost always either slightly or much 
smaller than the largest rings of the club, and as a consequence 
of this they have fewer teeth on the lateral arm rings than the 
male owing to the smaller size of the ring. Thus a male with 
mantle of 75 mm. possesses ten or eleven teeth on the lateral 
rings, and not more than six on the dorsal and ventral arms, and 
a female with mantle of 72 mm. does not possess more than six 
teeth on the largest arm suckers. The number of teeth on the 
largest tentacle rings does not appear to increase after a certain 
mantle-length has been attained. Thus a male and female with 
mantle-length of yy mm. possess seventeen to twenty teeth on the 
largest rings, and the same number is shown by two females with 
mantle of 120-134 mm. 

The number of suckers on the different angles of the buccal 
membrane varies from one or two to three, four or six. Five 
to nine blunt teeth are present on the ring, part of which is 
always smooth. In large females a tubercle is placed at the base 
between the ventral angles. In the small specimens M ^030^909? 
the nidamental glands are barely perceptible in females with a 
mantle-length of 10-15 mm. The smallest sexually distinct 
males have a mantle of 16 mm. Young specimens of both sexes 
have much fewer chromatophores, but examples with a mantle- 
length up to about ^y mm. seem always to show two very 
conspicuous clusters of dark chromatophores on the dorsal surface 
of the head, giving each little creature a superficial appearance of 
having two eyes on the back of its head as well as the real 
laterally-placed eyes. 

As regards anatomy the specimens M ^^-^-^ were examined 
and nothing was discovered that is not usual in the genus. The 
female specimen had the ovary tightly packed with eggs — the 
bilobed nidamental gland measured 24 X n mm. The radula 



igi6.j A. L. Massy : Cephalopoda of the Indian Museinu. zzi 

Ipl. xxiv, fig. II) closel}' resembles that of L. pealit, Verrill (1882, 
pi. xxviii, figs. 6-8). The frontal lamina of the upper mandible (pi. 
xxiii, fig. 9) curves more upwards than in that species and the 
posterior end of the palatine lamina has a median indentation. 
The lower mandible (pi. xxiii, fig. 9) has the notch near the ros- 
trum less marked than in L. pealii and the lower edge of the 
gular lamina is indented. 

Distribution. — Indo-Malayan Region. 

Type. — In Hamburg Museum. 



Loligo spectrum, Pfeft'er. 

Loligo specti'um, Pfeffer, Abli. Nafurw. Ver. Hainbtirg. VIII, pp. 5-6, 

figs. 5. 5«Ci884). 
M -"-2^5.4 Arakan coast, trawler ' Golden Cro2vn ', Bengal Fish. Dept., 

—One ^. 

The long, slender body readily distinguishes this species from 
L. indica. Order of arms 3, 4, 2, i. Rings of arm suckers usually 
with eight teeth (sometimes seven or nine) on the distal margin, 
and the rest of ring smooth. At the base and distal portion of 
each arm the teeth are short, broad and blunt, elsewhere they are 
rather narrow, pointed and slightly curved. Distal rings often 
have only four to six teeth, and a sucker at the base of the fourth 
right arm has eleven teeth. Sixteen rows of suckers occur on the 
proximal part of the hectocotylized arm, the two pairs immediate- 
ly preceding the papillae being placed on long stalks. Pfeffer 
describes the tentacular rings as possessing forty teeth. Thirty- 
one is the largest number I could find on any tentacular ring, but 
this specimen is considerably smaller than the type which has a 
mantle-length of 284 mm. A marginal sucker, intermediate in 
size between the large and the distal club suckers, possesses 
eight pointed teeth separated by the width of the base of a tooth, 
and covering the distal half of the ring. Suckers are present on 
the buccal membrane which is seven-angled. 

The principal measurements are appended: — 



End of body to dorsal mantle margin 

Length of fin 

Breadth of fins 

1st right arm 

2nd ,, ,, 

3rd ,, 

4th ,, ,, 

1st left ,, 

2nd ,, ,, 

3rd ., ,, 

4th ,, ,, 

Length of tentacle 

,, ,, club 
Diameter of largest tentacular ring 
arm ,, 

Distrihitian. — Marquesas. 

Type. — In Hamburg Museum, three males. 



mm. 

155 
100 

62 

28 

30 
mutilated. 

45 
33 
38 

45 

42 

103 

33 
2-50 



222 Records of the Indian Museum. [Vol. XII, 

Loligo sp. 

° '■ mm. 

M ^'P and M 'i2_2o Madras, purchased, 

3o-iv-i877 — Two ^ Mantle-length 120-135 

M ^2^7. Pamban, Ramnad District, Gulf of 
Manaar, from weeds. 0-2 fathoms, 24-111-1913 
{S. W. Kemp) —Two ,, 4 

M ^2^5. Kilakarai, Ramnad District, South 
India, from weeds, 0-2 fathoms, 16-II-1913 
{S. W.Kemp) —One .. 7 

M ^^3. ' Investigator ' station 565 : 13-xl- 
1913, 11° S7' lo" N., 98° 19' 00" E., 7 fathoms 

—One .. 8 

Specimens M '-f" and M -V- resemble L. indica in their shape 
and colour, and in the size and arrangement of the suckers on 
club, arms and buccal membrane ; as, however, the horny rings 
of all the suckers are missing it is not possible to determine the 
species with certainty. 

Loliolus investigatoris, Goodrich. 

Loliolus investigatoris, Goodrich, Traits. Linn. Soc, VII, pp. S-y, ph -', 
figs. 29-37 (1896). ,,,,,,_ 

M ^p Penang (Dr. Stoliczka) — One 2 Mantle-length 43 

M ^f«- Sandheads, River Hughli (G. Lord)— 

One 2 ,. 53 

M 5id_7^8 p^pj Qrigg.^ Coast 1 i S. IV lump)— 

Two c? .. 35-39 

M S-Q^s . Investigator ', Mouth of Tavoy River, 

28-VIII-1911 — One d .. ^5 

M 8iQ2 E, s, E. of S. Moscos I., Marine Sur- 
vey of India — One d ifi 
M ^iAi ' Investigator ' station 481 : 25-26-xli- 

1912, Mergui Harbour, 7 fathoms — One 2 •■ 3*^' 

M.&i^:^i Mouth of River HnghW {Capt. R. 

Munro) — P'our cf ■■ 31-88 

One c? ■• 34 

M ^-y-3- Purl Beach, i-2-ii-K)oo (.V. Aiinandale) 

—One c? .. 34 

M s^-- Purl, Orissa Coast, 18-19-I-1908 {N. A. 

and R.E.L.) —One 2 ■■ -'^^ 

M -^^-^ 10 miles N. R. of Devi river, Orissa 

Coast — One 2 3i 

M ^-2J5-3 Shrimp-trawler off Frazergunge, 

Sunderbunds — One d ■■ 35 

\] S3^± 'Investigator' station 402: 15-16-xl- 
191 1, Mergui Archipelago, 13° 2' N., 98° 
25' E., 5 fathoms — One mutilated ,, 27 

M 100^-83 Karnaphull River, Chlttagong {A. C. 

Chowdhury) December, 1914 — Two d •■ 32-37 

Three 2 ^'^- 

M io<2^3^± Near Mud Point, River Hughli, D. 
netusedas townet, S. I,. Kitty [T. Southwell) 
[3-11-1915 —One d .. 28 

One 2 •• 37 

A marked sexual difference is apparent in the specimens 
M ^-i--5f «\ The male with a mantle-length of 31 mm. has much 

' Found in a hole near a rock at low tide. 



1916.J A. L. Massy : Cephalopoda of the Indian Museum. 223 

longer lateral arms with much larger suckers than the female with 
a mantle-length of 34 mm. 

Distribution.— lndiO-M.Q\Ay2ii\ Region. 

Type. — In Indian Museum, Calcutta. 

Family SEPIIDAE. 
Sepia aculcata, Van Hasselt MS., in d'Orbigny. 

Sepia acideata, Van Hasselt MS., in d'Orbigny and Ferussac, Nisf. 

Nat. Ceph. nce't., p. 287, pis. 5, 25 (1834) ; Steenstrup, Vidensk. 

Selsk, Skr. 5th R., Bd. 10. VII (1875) ; Tryon, Man. Conch., (i) i, 

p. 169, pi. 90, fig. 415 ; pi. 91, figs. 416, 417 (after d'Orbigny) (1879) , 

Goodrich, Trans. Linn. Soc, VII, p. 3 (1896) ; Joubin, Azotes Leyden 

Mus., XX, p. 25 (1898); Wiilker, ^Abh. d. II. Kl. K. Ak. d. Wiss.. 

Ill Suppl.-Bd., I Abh., p. II (1910) ; Berry, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 

Phil., p. 418 (19120) ; Acanthosepion Hasselti, de Rochebrune, Bull. 

Soc. Phil. Paris, (7), VIII, p. 10 1 (1884). 
M ^^ Akyab, Burma {W. Dodgson)— One ? . 
M 'f^ Sandheads, River Hughli (F. Milner)— One c?. 
M ^i§.5 'Investigator' station 519 : i-iii-1913, Mergui Archipelago, 

Elphinstone I., Port Maria, shore collecting — One ?. 
M ^^ Palk Straits, South of India— One ? . 
M 82.51 Akyab, Burma (/. H. Burkill)— One S- 
M 8_2_fi2 gg^y pf Bengal, trawler ' Golden Croivn ', Bengal Fish. Dept.. 

—One ? . 
M s2jr:S. Bay of Bengal, trawler ' Golden Croivn ', Bengal Fish. Depl., 

— One (^ , one J . 
M ^^^ Balasore Bay, Orissa Coast, viii-1908, trawler ' Golden Croivn ', 

Bengal Fish. Dept., — One $ . 
M ^Qf-A ' Investigator' station 557 : off Burma Coast, Marine Sur\ey 

of India — One ^ . 

These all agree in the presence of suckers on the buccal 
membrane and in having the tentacle suckers all of small size and 
semi-equal, and armed with acute teeth all round the ring, the 
largest being on the distal half of the circumference. Very promi- 
nent papillae are also apparent in the best-preserved specimens. 
Specimen M --r^- possesses what appear to be clubs in process of 
repair at the end of each tentacle stem. They are much narrow^er 
than the stems and end acutely, and possess a very rudimentary 
fin only visible with a lens ; minute pointed papillae, which would 
seem to be the base of suckers (as occasionally fibres of muscle 
project from them), are present on either side of a median line. 

The arm suckers are arranged in four rows and their rings are 
usually armed with many teeth on the distal half of the ring. The}* 
vary greatly in number and appearance ; often two are welded 
together or they may be somewhat widely espaced ; eighteen to 
thirty are present on many rings but those placed on the proximal 
or distal portions are usualty (but by no means invariabl}') smooth. 
An idea of the variation in dentition is afforded b}' specimen M ^-^. 
Fifty-six teeth surround a sucker ring on the middle of the fir.st 
right arm, the distal teeth being the longest ; a sucker on the distal 
half of the third left arm shows a ring with about fort}^ teeth ; 
twenty-one teeth are present on a sucker ring on the distal half of 
the fourth right arm, and are placed on the distal margin, the rest 
of the ring being smooth. All the proximal rings examined in this 



224 Records of the Indian Museum. [Vol XII, 

specimen are smooth. Some suckers from the buccal membrane 
show smooth rings, others have notches or short blunt teeth. 

The hectocojtylus is placed on the proximal half of the left 
ventral arm. The first three or four rows of suckers are normal, 
and are followed by about six pairs of very minute suckers on the 
ventral margin, about four pairs being placed on an excavation 
on the corresponding part of the dorsal margin of the arm. In the 
smallest male, M --\~. this excavation is slight, but a deep round 
cavity is formed on the older specimens. The spermatic pad is 
broad and very papillate. Colour, slate above and buff-pink 
below ; the chromatophores are all small and usually dark ; a few 
look like white spots but are pale blue when examined with a lens; 
although very dense on the dorsal mantle they form no bands or 
other definite markings. The fins, which have fewer chromato- 
phores on their ventral surface, are usually broad and thick but are 
sometimes closely adherent to the mantle. The surface is generally 
smooth but often about six crescent-shaped wrinkles occur at the base 
of the fins along either side of the dorsal mantle. The cuttle bones 
of seven specimens examined all show a callosity on the inner cone, 
and their form agrees closel}'- with the illustration of d'Orbigny (pi. 
25, fig. 4), and also closely resembles that of the shell of S. indica, 
d' Orb., which Joubin (/.c, pp. 21-28) thinks is very likely iden- 
tical with the present species. Hoyle has pointed out that 
S. indica is called S. Uainvillei in d'Orbigny's illustration (pi. 21, 
figs. I, 3, 4). The specimens M -^-¥- and M -*'-¥--, with mantle- 
lengths of 44-59 mm., have both much smaller spermatic pads, and 
in the shell the callosity of the inner cone is only partly developed. 
The smallest has thinner fins than the others; probably this may be 
attributed to its youth. Measurements of some of the specimens 
are appended: — 



Specimen number 




M '?« 


M 8^-^ 


M ^-2^^ 


M «Y-» 








mm. 


mm. 


mm. 


mm. 


Dorsal mantle-1 


length 




105 


109 


125 


170 


Ventral mantle- 


■breadth 




54 


60 


70 


ca. 62 


Fin maximum 






II 


II 


7 


18 


Breadth of head 




37 


J I 


44 


60 


ist right arm 






43 


mutilated 


50 


61 


2nd ,, ,, 






43 


50 


45 


55 


3rd „ 






49 


60 


49 


59 


4th „ „ 






48 


65 


57 


60 


Tentacle 






no 


191 




128 


Club 






25 


33 






Sepiostaire ; 


: — 












Specimen number 


M «Y-^ f^i -¥- 


M ^-V- 


M ^Y"- M 


«\«-' M 


S2 H 9 M 9004 
"T '*^ 2 




mm. 


mm. 


mm. 


mm. 


mm. 


mm. mm. 


Total length 


42 


58 


80 


no 


no 


173 113 


Breadth 


17 


23 


25 


35 


35 


60 36 


Length of spine 


ca. 3 








4 


23 18 


Index ' 


40 


1-0 


25 ' 


ca. 27 


22 


Distrihiition 


. — Japan 


, Java, 


, Indian 


L Ocean. 







I The index is the relation of the last loculus plus the total length of the shell 
when divided into one hundred parts. See Hoyle, 'Challenger' Rep., XVI 
(Cephalopoda) , p. 123. 



igr6.J A. L- Massy: Cephalopoda of the Indian Museum. 225 
Sepia singaporensis, PfefEer. 

Septa sii/gaporeiisis, Pfeffer, Abh. Natiirw. Ver. Hamburg, VIII, pp. 
lo-ii, fis>-s. 13, 13a (1884); Hoyle, Proc. Roy. Phys. Soc. Edin- 
biii'gli, p. 27 (1886) ; Goodrich, Trans. Linn. Soc, VII, p. 3 (1896). 

M *UJis ' Investigator' station 387 : i6-xi-i909, off C. Negrais, Burma, 
15° 25' N., 93° 45' E., 40-49 fathoms — One ^ . 

This has lost the tentacles but in all other respects seems to 
agree closely with Pfeffer's description. Fourteen to thirty-three 
teeth were counted on different arm sucker rings. 

On the fourth left arm about six rows of suckers on the 
proximal half are appreciably smaller than those immediately 
preceding and following them, the two dorsal suckers in each row 
being the smallest ; the surface of this modified portion appears 
to be slightly excavated. 

Hoyle (1886, p. 128) thinks that it is quite possible that 
this species may be identical with 5. plangon, Gray. The shell of 
specimen M -"f " measures 63 mm. by 18 mm. , and has an index 
of 31. The end of the spine is broken but the portion remaining 
does not show the keel on the ventral edge present in the shell of 
5. plangon. 

The principal measurements are appended : — 



Dorsal mantle-length 
Breadth of body 
,, head 
Fin maximum 
1st right arm 
2nd ,, ,, 
Srd ,, 
4th ,, 
1st left ,, 
2nd ,, 
3rd „ „ 
4th 



mm. 
... 62 
... 29 

22 
... ca. 4 

25 
. .. mutilated. 
... 28 
... 31 
... 26 
... mutilated, 
... 24 
... 25 



Distribution. — Singapore {Pfeffer and Goodrich). 
Type. — In Hamburg Museum. 



Sepia esculenta, Hoyle. 

Sepia esciilenfa, Hoyle, Diagnoses, II, p. 188 ; Prelim. Rep., II, p. 291 
(1885) ; ' Challenger ' Rep., XVI (Cephalopoda), pp. 129-31, pi. 17, figs. 
1-5; pi. 18, figs. 1-6 (1886); Appellof, K. Svensk. Vetensk. Akad. 
Handl., XXI, p. 28, pi. 3, figs. 1-6, 24 (1886) ; Ortmann, Zool.Jahrb., 
Ill, pp. 649-665 (1888); Pilsbry, Nautilus., VII, p. 144 (1894); 

• [oubin, Bull. Soc. Zool. France, XXII, pp. 102-103 (1897) ; Hedley, 
Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. W., XXXI, p. 463 (1906); Berry, Proc. Acad. 
Nat. Sci. Phil., pp. 418-19 (1912a). 

M '^^'>- Moji, Japan, i-vii-1913 [J. D. Cooper)— One ? . 

Owing to its large size this specimen was not taken to be 
compared with the type. A vivid recollection of its appearance, 
and a subsequent glance at the type male in the British Museum 
has, however, quite satisfied me that it is rightly referred here. 



226 



Records of the Indian Museum. 



[Vol. XII, 



It agrees with Appellof s description as regards the presence of 
notches, in some cases amounting to teeth, on the rings of the arm 
suckers. 

The median tentacular suckers are a little larger than those 
at the margin (as observed by Joubin), and there are two larger 
than the rest at the tip of the club. Thirty to forty teeth are 
present on some of the tentacular rings. 

The crescent-shaped folds, or wrinkles on the dorsal skin, 
which frequently occur along the origin of the fin in this genus, 
are well-marked. The shell agrees closely with Hoyle's descrip- 
tion except that the last loculus is shorter. The horny brown 
mass noticed by Joubin between the spine and inner cone is dis- 
tinct. Berry has remarked that this species is very nearly allied 
to S. aculeata, van Hasselt, in spite of the absence of suckers on 
the buccal membrane and that the shell is without the callosity 
of the inner cone. Besides these two important differences, it may 
be noted that the parallel lines of the striated area of the shell are 
always more or less evenly rounded in 5. aculeata and never form 
the acute angle present in S. esculenta, and the fins, buccal mem- 
brane and sperm pad are all much thicker and narrower in 
5. aculeata. A number of sperms are adhering to the sperm pad 
in the present specimen. 

The principal measurements are appended : — 



Dorsal mantle-length ... 
Breadth of body 
,, head 


... io8 

... 73 

58 


Fin maximum 


20 


1st right arm 
2nd MM 
3rd M M 
4th „ „ 


... 72 

77 

... 9" 

1 00 


Sepiostaire : — 




Length- 
Breadth 

Spine (end broken) 
Index 


... 156 

■ 57-50 

5 

1,5 



Distribution . — Japan ; Queensland. 

Type. — In British Museum, a male and female. 



Sepia elliptica, Hoyle. 

Sepia elliptica, Hoyle, Diagnoses, II, p. 189; Preluu. Rep., II, p. 293 
(1885); 'Challenger' Rep., XVI (Cephalopoda), pp. 131-3, pi. 19, 
figs. 14-24 (1886); Wulker, Abh. d. II. Kl. d. k. Ak.d. Wiss., Ill 
Supl.-Bd., I Abh., pp. 11-12 (1910J. 

M ^y-^^~ 'Investigator' station 90 : 17-21-11-1890, 8 miles E. S. E. of 
Kalingapatam Lt., Ganjam Coast, 28-30 fathoms — One 9 . 

M ^2_s3 . Investigator' station 366 : io-iv-1906, Arabian Sea, 24° 45' Nm 
63° 5o'i5" E., 544 fathoms — One S . 

These two specimens differ a good deal outwardly, the small 
female being of a greenish tint and the male of a beautiful purple- 



1916.] A. L. Massy : Cephalopoda of the Indian Museum. 227 



/[ SiP.S_ 


M -8\8 3 


mm. 


mm. 


27 


63 


18-50 


2,3 


13 


25 


3 


II 


10 


mutilated 


9 




8 


22 


10 


mutilated 


35 


missing. 


4 





brown mottled with buff. The shells of both are, however, alike, 
and that of the male was compared with the shell of a type male 
in the British Museum and found to be exactly similar. This shell 
measures about 58 mm. in length by 25 mm. in breadth, and has 
an index of about 30 : the spine is broken. Both specimens ex- 
hibit irregular teeth or notches on the distal surface of some of 
the arm rings, while other rings are quite smooth. M -V"-- pos- 
sesses from 8-10 teeth, and M *"¥" 11- 18. The hectocotylized arm 
of the latter specimen has live normal rows of suckers proximally, 
followed by seven rows of modified suckers. 

The principal measurements are appended . — 

Specimen number ... 

End of body to dorsal mantle- margin 
Breadth of body 
,, ,, head 
Fin maximum 
1st right arm 
2nd ,, ,, 
3rd ,, „ 
4th ,, 
Tentacle 
Club 

Distribution. — Misaki, Sagami (Wiilker) ; Arafura Sea^ south 
of Papua, 28-49 fathoms (type locality). 

Type. — In British Museum, two males, six females. 

Sepia singalensis, Goodrich. 

Septa singaloisis, Goodrich, Tyaiis. Linn. Soc, \TI, pp. 3-5, pi. i, figs. 
4-8 (1896) ; Hoyle, Rep. Pearl Ovster Fish. Gulf of Manaar, p. 108 
(1904). 

M AZJ-i ' Investigator', Indian Seas, Marine Survey of India— One c^ . 
M ^2(L5^<i Arakan Coast, 3-1-1909, trawler ' Golden Crown ', Bengal Fish. 

Dept.— Two d. ^ 

M ?i2_2L7 Off Gopalpore, Ganjam Coast, 25-28 fathoms, 23-ix-i9o9, trawler 

'Golden Crown', Bengal Fish. Dept. — One S. 
M ^Y-^ ' Investigator ' station 366 : io-iv-1906, 24° 45' N., 63° 50' i 5" E. 

544 fathoms — One c^ . 

M ii%7-^ Port Blair, Andamans ( 6'. //. /?oo/f v )— One d" (dorsal-mantle 
155 mm.). 

These are *' conspicuously striped with broad dark bands on 
the upper surface of the mantle, head and arms " as described by 
Goodrich. The form of the hectocotylus and the arrangement of 
the teeth on the arm and tentacular sucker rings agrees with the 
type except for an interesting deviation as regards the large tenta- 
cular rings of specimen M '¥-^-. Goodrich has pointed out that 
the largest tentacular rings in this species are smooth and the 
others are denticulate, and that this is one of the characters 
separating it from the nearly allied species S. rouxii, d'Orb., which 
has all the tentacular rings denticulate. vSpecimen M — r ', which 
is the smallest of the above, has the largest tentacular suckers of 
2 mm. in diameter with denticulate rings like the small suckers. 



228 Records of the Indian Museum. [Vol.. XII, 

The specimen next in size (M -Y'-) has the two largest tenta- 
cular suckers, of 3 mm. in diameter, with smooth rings and the 
remaining suckers of the club denticulate. All the other specimens 
show a number of large smooth rings on each club ; specimen 
M ^- for instance possesses ten smooth rings (some much larger 
than the others) on one club. As far as can be judged from the 
present material of a few male specimens, it would appear that the 
number of smooth rings on the club depends on the age of the 
specimen, and that in youth all the tentacular suckers are denti- 
culate. The shell of specimen M ^tt— was examined and measures 
about 107 mm. by 37 mm., and has an index of 28. The wide 
flattened inner cone with an oval prominence in the centre is very 
like Goodrich's figure. Th^^ chitinous margins measure in some 
parts as much as 8 mm. 

The spine (broken in the type) measures 4 mm. and curves 
slightly backwards. Hoyle (1905, p. 981) has referred a Sepia to 
S. rouxii, d'Orb with some hesitation, adding that it possessed 
teeth on the rings of the large tentacular suckers, but that in 
certain respects it seemed to be intermediate between 5. rouxii 
and S. singalensis. 

Some measurements of the specimens are appended : — 

Specimen number ... ... M i\^-i M ^\8_5 m s2_bg jyi S2_7.7_ ^i 8 2_S2 

ram. mm. mm. mm, mm. 

End of body to dorsal mantle-margin 180 in 125 173 151 

Breadth of mantle ... ... 76 53 55 70 08 

,, fin ... . ... 25 15 17 ca. 20 19 

I. St right arm ... ... mutilated. 44 50 68 52' 

2nd ,, ,, ... ... 69' 46 47 83 55 

3rd ,, ,, ... ... 59 48 45 90 65 

4th M ,, ... ... 69 58 57 96 73 

Tentacle ... ... 41 113 io6 148 51 

Club ... 33 27 26 36 30 

Distribution. — Ceylon and Gulf of Manaar {Goodrich and 
Hoyle) ; Suez, Zanzibar {Hoyle). 

Sepia arabica, sp. n. 
(Plate xxiii, figs. 1-5 ; pi. xxiv, fig. 10.) 

M '^•ijJ-3 . Investigator' station 246 : 15-.K-1898, Laccadive Sea, 11° 14' 

30" N., 74° 57'"" 15" E., 68-148 fathoms— One 9 ■ 
M ^y-" 'Investigator' station 292 : 2-xi-i90i, Persian Gulf, 26° 20' N. 

53= 54' E., 53 fathoms— One 2 . 

Body broad in proportion to length, fins narrow, dorsal 
mantle-margin not much produced in centre. Head broad and 
flattened. Eyes large. Buccal membrane without suckers. Sperm 
pad not developed, perhaps owing to youth. Funnel with broad 
apex not reaching to fork between ventral arms. Umbrella well 
developed between the dorsal arms, lower laterally, and absent 
between the ventral pair. Fourth arms the longest, the rest 

I Less tip, 



ic)i6.] A. L. Massy : Cephalopoda of the Indian Museum. 229 

subequal, and about one-third the length of the body. Suckers 
usually arranged in a slanting series of four in a row, except the 
proxicaal two rows which generally consist of two and three 
suckers each. The rings are usually smooth, but a few irregular 
notches are present on the rings of some distal suckers in specimen 
M -^V\ Tentacles not extending below mantle. Club small with 
moderate fin. Tentacular suckers subequal and placed about five 
in a row. The rings possess a few minute widely- spaced teeth, 
some blunt, others pointed. Six were observed on one ring. 
Surface smooth except for a few tubercles on the dorsal mantle, 
and oblong folds or wrinkles along the origin of the fin. 

Specimen M ^ V ^ has also two curious ear-shaped folds on 
the head behind each eye, but these appear to be accidental. 
Colour pinkish-buff sprinkled with reddish-brown or grey-blue 
chromatophores which are less numerous ventrally. The shell 
appears to be unusuall}^ narrow in proportion to the width of the 
body, but this seems to be due in part to the chitinous margin 
having unfortunately decayed away in both specimens, the inner 
cone being also absent. Enough of the shell remains, however, 
to show the most important character of this species, viz., the form 
followed by the lines composing the striated area. 

The parallel lines are at first almost transverse, gradually a 
median indentation which rapidly deepens makes its appearance, 
so that the posterior margin of the last loculus is bounded by 
two V-shaped lines apparently quite unlike that of any Sepia 
hitherto described. Both shells are alike in this respect. The 
smooth, polished dorsal surface of the shell is only interrupted 
by a moderate median ridge and the divisions between the loculi. 
The ventral surface is slightly elevated and marked by a narrow, 
shallow, median groove. Judging the length of the shell from 
the impression of the mantle cavity the index in specimen M -^- 
would appear to be about 55 and that of M -t-- about 40. 

Some measurements are appended : — 

Specimen number 

Dorsal mantle-length 
Breadth of body 
,, ,, head 
Fin maximum 
1st right arm 
2nd ,, ,, 
3rd .. „ 
4th ,, 
ist left 
2nd ,, .. 
3rd 

4th M ,. 
Tentacle 
Club ... 

Sepia (Doratosepion) andrcanoides, Hoyle. 

Sepia andreanoides, Hoyle, Diagnoses, II, p. 193; Prelim. Rep., II, p. 
297 (1885) ; ' Challenger' Rep., XVI (Cephalopoda), pp. 139, etc., pi. 21, 



lyi 8113 


M ^-V^^ 


mm. 


mm. 


29 
16 


28 
16 


II 


13 


2 
10 


3 
mutilated, 


9 


8 


10 


9 


12 


II 


9 
7 


8 
mutilated. 


8 


9 


12 


II 


38 


31 


3 


ca.S 



230 Records of the Indian Museum. [Vol. XII, 

figs. 11-19; pi- 22, fig. II (18S6); Ortmann, Zool. Jahrb., Ill, pp. 
653. 665 (1888) ; Wiilker, Ahh.d.II. Kl. d. k. Ak. d. Wiss., Ill Suppl.- 
Bd., I Abh., pp. 19, 22, 24 (1910) ; Berry, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phil., 
p. 423 (merely listed) (igi2aj. 

M ^fi ' Investigator ' station 246 : 15.X-1898, Laccadive Sea, 11" 14' 30" 

N., 74° ^7' 15" E., 68-148 fathoms— One (?. 
M ^i^A 'Investigator' station 360: 2o-xii-i905, 13° 36' N., 47° 32' R. 

130 fathoms — One 9 
M ^\t6 ■ Investigator ' station 464 : 22-iv-i9i2, S. of Ceylon, (P 2' 30" 

N., 81° 29' E., 52-68 fathoms— One 9 . 

These all have smooth rings to the arm suckers, and teeth 
on the distal border of the tentacular suckers. Specimens M ~t" 
and ^'^-- have dorsal mantle-lengths of only 20-21 mm., and 
possess three to five teeth on the tentacular rings. 

Specimen M ^f^ is much larger and has eight to seventeen 
teeth on the tentacular rings, and about twelve of the club 
suckers are as large as those of the arms. The hectocotylus and 
shell agree with the description of the type. 

The principal measurements of this specimen are ap- 
pended : — 

mm. 
Dorsal mantle-length ... ... ... 48 



Breadth of body 
, , , , head 

Fin maximum 
1st right arm 
2nd ,, 
3rd 

4th ,, 
Tentacle 
Club 

Sepiostaire : — 



19 
15 

ca. 6 
20 
19 
19 
17 
51 
6 



Length ... ... ... ... ... 47 

Breadth ... ... ... ... 9"5o 

Index ... ... ... ... ... 32 

Distribution. — Bay of Tokio {Ortmann) ; Yokohama market 
{Hoyle). 

Type. — In Britsih Museum, one male, two females. 

Sepia (Doratosepion) kobiensis, Hoyle. 

Sepia kobiensis. Hoyle, Diagnoses, II, p. 195; Prelim. Rep., II, p. 300 
(1885) ; ' Challenger' Rep., XVI (Cephalopoda), p. 142, pi. 18, figs. 
7-14 (1886) ; Appellof, K. Svensk. Vetensk. Akad. Handl., XXI, p. 20, 
pl- 3. fig. 7 (1886) ; Ortmann, Zool. Jahrb., Ill, pp. 654, 665 (1888) ; 
Wiilker, Abh. d. II. Kl. d. k. Ak. d. Wiss. Ill Suppl.-Bd., I Abh., 
pp. 16, 20, 24 (1910) ; Berr)', Proc, Acad. Nat. Sci. Pliil., p. 423 
(1912a). 

M ^i^^:3-^ ' Investigator ' station 246 : 15-X-1898, Laccadive Sea, ii° 

14' 30' N., 74° 57' 15'' E., 68-148 fathoms — Four 9 , two young. 
M ^iaa;2i • Investigator' station 292 : 2-xi-i90i, Persian Gulf, 26° 20' 

N., 53° 54' E., 53 fathoms — One 9 . one <J . 
M ^-^ ' Investigator ' station 383 : 22-ii-i909, off C. Negrais, Burma, 

16° o' N., 93° 37' E., 40 fathoms — One r?. 
M ^^ ' Investigator ' station 464 : 22-iv-i9i2, S. of Ceylon, 6° 2' 30" 

N., 81° 29' E., 52-68 fathoms— One 9 . 



igi6.] A. L. Massy : Cephalopoda of the Indian Mu^seum. 231 

The outline of the striated area of the shell seems a little 
different in these specimens to the description of the type and to 
the illustration of Appellof {1886, pi. 3, fig. ya). The present 
examples have no median indentation in the curved line which 
more resembles that of the shell of S. esculenta, Hoyle. The line 
is, however, somewhat irregular, especially in the earlier stages, 
and in all other respects there is no deviation from the description 
of the type. 

The smallest female examined has a mantle-length of 22 mm. 
and nidamental glands measuring 1*25 mm. in length. Measure- 
ments of three of the largest specimens are appended, also measure- 
ments of four shells : — 



Specimen number 






M 


SJL20 J. 

mm. 


m m . 


2 


M 


mm. 


Dorsal mantle-length 


... 




55 


40 






37 


Breadth of body 








22 


19 






17 


,, head 








16 


16 






14 


1st right arm 








16 


13 






14 


2nd ,, 








15 


12 






II 


3rd „ „ 








12 


II 






10 


4th „ „ 








15 


14 






12 


Tentacle 






missing. 


41 






34 


Club 










ca. 6 






5 


Sepiostaire : — 


















Specimen number 


M 


s 1 2 1 
1 


9 


M -^-Y_5 


(f M -^-V^^ 


9 


M ^-V"*'- 






mm. 




mm. 




mm. 




mm. 


Length 




39 




26 




35 




27 


Breadth 




10 




6 




8-50 




8 


Spine 




ca. 2 




I 








175 


Index 




30 




32 




30 




32 



Distribution. — Japan; Indo-Malayan Region ; Pacific Region, 
Type. — In British Museum, one female. 

Sepia sp. 

M ^^-2-2-^3 Persian Gulf {To^vnseiid) — Two young. 

These have a broad body, and dorsal mantle-length of about 
10 mm. The arm suckers are placed four in a row and have 
eight or nine teeth. The proximal tentacular suckers are placed 
two or three in a row. Suckers in the central part of the club have 
ten teeth and are twice the size of those at the outer edge. The 
ventral mantle-margin shows a marked indentation below the 
siphon. Colour greyish-brown above, lighter beneath. 

Genus Sepiella, Gray. 

Sepiella inermis (van Hasselt, MS.), Steenstrup. 

(Plate xxiii, fig. 6; pi. xxiv, figs. 1-9.) 

Sepia inermis, d'Orbigny, Cephalopodes acetabuliferes, p. 226, pi. 6, 
bis; pi. 20, figs. 1-9 (1839); Steenstrup, K. d. Vid Selsk. Sky. (5) 
VII, p. 478, pi. 2, fig. 3 (1875) ; Sepia sinensis, d'Orbigny, op. cit., 
p. 289, pi. 9, figs. I, 2 (^fide Gray)i (1839) ; Sepia micvocheivus. Gray, 



232 Records of the Indian Museum. [Vol. XII, 

Britisli Museum Catalogue, p. 107 (1849) i Sepiella ineniiis, Steen- 
strup, Vid. Meddel. Nat. Foren. Kjbbenhavn, pp. 347-356, figs. i-S 
(1880) ; Goodrich, Trails. Linn. Soc, VII, p. 5 (1896) ; Joubin, 
Bull. Soc. Zool. France, XXII, p. 103 (1897); Joubin, Notes Leydeu 
Miis., XX, p. 25 (1898) ; Hoyle, Fauna and Geogr. Maldive-Laccadive 
Archip., II, suppl., p. 982, fig. 152 (1905) ; Sepiella curta, Pfeffer, 
Abh. Natuvw. Ver. Hamburg, VIII, p. 13, fig. 16 (1884); Sepiella 
ocellata, Pfeffer, op. cit., p. 13, fig. 17 (1884). 

M ^i-o- Sandheads, River Hughli (J. Barnett) 

— One 9 dorsal mantle-length 61 
M -6-i-i- Galle, Ceylon {Dr. Anderson)— One ^ ,, ,, 68 

M -H* Indian Seas (Dr. Armstrong, 1875) 

—One 9 ,,. ,, 58 

M«iALoc. ? Asiatic Soc. Bengal —One c? ,. ., 55 

M ^-''- Penang [Dr. Stoliczka). — OnerT ,, ,, 45 

M i|-'- Sandheads, River Hughli (Miltier) 

—One 9 ,, ,, 68 

M ^-2_7-^ 'Investigator' station 332: 12-iv- 
1904, Andaman Sea, 10° 21' N., 92^46' 15" 

E., 279 fathoms. — One c? ,, ,, 59 

M 3ii_t.7^0 Mutlah River, surface — One c? , 

Two 9 ,, ,, 26-60 

M ii7j2i+ Indian Seas, Marine Survey of 

India —One r^ , two 9 .. -■ 47-64 

M s*5^6i Off Puri, Orissa Coast, trawler 
' Golden Crown ', Bengal Fish. Uept. 

— One c? . two 9 ,, ,, 46-7 

M ^B^-T- Sandheads, River Hughli, 2o-iv-i87o 

(G. Lord) —One ^ ' ,, ,, 323 

M ^^0-2 Hainze Basin, Burma, Marine Survey 

of India — One 9 ,. ., 5" 

]y[ 8ju)6 'Investigator' station 70: 9-1-1890, 
Off Chilka L., Orissa Coast, 11 fathoms 

—One 9 ,, ,, 28 

M sjJiL ' Investigator ' station 83 : 28-1-1890, 
9 miles S. W. of Bawanapadu Beacon, 

Ganjam Coast, 13 fathoms — One c? ,, ,, 45 

]V1 8i_t2i3 ' Investigator ' station 463a : 2i-iv- 
1912, Bay of Bengal, 7° 37' N., 84° 19' E., 

400 fathoms — Two r^ , ,, 39-53 

M «i5_2^3 ' Investigator ' station 481 : 25-26-xii 
-1912, Mergui Harbour, 7 fathoms — One cf , 

One 9 
M 5i&^ Mouth of River Hughli {Capt. T. 

Munro) — One 9 ,, ,. 

]VI «Y^Q pyri Beach [N. An nandale), 2o-22-in 

-1906 — One d ,, , 

M 8i_7_ii2 Puri Beach, Orissa Coast (N. An- 

nandale), i-2-ii-i909 — Two 9 ,, ,, 

M 8 20^05 Purl Beach, Orissa Coast, 18-19- 
1-1908 [Capt. R. E. Lloyd) —One c?, 

Three 9 

M ^\i-i {a,b,c,d) Puri Beach, Orissa Coast 

{F. H. Gravely) — Three (5", One 9 

M *^-V-4 Puri Beach, Orissa Coast (C. Paiva) 

—One 9 
M ^-^ Persian Gulf (7?. Hugh Butler) 

—One S 
M ^-?^|:3i Palk Straits, S. of India— Two, c? , 

One 9 



36-47 


77 


66 


79-84 


53-71 


25-79 


70 


46 


36-52 



igr6.] A. L. Massy : Cephalopoda uf the Indian Museum. 233 

m m . 
M «\5_o Akyab. Burmn (/. H. Bin-kill) 

— One 'i dorsal inanilf-length ^o 
M «2 5_5js jy ,^^ ^ j^;_ Qf j)^^., River, Orissa 
Coast. S fathoms, 24-xii-i888 — Three r? , 

One 9 .. ., 2i-,^i 

M «2-5|-'U Puri Beach, Bengal Fish. Dept. 

— One c?,Two 9 .. 57-73 

M ^i-'^-'-i Balasore Bay, Orissa Coast, trawler 
' Golden Croivji ', Bengal Fish. Dept. 

— Two 9 , ., 62-63 

M ^^^-^-^ Balasore Bay, Orissa Coast, trawler 
' Golden Crown ', Bengal Fish. Dept, 

— Two 9 .. .. 62-65 

iM 9 0ia^2 9 < Investigator ' station 565 and 567 : 
i3-2o-xi-igi3. 11° 57' 30" N., 98° 19' 00" E., 

6-7 fathoms — Fourteen c?", .. , 26-37 

Three 9 .. 40-47 

M 909S-^9-iA9 ' Investigator ' station 569 : 29- 
30-xi-i9i3. 11° 52' 10" N., 98° 18' 4" E., 5 

fathoms — Forty-three cT, .. ., 20-40 

Nineteen 9 ., .. 15-40 

These eighty-one males and fifty-one females taken either by 
shore collecting, or at a few fathoms to four hundred fathoms' 
depth ^ chiefly come from the Bay of Bengal region, and south- 
wards to the Andamans and Ceylon. The Persian Gulf and Malay 
Peninsula are also represented. 

All agree in having an oblong body, the breadth of which is 
two- thirds of the mantle-length, except in the case of large females 
(mantle 63-79 mm.), when the breadth is a little more than half the 
length. 

The fins usually begin at a short distance from the mantle- 
margin and are generall}^ formed anterior^ like a roll, and become 
wider posteriorly. The deep water specimens, and many collected 
on shore or at a few fathoms, have very wide fins throughout 
their entire length. 

Head very broad. Umbrella highest laterally, and absent 
between the ventral arms. Arms short and keeled, the fourth 
pair strongly, the first and second very slightly. All with strong 
protective membranes and suckers in four rows. The suckers 
have meridional grooves and distal notches. In male specimens 
the rings of the arm suckers possess eight to fourteen long, 
pointed, closely-placed teeth on the distal margin, the rest of the 
ring being smooth The number of teeth is largest in suckers 
from the centre of an arm, although the proximal suckers may 
equal them in size. A specimen with mantle-length of 36 mm. 
possesses eight teeth on the proximal and distal suckers and ten 
on those from the centre of an arm. 

The female specimens have arm suckers with smooth rings; 
occasionally the horny ring shows indications of ten to eleven 
long, pointed teeth on the distal portion but the margin is 
un-split. In some cases it is notched but not deeply enough to 
form teeth. Wiilker {op. cit., p. 20) refers two females to Sepiella 



2 34 Records of the Indian Museum. [Vol. XII, 

curia, Pfeffer, and describes them as having arm rings quite 
wanting in teeth and yet not completely smooth. He expresses 
doubt as to whether the species should not be united with 
5. inermis, as the only difference rests on whether the arm rings 
are smooth or dentate. The type specimens of 5. curta are two 
in number, and one is described as having a hectocotylized arm. 
The other is presumably a female, and if the description of the arm 
rings was taken from it, and not from the male, it would naturally 
seem to be a different species to 5. inermis, which is figured by 
d'Orbigny as possessing sharp teeth on the upper edge of the ring. 
The exceptional advantage I have enjoyed in having such a large 
collection of both sexes of various sizes to examine has convinced 
me that both S. curta and 5. ocellata, Pfeffer are the same species 
as S. inermis, and although S. ornata (Rang) has only been 
recorded from the west African region, I think it may eventually 
prove to be also this species, in which case Rang's name would 
have the priority. The hectocotylus has been figured by Hoyle 
(1905, fig. 152). It affects the proximal part of the fourth left 
arm, extending over more than half its length in small specimens, 
and less than half the length in larger examples. The modified 
suckers are very minute and in four rows, each row having a pair 
of suckers placed close together at either side of the arm, those 
on the ventral border being larger and placed closer together. 
Transverse folds on the modified portion of the arm are very distinct 
in well preserved specimens. The tentacle stems are flattened on 
the inner surface. The club is very long and possesses a moderate 
fin and slight protective membrane, and a width at the centre of 
about twice that of the stem. 

The very numerous and minute club suckers are distributed 
in no particular order. Two much larger than the rest are placed 
at the tip of the club. The rings of the tentacular suckers possess 
blunt teeth on the distal margin, the remainder of the ring being 
smooth. The teeth are very little wider at the base than at the 
top and are generally separated by about the width of their base. 
The number varies according to the size of the specimen, and 
individual variation plays a part. Thus a male with mantle-length 
of 33 mm. possesses three to four teeth, and a female specimen 
with mantle-length of 30 mm. possesses three to six teeth. A 
male with mantle of 48 mm. possesses nine to eleven teeth, and a 
female of 52 mm. mantle-length has five to seven. Females with 
mantle-length of 61-79 J^^i- show nine to thirteen teeth. If one 
of the minute club suckers is placed on its side the papillae cause 
the ring to appear to be dentate all round. 

Two females from Puri Beach (M ""V ' ) showed either no 
teeth, or a very feeble development of them on the rings of the 
onl}'^ tentacle present, but in general appearance, funnel organ 
and shell, they agreed perfectly with other specimen of S. inermis. 
Buccal membrane seven-angled and minus suckers. A large 
spermatic pad is developed in the female. Funnel organ: a A- 
shaped median pad and pear-shaped lateral pads, widest posteri- 



1916.] A. Iv. Massy : Cephalopoda of the Indian Museum. 235 

orly. Sculpture : a few papillae are usually present on the dorsal 
surface of the mantle, and sometimes extend to the head, but 
never to the fins or ventral surface. Colour in alcohol, buff with a 
variety of bluish-slate and purple-pink markings. The innumer- 
able chromatophores are very small and dark on the dorsal 
surface and are usually reddish ventrally. Very few chromato- 
phores occur on the ventral surface of the fins. The row of dark 
ornamental spots or ocelli along the base of the fin shown in the 
illustration of d'Orbigny (pi. 20) is present only in males of a 
certain size. Among the specimens M "'''^"^" , eight males with 
mantle-length of 26-35 mm. show no ocelli, which are, however, 
distinctly marked on four males with mantle-length of 32-37 
mm. As regards the specimens M ''°^'^""^" , thirty-one males with 
mantles of 33-40 mm. show the ocelli and the remaining twelve 
males, which are without them, have a mantle-length of only 
20-32 mm. The ocelli are always largest at the posterior end of 
the mantle, and in ver}^ small males appear first at this end. They 
are usually pear-shaped with the pointed end innermost, and may 
be 7 mm. by 2 mm. in large specimens. Anteriorly they become 
rounder. A male with mantle-length of 36 mm, shows five ocelli 
on each side, one with mantle-length of 46 mm. has seven on each 
side, and one with mantle of 53 mm. has nine on each side. The 
Penang specimen (M -\-) shows a deviation from this rule by 
exhibiting eleven strongly-marked ocelli on either side of a mantle 
of 43 mm. in length. The ocelli, which show no iridescence, are 
situated in the skin beneath the outside layer, and do not penetrate 
to the muscular layer. If a portion of epidermis is examined with 
a high power, the ocelli appear as opaque, white, oblong masses, 
and are thus in sharp distinction to the round dark chromatophores 
none of which approach them in size. In light coloured speci- 
mens the ocelli are pinkish ^, and small dark chromatophores are 
sprinkled over their surface as elsewhere. In the female the ocelli 
are always absent, and they are also wanting in a few males large 
enough to possess them (M H*, M ^'f ^ and M ^-V-«), but these latter 
are either faded or in bad condition as regards the epidermis. Many 
of the specimens in the collection possess no date of capture, but 
there is evidence to show that examples with ocelli were taken in 
the months of January (1890 and 1908, in both hauls ocelH bare- 
ly visible) ; March (1900, very distinct) ; April (1870, faint, 1904 
and 1912, very distinct); November (1913, very distinct); and 
December (1912, well-marked).'^ A male 5. ornata in the Paris 
Museum exhibits ocelli along the sides closely resembling those 
of male 5. inermis. A female S. ornata in the same collection 
has unfortunately become suffused with black so that it is not 
possible to see if the ocelli are absent. 

Eight males (M ""'-^ '^'' ) with mantle-length of 30-37 mm. and 
six males and one female (M 9098-^9159 ^ ^j^^ small, exhibit a beauti- 

1 It is often necessary to hold a specimen up to the light, or allow it to 
become dry, in order to discover the ocelli. 

■^ A specimen taken in December, 1888 shows no ocelli. 



236 Records of the Indian Museum. [Vol. XII, 

ful iridescent patch on the dorsal surface at the posterior end of 
the body. The pore, situated at the ventral posterior end of the 
body in the present genus, leads into a gland the function of 
which has never been made clear. This gland is covered by a 
muscular coat under and amongst which lies (in the present 
specimens) a thin iridescent layer which does not extend to the 
many- furrowed inner wall, and only traces of iridescence were 
observed outside the lower surface of the gland Besides the 
above-mentioned female, two others (M ""^'g ^'■'), showing no ex- 
ternal iridescence, displayed, when the skin was removed, flashes 
of golden- green and pink. In one of these females the gland was 
pale purple and the pore had a purple tinge, but on being opened 
no trace of purple fluid could be seen. Wiilker, op.cit..-p. ^2, 
has remarked on the existence of a purple gland in this part of 
the body in Sepiella, discovered by Appellof. He alludes also 
to the striking coloured appearance figured by d'Orbigny and 
Ferussac for 5. ornata (Rang) at the dorsal posterior end of the 
body, and suggests that if a living example could be examined a 
luminous organ might be found in this situation. The adornment 
figured by d'Orbigny is, however, probably similar to the iri- 
descent patch described above, which would seem, moreover, 
to be evanescent in alcohol, no specimens exhibiting it excepting 
those which had been preserved for less than a year when 
examined. Steenstrup has remarked with regard to the shell in 
Sepia that the proportion which the last loculus bears to the area 
of the shell varies according to the season of the year. Jatta 
says with regard to this " while the sepium increases in volume 
*' and therefore augments the number of lamelli, the striated area 
" becomes larger while the smooth area diminishes : as a conse- 
*' quence of which in the same species there may be found 
" according to the stage of growth of the bone, and the greater 
" or less activity in the formation of lamelli, and, therefore, 
" perhaps also according to the seasons, the two areas now equal 
" and now one prevailing above another." The shells of sixteen 
males and twent^^ females from the present collection were 
examined. The limited amount of evidence thus available seems 
to show that the limbs of the inner cone become accentuated with 
age and are then widest in the female, and, also, that individual 
variation exists as to their thickness and height. It will be ob- 
served in the specimens figured (pi. xxiv, figs. 1-8) that the striated 
area comprises more than half of the length of the shell in youth- 
ful specimens, and that the shell of a very young female is not 
broader in proportion to its length than that of a male. The 
shells of older specimens usually have the last loculus occupying 
about two-thirds of the length of the shell. The curvature of the 
parallel lines formed by the margin of the striated area varies 
occasionally, as is seen in the shell of the largest male figured, 
the other specimens exhibiting what appears to be the usual form. 
The dorsal surface is coarsely granulated and the shell beneath it 
is striated longitudinally. This can be seen in young specimens 



1916.] A. L. Massy : Cephalopoda of the Indian Museum. 237 

in which the granulation is not much developed, and in most other 
examples at the commencement of the chitinous margin of the 
last loculus. An examination of the arrangement of the various 
internal organsshowed, that, as Wiilker [op. cit., p. 31) has already 
pointed out, this genus and Sepia resemble each other almost 
exactly as regards the anatomy. 

The radula and mandibles are shown on pi. xxiii, fig, 6 and 
pi. xxiv, fig. 9. 

The principal measurements of a male and female are ap- 
pended. 

Specimen number ... ,., M ^23_o ^ [\/] 



8 2 7 2 



mm." mm. 

Knd of bod)- to dorsal mantle- margin 43 02 

Breadth of body ... ... 79 42 

-. head ... 20 26 

I St right arm ... 11^ 20 

2nd ,, ,, ... ... 16 21 

.ii'd ., ,, ... ... 21 25 

4th ., .. ... ... 23 32 

Tentacle ... ... ... ^6 76 

Club ... ... ... 13 ca. 18 

I'in maximum ... ... 6 6 

minimum ... .. 2 ^ 

Des^n^Miiow.— Indo-Malayan Region; Timor, Japan {Joubin). 
Sepiella sp. 

M S-2_*Q Kilakarai, Ramnad District, South India, 0-2 fathoms, ii-1913 
{S. W. Kemp)— One. 

The above is too young to determine with certainty as it has 
a mantle-length of only 13 mm. Wiilker regards Sepia specimens 
with mantle of 27-40 mm. as too young to determine specifically. 
If, however, a number of specimens of large and small size occur 
together it seems possible to assign them specifically at a much 
earlier age. 

Family SEPIIDAB. 

M 8i.aii5 'Investigator' station 80: ij-i-iSgo, 4 miles S.E. of Sonapur 
Beacon, Ganjam Coast, 24 fathoms — Two immature. 

These have a mantle-length of 6 mm. The fins commence 
at 2 mm. from the mantle-margin and are most developed 
posteriorly. Fourth arms the largest and with keels; suckers of 
arms in two rows. Tentacles missing except for a retracted one 
which can be observed coiled round beneath the skin on the 
ventral surface. Colour buff, closely freckled with small purple- 
brown chromatophores, which are thickest on the median dorsal 
surface of the mantle and head. 

Family SEPIOTEUTHIDAE. 
Sepioteuthis arctipinnis, Gould. 

Sepioteuthis arctipiniiis, Gould, U. S. Exploring Exp,, XII, p. 479, fig. 
93 (1852); Wiilker, Abh. Senckenb. Nat. GeselL, XXXIV, pp.452- 



238 Records of the Indian Museum. [Voi,. XII 

475, 482 (,1913); Berr)-, Bull. Suv. Fish., XXXII, pp. 308-9, figs. 
20-22 (1914). 

M -^if-i 'Investigator', N. Andaman Island, littoral. Marine Survey 
of India — One ^J, one ? . 

M ^\o.3 'Investigator,' E.S.E. of S. Moscos Island, Marine Survey of 
India — One ? • 

M 8 16-3-^ Andamans (^7. Wood -Mason)— One (^ , one ? . 
The above all agree in the shape of the pen and in having the 
greatest width of the fin at the posterior third of the body. The 
pen has a hollow midrib with broad marginal thickenings, and is 
covered by a transparent and very delicate horny plate with a 
broadly rounded anterior margin. The median mantle-margin in 
order to correspond with the shape of the pen is, therefore, very 
obtuse and evenly rounded. The funnel organ was examined in 
specimens M ^y ' and M ^\ It is A-shaped, with smaller, 
oblong, lateral pads. Order of arms 3^ 4, 2, i; protective 
membranes to all, especially developed on third pair; suckers in 
two rows. Specimens M "^-^ are in good condition, and their 
largest arm suckers have rings armed with nineteen or twenty 
teeth all round the ring, five or six on the distal margin being 
larger than the rest. The space between each tooth is about the 
width of the base of two teeth and this space is equal to the 
length of a tooth. The teeth are incurved and resemble short, 
broad claws. A distal sucker shows twenty teeth, eight of which 
are larger than the rest. The tentacle suckers are in four rows, 
those of the middle third of the club being much larger than the 
rest. The suckers of the inner rows here are larger than the 
marginal ones. The rings of the tentacular suckers also have teeth 
on the entire circumference, five, or sometimes more, claw-like 
teeth larger than the rest being placed on the distal margin. 

The space between each of these is about equal to the width 
of three teeth and corresponds with the length of each. The 
proximal suckers show less space between the teeth. Both 
specimens have a spoon-shaped expansion with small flat suckers 
at the tip of the club. The hectocotyhzed arm of specimen M ^^ 
has twenty rows of ordinary suckers followed by a few small 
suckers on long pedicels ; these are succeeded by papillae sur- 
mounted by extremely minute suckers which persist either as 
complete suckers, or in rudimentary form, to the tip of the arm. 
The ventral papillae are smaller than those of the dorsal margin. 
Buccal membrane seven-angled and with suckers with toothed 
rings. As many as five suckers may be present on an angle. 
Colour pinkish-buff with large brownish-red chromatophores or 
small, almost black, ones. 

Ventral fin surface without chromatophores. Specimens M '^-4^ 
are in bad condition and much contracted. Their characters seem 
to agree with the foregoing except that their colour is much darker, 
viz., ground colour gray, with very dark blotches covering much 
of the ventral as well as the dorsal surface. The ink sac is rup- 
tured in one of the specimens which may account for the dark 
ground colour. 



19 16,] A. L. Massy : Cephalopoda of the Indian Museum. 239 

Specimen M '",'''' seems to have a somewhat wider and 
rounder head, and arms shorter in proportion to the length of the 
mantle than the other specimens, but these differences may be 
accounted for by its being at a younger stage of growth or by 
varying modes of preservation. The tentacle stems are evidently 
partly withdrawn. The arm rings of this little specimen are 
armed with fourteen to twenty-four teeth surrounding the entire 
ring, about five on the distal margin being stouter and longer 
than the rest. A large median tentacular sucker shows eleven 
long teeth on the distal portion and the rest of the ring possesses 
much smaller teeth. Conical papillae are present and those near 
the ring sometimes look like small between teeth. The teeth 
are longer in proportion to the size of the ring than in the older 
specimens. 

Colour pinkish-brown with many dark blotches and spots, 
head so densely mottled as to be almost black. 

No chromatophores on ventral surface of fins. 

The principal measurements in mm. are appended : — 



Specimen number... 
End of body to dor- 


M ^^- S 


M ^ii 


$ M -^-\«^^ 


$ M •'^-ip. 


S 


M 


1 


sal mantle-margin 
Breadth of mantle 


60 

28 


52 
22 


34 
12 


95 
34 






129 

43 


,, , head... 
Greatest width of 


16 


20 


1 1*50 


27 






35 


fins 
1st right arm 


39 
15 


32 

ca. 13 


22 
ca. 8 


58 
28 1 






85 
45 


2nd ,, 

3rd 

4th 

Tentacle 
Club 

Diameter of largest 
sucker of sessile 


22 

24 

24 

ca. 63 

23 


ca. 22 
ca. 24 
ca. 23 

57 

22 


10 
17 
13 
23 
^3 


38 i 

51 

49 

98 
37 






54 
67 
69 

58 


arm 
Diameter of largest 
sucker of tentacle. 


■75 
I 




•50 

•75 


1-50 




ca. 


175 

2 


Distribution .- 


—Island 


of Maui 


(type locality) ; Honolul 


U, 


Oah 


Bertrand Island, 


North Coast of Papua ? 


{Walker). 









Family ENOPLOTEUTHIDAE 
Abralia andamanica, Goodrich. 

Abralia aiulamauica, Goodrich, Trails. LiiDi. Soc, VH, p. 9, pi. 2, figs. 
38-45 (1896) ; Asteroteutliis andamauica, Pfeffer, Plankton Exp., 
(Oegopsida) p. 137 (1912). 

M -^-f-^ ' Investigator' station 224 ; 23-ii-i897, 14^^ 54' 30" N., 96° 13' E., 
55 fathom.s — One $ . 

M -9 3.-2-i;J. ' Investigator' station 590 : Mergui Archipelago, Marine Sur- 
vey of India — One $ and one (?) J. 

Specimen M -p is not in very good condition and it is difficult 
to discover more than about three rows of transverse luminous 

1 Less tip. 



240 Records of the Indian Museum. [Vol. XII, 

organs on the ventral surface of the mantle. A few organs are 
visible on the siphon and they form nine rows on the ventral sur- 
face of the head. Three rows are present on the ventral arms and 
a single organ is visible on the third left arm. About thirty sur- 
round one eye, those on the ventral surface being most conspicu- 
ous. The first right arm possesses eleven hooks and twelve suckers, 
and the fourth has sixteen hooks and the same number of suckers. 
The rings of the arm suckers have twelve to fourteen blant and 
rather long teeth, separated by about the width of their base on the 
distal edge of the ring. Goodrich (1896, pi. 2, fig. 42) represents 
the ring as being toothed all round. Pfeffer (/.c, p. 137) has, how- 
ever, suggested that Goodrich may have mistaken some papillae for 
teeth as it is frequently very difficult to distinguish them unless 
the horny ring is isolated from the sucker. This specimen has 
more tentacular hooks and suckers than the type^ but the fact 
that these vary on the different clubs shows that no hard and 
fast rules can be laid down as regards this. One tentacle has a 
connective apparatus of five suckers and six papillae, and along 
the ventral margin of the club are three much-curved hooks and 
the sockets of two others, the central hook being the largest. Nine 
large suckers occur near the hooks, each having a horny ring 
with about thirt}- teeth (separated b}'' about the width of their 
base) on its circumference. The distal part of the club has fifteen 
or sixteen rows of very small suckers placed four in a row and 
becoming ver^' minute towards the tip, their rings being armed 
with many teeth. The other tentacle has a connective apparatus 
of four suckers and eight papillae, and the club shows five hooks 
and the socket of a sixth, as well as eight large suckers, and 
fifteen or sixteen rows of minute suckers on the distal portion. 

Specimen Isl -¥- has five hooks on the only club present. 
The ventral surface of the mantle shows many luminous organs on 
the median line, and elsewhere, but they are not arranged in any 
definite order, and a few trespass a little on the dorsal surface. 
Besides the three rows on the ventral arms, a single row orna- 
ments each of the third arms. The eight-angled buccal mem- 
brane is pale and dotted with red chromatophores. The funnel 
organ closely resembles that oiA. irigonura, Berry (1914, p. 329, 
text-fig. 33), and consists of a median A-shaped dorsal pad and 
broad ovate ventro-lateral pads, a small valve being also present. 
The luminous organs on the funnel fail, however, to show the 
triangular arrangement described by Berry. The small specimen 
M "r-^ seems to be a male, but it is not in very good condition, 
and there is no trace of a hectocotylus. Four hooks are present 
on one club and five on the other. Luminous organs are visible 
on the third as well as on the fourth arms, and are very distinct 
round each eye-opening, but the eyes, as is the case with the 
other specimens, are injured. 

The principal dimensions in mm. are given below. 



A A^<1 


M !) 3 2 
iW --^ — 


M ^Af-- 


40 


35 


24 


12 


13 


9 


12 


I (J 


10 


3u 


25 


15 


22 


20 


II 


20 


20 


14 


25 


21 


18 


22 


20 


n 


22 


22 


u 


45 


35 


33 


10 


9 


5 



1 9 16.] A. L. Massy : Cephalopoda of the Indian Museum. 241 

Specimen number 

End of body to dor.;al mantle-margin... 
Mantle- margin fork belwccn dorsal arms 
Breadth of mantle 

,, across Hns 
Length of fin ... 
I St right arm 
2nd ,, 

3rd ;:: ::: 

4th ,, 

Tentacle 
Club 

Distribution. — Andaman Sea, 188-320 fathoms 
Type. — In Indian Museum., Calcutta, three specimens, male 
and female. 

Family BATHYTEUTHIDAE. 

Bathyteuthis abyssicola, Hoyle. 

Bathyfetithis abyssicola, lioyle, Narr. Chall. Exp., I, p. 272, fig. 108 

(1885) ; ' C/ial/efige?-' Rep., XVI (Cephalopoda), pp. i68-i6g, pi. 29, figs. 1-7 

(1886) ; Pfeffer. Synopsis Oegopsid. Ceph., pp. 172-3 (1900) ; Hoyle, Bull. AIus. 
Comp. Zool., XLIII, no. i, p. 2>li^ P'- i; fis- 2 (1904); Trans. Royal Sac. Edin., 
XLVIII, part II, no. 14, pp. 282-283 (1912); Benfhoteiithis ??iegalops, Verrill, 
'J'ratis. Con7iect. Acad., Third Catalogue (Cephalopoda), p 401, pi. 44, fig. i 
(1885); Chun, Valdivia Exp., (Oegopsida) p. 185, pis. 24-27 (1910) ; Pfeffer, 
Plankton Exp., (Oegopsida) pp. 325-331, pi. 40, figs. 12-16 (1912). 

M ^3-5. ' Investigator ' station 393 : 21-X-1911, Bay of Bengal, 7° 21' 6" N., 

85° 7' 15" E., 2000 fathoms — One. 
M si_3_9 'Investigator' station 462a : 2o-iv-i9)2, Bay of Bengal, 9° 8' N., 

87° 25' E., 475 fathoms — One. 

In specimen M -^^ the suckers of the ventral arms are in 
two rows throughout, and on the other arms they are proximally 
in two rows and distally in three or four irregular rows. The 
rings of the arm suckers have five to six teeth. 

The tentacles are very long which is perhaps due to the 
specimen having been preserved in formalin. The suckers of the 
club begin proximally by a single sucker, followed by three in a 
row, and gradually increasing to about six in a row. A few rings 
of the club suckers appear to have about four blunt rather widely 
separated teeth on the distal margin and the rest of the ring 
smooth. Their position on the ring, and their blunt ends, seems 
to point to their being teeth and not papillae. Other rings seemed 
to be smooth. Hoyle describes the tentacular rings to be smooth, 
and Verrill does not mention their condition which would seem 
to imply that he had not observed any teeth. 

The horny rings of both tentacular and arm suckers are 
very dark. The luminous organs of the arms are about -50 mm. 
in length. The chromatophores are darkest on the dorsal surface 
of the head. Specimen M -1^-, from the great depth of 2000 
fathoms, is very young, and the mantle is much crumpled and 
denuded of its epidermis. The luminous organs at the base of 
the arms are clearly perceptible. The arm suckers are in two 
rows, and their largest rings show four to five teeth. The ten- 



242 Records of the Indian Museum. [Vol. XII, 

tacles are only represented by portions of stems. The arms are 
about 2 mm. in length, and the distance from the dorsal mantle- 
margin to the fork between the dorsal pair is 2 mm. The breadth 
of the head across the eyes is about 2*50 mm. The specimen has 
been preserved in formalin. 

The following are the principal measurements of specimen 
M ^i^:— 

mm. 
End of body to dorsal mantle-margin ... ... ... 12 

Breadth of mantle ... ... ... ... 4 

,, ,, head across eyes ... ... ... 6 

I st right arm .. ... ... ... ... 3'5o 

2nd ,, ,, ... ... ... ... ... 4 

.31-d ,, ,, ... ... ... ... ... 4 

4th „ „ ... ... ... ... ... 5 

Length of tentacle ... .. ... ... 22 

,, ,, club ... ... ... ... ... 2-50 

Distribution. — North Atlantic (Verrill, 1885) ; Indian Ocean 
{Chun) ; between Marion Island and the Crozets {Hoyle, 1886) ; 
North Pacific {Hoyle, 1904); Antarctic {Hoyle, 1912). 

Vertical Range. — 437-1600 fathoms {Pfeffer, 19 12). 

Family HISTIOTEUTHIDAE. 
Stigmatoteuthis japonica, Pfeffer. 

Stigmatofeuthis japonica, Pfeffer, Plankton Exp., (Oegopsida) pp. 284-5 
(1912); Callitejithis revet sa, Hoyle, 'Challenger' Rep., XVI (Cephalopoda), 
pp. 183.4, Pl- li> figs. 12-15 (if"'" 



M 5.-Y-- ' Investigator ' station 374: 2-iv-i907, Andaman Sea, 1 1° 37' N., 
95° 57' E., 28 fathoms— -One. 

The first three pairs of arms have a row of luminous organs 
on the ventral margin of their dorsal surface. Of these there are 
eight on the first arm, eleven to twelve on the second, and nine 
on the third. On the latter pair a short, strong keel attaining 
3 mm. in width, is developed on the central third of the arm along 
the line of the luminous organs. The fourth arms possess three 
rows of luminous organs for more than half their length, two of 
which persist towards the tip where a single row containing four 
terminates the series. About twenty-nine organs are present on one 
of these arms. vSeventeen luminous organs surround the right 
eye-opening. The left eye has only six organs. The mantle- 
margin has a well-defined row of organs all round its circum- 
ference, except on the median dorsal surface, where a space of 11 
mm. is ornamented by a solitary organ in the exact median line . 
On the ventral mantle there are about sixteen transverse rows of 
organs, and about six similar rows occur on the ventral sur- 
face of the head ; eight organs form a low arch above the siphon. 
Very few luminous organs are present on the dorsal surface of the 
head and mantle. The arms have slight protective membranes 
and their suckers are furnished with smooth rings, except at the 
distal portion of each arm, where the rings have five to eight 



19 16.] A. L. Massy : Cephalopoda of the Indian Museum. 243 

blunt rather closely-set teeth on the distal margin, the rest of the 
ring being smooth. The tentacle stem is flattened and its inner 
surface is marked with a groove. At 16 mm. from the base of the 
club the connective apparatus, consisting of eight suckers and four 
papillae, commences. These suckers have a papillary area- and 
smooth ring. Six or seven suckers are placed in a row on the 
proximal two-thirds of the club, about ten being larger than the 
rest ; the distal third has very small suckers, the last six rows con- 
taining only two apiece. Protective membranes are moderately 
developed, and there is a slight dorsal keel. The rings of the 
large tentacular suckers have twenty-two to twenty-five pointed 
teeth all round their circumference. Smaller suckers may have 
as many as thirty-six teeth. None of the suckers has accessory 
chitinous formations. 

Colour reddish-purple, fins paler and their ventral surface 
sprinkled with chromatophores on the part next the mantle. 
Pfeffer {I.e., p. 249) has shown that the genus Calliteuthis is 
defined by having smooth rings to arm and tentacle suckers, and 
that the latter are furnished with accessory chitinous formations 
which are wanting in the genus Stigmatoteuthis which has denti- 
culate rings to arm and tentacle suckers. 

The principal measurements are as follows : — 









mm. 


End of body to dorsal 


mantle-margin 


.. 56 


Breadth of man 


tie 




.. 23 


Breadth across 


fins 




.. ?>7 


,, of fin 






29 


1st right arm 






.. 52 


2nd ,, 






.. 62 


3rd ,. ,, 






.. 56 


4tli ., 






.. 52' 


Tentacle 






.. 125 


Club 






• 19 



Distribution. — Japan, 345 fathoms (Hoyle). One specimen. 

Family CHIROTEUTHIDAE. 

Chiroteuthis (Chirothauma) imperator, Chun. 

Chiroteuthis (^Chtrothaiema) imperator, Chun, Valdivia Exp., (Oegop- 
sida) p. 241, pis. 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44 (.1910); PfefFer, Platikton Exp., 
(Oegopsida) p. 581 (1912). 

M i_2Ao 'Investigator' station 281 : 2o-iii-i90i, Bay of Bengal, 11° 15' 15" 
N., 8° 7' E., 300 fathoms. —One ?. 

M i-^-Q 'Investigator' station 297 : i3-iv-i902, Gulf of Oman, 25° 11' 30" 
N., 57° 15' E., 700-689 fathoms.— One. 

M 5J._2 s 'Investigator' station 366 : io-iv-1906, Arabian Sea, 24° 45' N., 
63° 50' 15" E-, 544 fathoms.— One $ , and arms of another speci- 
men. 

The specimen M ^^ resembles in colour Chun's illustration 
(pi. 38, figs. I and 2). The ventral luminous organs measure about 



' Less tip. 



^44 Records of the Indian Museum. [Vol. XII, 

3 ram. in length and 2*50 mm. in breadth. The nidamental glands 
measure nearly 1*50 mm, in length. The olfactory papillae measure 
about 2 mm. in length and are situated at about 3 mm. below the 
posterior end of the eyes. The ventral arms have the margins 
mutilated in many parts so that only a few luminous organs are 
present, viz., 9 on one arm and 3 on the other. The tentacles have 
lost their clubs. 

The example M -^ is much damaged but in spite of its muti- 
lated condition it has been easy to identify it with certainty from 
Chun's magnificent illustrations. One of the tentacles possesses a 
club, and the stalks of its suckers are furnished with the wing-like 
membrane described by Chun (p. 247), and in other details the club 
suckers and those of the arms resemble completely Chun's descrip- 
tion and figures. About fifty luminous organs are present on the 
fourth right arm and forty-six on the fourth left arm. Nothing 
resembling a hectocotylus appears on any of the arms. The eyes 
have the three longitudinal rows of luminous organs which Chun 
describes as " sparkling like a chain of jewels." Twenty-two are 
present on one eye. The fins, siphon, and much of the ventral 
region have been torn away. 

The dorsal mantle-margin has the attachment exactly as in 
Chun's illustration (pi. 39, fig. i). 

The tentacles are furnished at the base with membranes which 
are widest at the dorsal side. 

The dorsal mantle region is much darker in tone than the 
illustration of Chun (pi. 38, figs, i and 2), who, however, mentions 
{I.e., p. 251) '' auch hebt sich bei einzelnen Exemplaren die Riicken- 
region im Bereiche des Gladius durch etwas intensivere Pigmen- 
tierung ab." 

The specimen M -\^^ is also in very bad condition, and is ac- 
companied by the arms of another large specimen M h^a? and a 
loose tentacle which presumably belongs to one of them. The club 
of the latter measures 140 mm. Approximate measurements of 
the different specimens are given below : — 



Specimen number 






Mi-\^ 


M-1-V-" 


M ■•^-V^^s 


M ^if s"* 








mm. 


mm. 


mm. 


mm. 


Dorsal mantle-mai 


rgin 


to commence 


. 








ment of fins ... 






, 26 




74 




Breadth of body at 


mar 


itle-margin 


. 15 




45 




,, of liead 






1 1 


45 


ca. 28 




,, of fins 






30 




82 




I. St right arm ... 






. 25 


214 


83 


101 


2nd ,, 






38 


mutilated, 


, 112 


122 


3rd ,, „ 






45 


203 


128 


140 


4th „ ,. 






92 


3^7 


200 


202 


Length of tentacle 






. 106 1 


1098 mutilated. 


mutilated, 


,, ,, club 








i67 







Distribution. — 0° 15' N., 98° 8' E., trawl 614 m. {'Valdivia ' 
Exp.) Sagami Bay, Japan, from the collection of Haberer and Dof- 
lein {Chun, 1910). 



' Mutilated, 



igi6.] A. Iv. Massy : Cephalopoda of the Indian Museum. 245 

Family CRANCHIIDAE. 
Tcuthowcnia (Henseniotcuthis) joubini, Pfeffer. 

Teiithoivenia {Hensoiiofe^ithis) Joubini, Pfeffer, Plankton Exp., (Oegop- 
sida) pp. 7^7-8, pi. 48, figs. 12-16 (1912). 

M ^ijAfi 'Investigator ' station 462^: 20-iv-igi2, Bay of Bengal, 9° 8' N., 
87° 25' K., 475 fathoms — One. 

This is considerably larger than the type, and unfortunately 
resembles it in having the tentacles represented only by mutilated 
stems. There is a slight groove on the inner surface of the stem, 
and at about 3 mm, from the mouth there seemed to be two 
minute suckers, which, however, may have been only abrasions on 
the stem surface. A very delicate membrane unites the first and 
second pairs of arms extending to about the first sucker, but is very 
slight between the second and third pair and absent between the 
ventral arms. This membrane had probably been torn away from 
the type. Only the rings on the distal half of the third arms could 
be examined without injuring the specimen. The suckers in this 
region have four or five short, widely-espaced teeth on the distal 
margin, the rest of the ring being smooth. Colour dull white 
sprinkled on both sides of the mantle with small dark chromato- 
phores, arranged in about twenty-eight irregular transverse rows. 
When not contracted the chromatophores are reddish-brown and 
oblong. They are dark and narrow and placed transversely on 
the dorsal surface of the arms and are sometimes scattered amongst 
the suckers. They are present on the siphon but absent from the 
fins. The extraordinary eyes make this a species easy to inden- 
tify. 

The following are the principal measurements : — 



End of body to dorsal man 


tie. 


margin 


... 14 


Breadth of mantle 








... 9 


,, head ai 


d eyes 






... 5 


Length of fin 


... 






I 


Breadtli of fins 








... 4 


1st right arm 








ca. 2 


3rd „ „ 








... 4 


Mutilated'tentacle 


stems 






... 10 



Distribution. — 317° N., 43*6° W, 0-400 m,, Sargasso Sea, type 
specimen {Pfeffer, 1912). 



I.IST OF REFERENCES, 

AppelIvOf, 1886. — '' Japanska Cephalopoder," — R. Svensk. Vet.- 

Ak., 1886. 
AppELLOF, 1898. — " Cephalopoden von Ternate." — Abh. d. Senc- 

kenb. naturf. Ges., XXIV, 1898. 
Berry, 1912. — " A Review of the Cephalopods of Western North 

America." — Bull. Bur. Fish., XXX, 1910. 

Issued July 24, 1912, 



246 Records of the Indian Museum. [Voi,. XII, 

Berry, igi2a. — " A Catalogue of Japanese Cephalopoda." — Proc. 
Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, July 1912. Is- 
sued October 10, 1912, 

Berry, 1913. — "Notes on some West American Cephalopods." 
— Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, Febru 
ary 1913. Issued April 4, 1913. 

Berry, 1914. — " The Cephalopoda of the Hawaiian Islands," — 
Bull. Bur. Fish., XXXII, 1912. Issued June 
24, 1914. 

Brazier, 1892.—" Catalogue of the Marine Shells of Australia and 
Tasmania — Part I, Cephalopoda." — Sydney 
Austr. Mus. Cat., 1892. 

Brock, 1887 — " Indische Cephalopod^m. "—2'oo/. Jahrh., II, 1887. 

Chun, 1910.—". Die Cephalopoden. I. Theil : Oegopsida."— P^t'ss. 
Ergebn. deutsch. Tiefsee-Exp. Valdivia, XVIII, 
1910. 

Goodrich, 1896. — " Report on a collection of Cephalopoda 
from the Calcutta Museum." — Trans. Linn. 
Soc, 2nd series, VII, 1896, 

Hidalgo, 1905. — " Catalogo de los moluscos testaceos de las islas 
Filipinas, J0I6 y Marianas. I. Moluscos 
marinos." — Revista Real Acad. Cieii. Madrid^ 
June 1904 — July 1905. 

HOYLE, 1886.—'' Report on the Cephalopoda collected by H.M.S. 
' Challenger ' during the years 1873-1876." — 
Rep. Challenger, XVI, London, 1886. 

HoYLE, 1886 fl. — ' A Catalogue of Recent Cephalopoda. Supple- 
ment, 1887-96."— Pyoc. Royal Phys. Soc. 
Edinburgh, 1886. 

HoYi.E, 1897. — '' A Catalogue of Recent Cephalopoda. Supple- 
ment, 1887-96." — Proc. Royal Phys. Soc. 
Edinburgh, 1897. 

HoYi.E, 1904 — " Cephalopoda," in: W.A. Her dman' s Report on the 
Pearl-Oyster Fisheries of the Gulf of Manaar, 
II, 1904. 

HoYi.E, 1904 a — " Reports on the dredging operations off the west 
coast of Central America, etc. * * * * 
* * by the * * * ' Albatross.' VI.— 
Reports on the Cephalopoda." — Bull. Mus. 
Comp. ZooL, XLIII, March 1904. 

HOYLE, 1905.—'' The Cephalopoda," in : J.Stanley Gardiner's The 
Fauna and Geogr. of the Maldive and Laccadive 
Archipelagoes , II, Supplement I, 1905. 

HoYLE, 1907 — " The Marine Fauna of Zanzibar and East Africa, 
from collections made by Cyril Crossland in 
1901-1902. — The Cephalopoda." — Proc. Zool. 
Soc. London, 1907. 

H0YI.E. 1909.—" A Catalogue of Recent Cephalopoda, Second 
Supplement, i8()y-igo6." —Proc. Royal Phys. 
Soc. Edinburgh, 1909. 



1916.] A. Iv- Massy : Cephalopoda of the Indian Museum. 247 

Jatta, 1896. — " I C^efalopodi viventi nel Golfo di Napoli." — 
Fauna and Flora des Golfes von Neapel. Monog. 
23 : Cefalopodi (Systematica), Berlin, 1896. 

JouBiN, 1897.—" Observations sur divers cephalopodes. Troisieme 
Note. Cephalopodes du Musee Poly tech- 
nique de Moscou." — Bull. Soc. Zool. France, 
XXII, 1897. 

JouBiN, 1898.—'' Sur quelques cephalopodes du Musee royal de 
I^eyde et description de trois especes nou- 
velles." - -TVo^es Leyden Mus., XX, 1898. 

JouBiN, 1 90 1. — Cephalopodes provenant des campagnes de la 
" Princesse Alice 1891-1897 " — Result, camp, 
sci, Albert de Monaco, fasc. XVII, 1900. Pub- 
lished, 1901. 

JouBiN, .1903. — " Sur quelques Cephalopodes recueillis pendant 
les dernieres campagnes de S. A, S. le 
Prince de Monaco (1901-1902)." — C. R. Acad. 
Paris, CXXXVI, 1903. 

JouBiN, 1912. — " Etudes Preliminaires sur les Cephalopodes recueil- 
lis au cours des croisieres de S. A. S. le Prince 
de Monaco. 2e. Note : Cirroteuthis grimaldii, 
nov. sp." — Bull. Vlnst. Ocean., No. 226, 
March 1912. 

d'Oebigny et Ferussac, 1835-1848. — '' Histoire naturelle gene- 
rale et particuliere des cephalopodes acetabuli- 
f eres, vivants et f ossiles. ' ' Paris ( 1825) , 1835- 
1848. 

Pfeffer, 1884. — ''Die Cephalopoden des Hamburger Naturhis- 
torischen Museums." — Ahh. Naturw. Ver. 
Hamburg, WW, abth. I, 1884. 

Pfepfer, 1912. — " Die Cephalopoden der Plankton-expedition," 
— Ergbn. Plankton-exp. der Humboldt-Stif- 
tung, II, F. a,, 1912. 

Smith, 1887. — ''Notes on Argonauta Bottgeri." — Ann. Mag. Nat. 
Hist., ser, 5, XXI, 1887, 

Verrill, 1882, — " Report on the cephalopods of the north-eastern 
coast of America." — Rept. U.S. Commission 
Fish and Fisheries, 1879, Washington, 1882, 

VERRII.L, 1884, — " Third Catalogue of Mollusca recently added to 
the Fauna of the New England Coast and 
the adjacent parts of the Atlantic, consisting 
mostly of Deep-Sea Species, with Notes on 
others previously recorded." — Trans. Connect. 
Acad., 1884, 

WtJLKER, 1910. — " Ueber Japanische Cephalopoden. Beitrage zur 
Kenntnis der Systematik und Anatomic der 
Dibranchiaten."— ^6A, d. II, Kl. K. Ak.d. 
Wiss., IIISuppl.-Bd., I Abh., 1910, 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE XXIII. 



Fig. 



— Sepia arabica , sp. n., dorsal view. 

— ,, ,, ventral ,, 

— ,, ,, sepiostaire. 

— ,, ,, club. 

— J, ,, mandibles. 

—Sepiella inermis (van Hasselt, MS.) Steenstrup, radula. 
— Polypus pricei, Berry, hectocotylized arm. 

— ,, ,, ,1 funnel organ. 
— Loligo indica, Pfeffer, mandibles. 



Rec.Ind.Mus.yol.M, 1916. 



Plate XXIII. 




EXPLANATION OF PLATE XXIV. 



Fig. 



-SepieUa mermis (van Hasselt, MS.) Steenstrup, 



2. — 
3.— 
4-— 
5- — 
6.— 

7.— 

8.— 

9-— 
10, 
II, 



— Sep 



ia arabica, sp. n., radula. 



sepiostaire 


l\^ 8211" 


cf 




M '%"* 


cr' 




M^,*^ 


cf 




M^^ 


cf 




M '^ 


9 




M ^^ 


5 




M '^r 


9 




M '"^V^ 


9 


, , mandibles. 







Loligo zndica, Pfeffer, radula. 



RecJnd.Mus.VoLXH, 1916. 



Plate XXIV. 




J.A.RvjsseU \i+h. 



NDIAN CEPHALOPODA. 



XVII. NOTES OiNT THE FRESHWATER 
FISH OF MADRAS. 

By B. SuNDARA Raj, M.A., Fisheries Bureau, Madras. 
(Plates XXV— XXIX.) 

INTRODUCTION. 

The following notes, necessaril}^ imperfect, on the habits, 
spawning season and early stages of some of the Madras fresh- 
water fish, are based mainl}^ on investigations made during 1910-11, 
the results of which were embodied in a dissertation which was 
submitted to the University of Madras in 1912. The enquiry, 
however, was continued in subsequent years amidst other work, 
and consequently the original paper has been considerably modi- 
fied as the result of additions and corrections made in the light of 
further research and study. 

Though a number of notes on the habits of Indian freshwater 
fish have appeared from very early times, they are comparatively 
few and most of them are at best random observations. In the 
following pages an attempt has been made to combine all that is 
known regarding the habits and early stages of the fish in question 
(by a fairly exhaustive though b}^ no means complete reference to 
previous literature) with facts personally observed and recorded for 
the first time in this paper. Only such observations from pre- 
viousl}' published accounts as are likely to be of general interest 
have been included and duly acknowledged. They have been 
gathered for the most part from the writings of Hamilton Bucha- 
nan, Sir E. Tennent, Cantor, Jerdon, Day, Thomas and especially 
Dr. Willey, whose observations on the breeding habits of Ophio- 
cephalus striatus and accounts of the nests, eggs and fry of some 
other species in his report on the inland fisheries of Ceylon are sub- 
stantial contributions to our knowledge of the spawning habits 
of Indian freshwater fish. 

The local limits of my collection and obsetvation are defined 
by the title of this paper, my examination being confined to the 
rivers Cooum and Adyar and to the ponds within the municipal 
limits of the city of Madras, and in a few cases being extended to 
some large outlying tanks such as Sembarambakkam and Red 
Hills. The Red Hills, some seven miles west of Madras, is a large 
perennial tank, while Sembarambakkam, about ten miles from the 
city, is the largest irrigation tank in this neighbourhood, but runs 
dry during the hot weather. The ponds within the city limits are 
of the usual type and require no special consideration; nearly all of 



250 Records of tJie Indian Museum. [Vol. XII, 

them contain fresh water excepting a few on the sea-coast in which 
the water is brackish. The rivers Cooum and Adyar, Hke most 
rivers of the Coromandel coast, are almost dry for several months 
of the year; the season of their chief flow is usually during the 
N. E. monsoon (November and December). When in flood thev 
are raging torrents and the water is brick-red owing to the admix- 
ture of a red deposit of light specific gravity : at other times the 
water is clear and collects in pools on the bed. Near the mouth for 
a distance of over two miles from the sea both rivers form extensive 
estuaries, and the embouchures of both are encumbered b}' natural 
bars. Since the construction of the Buckingham Canal it has been 
found necessary to keep the mouths of both the rivers closed 
throughout the year in order to regulate and confine their spill so 
as to contract the waterway for boat traihc : in the case of the 
Cooum a high level in the estuary is further necessary for sanitary 
purposes, in order to keep submerged its sewage-laden banks and 
shoals. Hence the estuary is not subject to tidal action and the 
percentage of salt is not very variable. A sample of water ob- 
tained from the Cooum estuary in August, when the river was at 
its lowest, had 3"576 per cent of dissolved salts and a specific 
gravity of i"Oi64.^ 

The Cooum estuary is always highly contaminated with sew- 
age except during the freshets. 

The flora of the ponds and the rivers in Madras is more or 
less the same and consists chiefly of many filamentous and unicel- 
lular algae notably species of Chara and Spirogyra ; the former 
abounds in brackish water. A few species of Phanerogams, prin- 
cipally Elodea and Vallisneria, occur; the former is the commonest 
and the most abundant water- weed in Madras, while the latter is 
found in clumps in a few places in the rivers. 

Of the 57 species of fish recorded, one {Panchax parvus) is des- 
cribed as new to science ; in the case of at least three species, viz. 
Catla catla, Doryrhamphus hrachyurus and Mastacenibelus pancalus, 
the geographical distribution has been extended; in two species, 
Anabas scandens and Macrones vittatus, albinism has been noted 
and for more than a dozen, information regarding breeding habits 
has been furnished. Notes regarding growth and colouration of 
fry are based mainly on observations conducted in aquaria. How- 
ever, I have been able to verify the results of such experiments in 
most cases by obtaining identical stages direct from nature. 

I am indebted to Drs. J. R, Henderson and N. Annandale for 
many references and much help; and to Dr. B. L. Chaudhuri for 
kindly confirming my identifications in a few doubtful cases. My 
thanks are due to Mr. H. C. Wilson of the Madras Fisheries for 
permitting me to publish his figures of the eggs and larvae of 
Gobius striatus and for valuable information that he has kindly 
given me regarding the habits of some of the species. 

' I am indebted to Mr. Ramaswami, B.A., of the Madras Fisheries, for this 
information. 



1916.] B. SuNDARA Raj : Fyeshwater Fish of Madras. 



251 



Systematic Index op Species. 



Page 



Family l^^lopidae. 




Flops iiidiciis 


. -'51 


}fegaIops cy prill aides 


... -'5^ 


Family Notopteridae. 




Xutoptei-KS iwtopter/is 


... 253 


I''amily Clupeidae. 




Eiigraiilis purava 


■• 253 


Famil}' C\prinidae. 




I.aheo cnlbasti 


253 


Ciri'Iiina reba 


■ ■ 254 


Catla catlii 


. 254 


Barbtis clirysopoina ... 


. . 254 


Rarbus avipliibiiis 


■ 255 


Pai'biis dorsal is 


■ 255 


Harbtis sop hare 


.. 256 


Barbiis filamentosiis . . 


.. 258 


Barbiis mahecoln 


.. 258 


Barbus vittatits 


.. 258 


Rasbora daniconiiis ... 


•■ 259 


Nil ria da n rica 


■• 259 


A mblypharyngodoii inicrolepis 


260 


Amblyph ary iigod II iiwln 


.. 260 


Chela cliipeoides 


.. 260 


Perilainpiis cacliiiis ... 


.. 261 



Family Cobitididae. 

Lepidocephalichtliys thermal is 

Family Siluridae. 
Clnriiis batrachus 
Saccobraiichiis fossilis 
Wallago attii 

Pseudeutropiiis atheriiwides 
Ariiis falcariiis 
Macrones cavasitis ... 
Macrones vittatiis 
Macrones keletiiis 

F'amily Anguillidae. 
Angiiilla elphiustoiiei 
Aiigtiilla aitsfralis ... 



261 

262 
262 
263 
264 
264 
264 
265 
265 

265 
266 



Page 

l'"amil\' Cyprinodonudac. 

Haplochiliis iiielaiiosfigina ... 266 

Paiichax parvus ... ... 268 

l*"amily Syngnathidac. 

Dorvrhainphiis hrachyiiriis ... 269 

Dorvrhaiiiphiis ciiiicalits ... 2jo 

I'amily Scombrcsocidae. 

Belone caitcila ... ■■■ 270 

I''amily Ophiocephalidae. 

Ophiocephaliis striatiis ... 270 

Ophiocephaliis piiiictatiis ... 273 

Ophiocephaliis gacliiia ... 275 

Family Anabantidae. 

Aiiabas scandeiis ... .... 276 

Family Nandidae. 

Naiidiis itaudus ... ... 27S 

Family Serranidae. 

Rates calcarifer ... ... 278 

A 111 bass is raiiga ... ... 278 

Ainbassis ambassis ... ... 279 

Anibassis iniops ... ... 279 

Family Osphromenidae. 

Osp/iroiiieiiiis goiiraini ... 279 

Macropodiis cii paints ... 281 

Family Cichlidae. 

Etroplits macitlatiis ... ... 282 

Etroplus siiratensis ... ... 28.=; 

Family Gobiidae. 

Eleotrisfusca ... ' ... 286 

Gobi us {Aceiitrogobins) neilli ... 287 
Gobius {Aceiitrogobius) acittipiii- 

nis ... ... _ _ ... 287 

Gobius (Glossogobius) giiiris ... 288 

Gobius (O.vyurichthys) striatus ... 289 

Family Mastacembelidae. 

Rhyiicobdella aciileata ... 289 

Mastacembeliis paiicalus ... 290 

Mastaceiubelus ariiiatus ... 290 



EIops indicus, Swainson.^ 

[Flops saurus of the Fauna of Brit. India.) 

Tamil — Aldtti. 

Habitat and Habits. — Day mentions tropical and subtropical 
seas as the habitat of this fish, while Drs. Max Weber and De Beau- 
fort regard E. hawaiensis and E. machnata as sea fish.* The Madras 
species, however, appears to be essentially an estuarine fish, which 



i Dr. B. L. Chaudhuri ha.s discus.sed the Indian species of this genus in de- 
tail in his report on the fish of the Chilka I.ake, in vol. V of the Memoirs of the 
Indian Museum, pp. 413-4x6. He concludes that the species that occurs com- 
monly at Madras should be called Elops indicus, Swainson. 

2 Fishes of the Indo-Aitstralian Archipelago, II, p. 4. 



252 Records of the Indian Museum. [Vol. XII, 

easily acclimatises itself to fresh water. I^arge numbers are caught 
in the river Cooum within tidal influence, and in brackish ponds near 
the coast.' During the floods young fish are common in the Cooum 
above tidal influence, while adult fish occur in the Madras P'ort 
ditch * and in tanks in the Government House gardens, both of 
which have had no access to the sea for years. The above facts 
seem to show that this fish breeds in fresh water. A congener, E. 
lacerta of Africa, is known to enter rivers.^ 

E. indicus appears to breed during the cold weather. The fry 
of this genus, like those of the other members of the family, are 
said to be ribbon-shaped.* 

Mcgalops cyprinoides (Broussonet). 

Tamil — Mordn Kendai. 

All the specimens examined, ranging from a length of 6 inches 
to 20 inches, are referable in most respects to Bleeker's M. kun- 
dinga, but the head is slightly smaller and there area greater number 
of anal and dorsal rays. 

Habitat and Habits. — M. cyprinoides is an estuarine fish fre- 
quentl}' entering fresh water and easily accommodating itself to it. 
The larvae and young are common in the Cooum river, within 
and above tidal influence and in pools near the coast ; but the 
largest specimens I have seen, about a foot and a half in length, 
are from ponds in the city. According to Thomas they acclimatise 
very readily to fresh water and grow fast and are said to breed in 
fresh water. ^ In support of the last statement, I may state that 
I have obtained the species in various sizes from a pond about 
4 miles from the sea which has no communication with river or 
backwater. I have not seen it in the Red Hills tank or in any of 
the larger lakes further inland. 

M . cyprinoides is an active and powerful fish, predaceous in 
habits, subsisting mainly on the smaller Cyprinidae in ponds. 
In an aquarium young specimens are attractive, but their growth 
in such surroundings is not rapid. x\t frequent intervals they rise 
slowly till they are quite near the surface, when they make a 
sudden dash to the surface and descend down in a moment having 
swallowed air, which escapes through the opercular cleft. This 
habit is natural to the fish, as it often rises to the surface in ponds 
and the act is accompanied by a characteristic splash of water 
and the escape of air bubbles. According to " Skeen Dhu" they 
rise to the surface only between 5 and 6 p.m.^ Connected with 
this habit is the fact observed by Dr. Willey that this species lives 



' At the lower anicut on the Col river, Tanjore district, specimens over a fool 
and a half in length are frequently captured with Hilsa [Cltipea ilislia) during the 
floods in July and August. 

■^ Thomas, Tank Angling, p. i6S (1887). 

■'^ and 4 Cambridge Nat. Hist., VII, Fislies, p. 547. 

^ Thomas, Rod in India, p 214. 

'^ Skcen Dhu. TJie Mightv Maliseer, p. 49. 



1916.] B. vSuNDARA Raj : Freshwater Fish of Madras. 253 

for many hours out of water, rather an exceptional feature in the 
herring family to which Megalops belongs.' 

M. cyprinoides breeds during the cold weather. Thomas, 
however, in his Report on Pisciculture in South Canara states that 
E. apalike^ Day (=M. cyprinoides) is said to breed from Ma}' to 
June. The larvae are common in the river Cooum in October and 
November in fresh water. As in Alhula vulpes {A. conorhynchiis 
of the " Fauna") the young pass through a characteristic larval 
stage analogous to that of the eel.* 

Notopterus notopterus (Pallas).^ 
(Notopterus kapirat of the Fauna of Brit. Lndia.) 

Tamil — Chotta Vdlai. 

Habitat and Habits. — Day records this species from fresh and 
brackish waters. In Madras, however, it is confined to the former 
and appears to thrive best in the stationary water of ponds and 
lakes; Hamilton-Buchanan, however, obtained his largest speci- 
mens (3 feet in length) from rivers.* 

Uses. — Though the species is said to attain to 3 feet, I have not 
seen it above a foot and a half in length. It is esteemed as food. 

Engraulis purava (H. B.) 

Tamil — Ven Kannu. 

Young fish of E. purava occur in the river Cooum in fresh 
water during October and November, which appears to be the 
breeding season. It is an estuarine fish which ascends rivers when 
young. In 1910 a specimen was collected as far inland as Tirhoot 
in Bengal.^ 

Labeo calbasu (H. B.) 

Tamil — Sel Kendai. 

Habitat and Habits. — This species abounds in large tanks- in 
the neighbourhood of Madras and in rivers above tidal influence. 
It also occurs in a few small tanks within the city. Like the other 
species of Labeo, it feeds on vegetable matter and minute Crus- 
tacea and is essentially a bottom- feeder.^ L. calbasu breeds dur- 
ing the cold weather. Immature fish are common in the river 
Cooum in fresh water in January. Young fish of about 6 inches in 
length are silvery white in colour, the scarlet spots being entirely 
absent. 



^ Spolia Zeylnnica, \"II, p. 98. 

2 van Kampen, Larvae of Megalops cvpi-iiwidcs : Bull. Depf. Agri. /fes I ml. 
Xeer. Bnifeiizovg, 1908 (10-12). 

3 Max Weber and De Beaufort, Fishes of the Iiido- Australian Archipelago. 
il, p. 9. 'Pallas, .Spicil. ZooL, VII, p. 40.) 

* Hamilton-Buchanan, Fislies of the Ganges, p. 235. 
6 Journ. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc, XX, p. 432. 
** Thomas, Rep. Pisciculture .S". Cauara, p. 70. 



254 Records of the Indian Museum. [Voh. XII, 

Uses. — This is a large fish, growing to about 3 feet in length, 
which is much esteemed as food. 

Cirrhina reba (H. B.) 

Tamil — Ariiijal or Arinjal Kendai. 

This is a common species in large tanks in the neighbourhood 
of Madras ; it however does not seem to occur within the city or 
in brackish water. 

Uses. — It is a small fish growing to about 9 inches in length, 
and not much in demand as food. 

Catia catia (H. B.) 

(C. huclianani of the Fauna of Brit. India.) 

On loth June, 19 12 I obtained a fresh specimen in the Chinta- 
dripet Market, Madras which is preserved in the Madras Museum. 
This is apparently the first record of this species south of the 
Kistna. Mr. Wilson informs me that since the introduction of this 
species into the Cuddapah-Kurnool canal by the Fisheries Depart- 
ment, it has found its way into the Pennar river and some of the 
large tanks of the Nellore District. Some tanks further south 
are shortly to be stocked by the Fisheries Department. 

It is a valuable food fish attaining to 6 feet and more in length 
and an inhabitant of fresh and brackish waters. "It is a very 
strong and active animal and often leaps over the seine of the 
fisherman . . ." {H. B.). Growth is said to be very rapid in 
this species. Mr. Mitchell's specimens, which were only |^ to i inch 
in length when introduced into his tank, had attained a length of 
II inches in the course of five months [Natiire, 1875, XIII, 
p. 107). In the Godavari river, where this fish is quite common, it 
breeds about August. Young specimens from 2 to 3 inches in 
length are common in that river in January. 

Barbus chrysopoma, C. and V. 

Tamil — Panjela, also Shani Kendai. 

I have referred to this species ' a common tank Barbus in 
Madras, though it does not exactly agree with Da3^'s description 
of the species. The original description by Cuvier and Vallen- 
cienes is very defective.* 

In Madras specimens usually there are 3 or 4 anterior un- 
branched rays in the dorsal fin, the pectoral has 15 rays, the 
number of perforated scales on the lateral line varies from 29 to 
32, the diameter of the eye varies from 4 to 4^ in the length of the 
head, there are 10 to 12 rows of scales in front of the dorsal fin, 



' ]crdon {Madras yoin-ii. Lit. Sc, 1849, p. 314), Thomas {Tank Angling, 
pp. 96-97) and Skeen Dhu < Miglify Mahseer, pp. 6 and 62) record this species- 
from Madras. 

2 Gunther, B. M. Catalogue, \'H, p. 113 (syn.). 



1916. j B. SuNDARA Raj : Freshvvater Fish of Madras. 255 

the rostral pair of barbels are one-half longer than the orbit and 
the dark lateral blotch anterior to the base of the caudal fin may 
be present or absent. 

The above particulars show that Madras examples combine 
the characters of the three species, B. sarana, H. B., B. chrysopoma, 
C. and v., B. pinnauratus, Day, all of which according to the 
Fauna of British India may occur in Madras. Day himself 
doubted the validity of his species B. pinnauratus, which he 
thought ma}^ be a variety of B. chrysopoma^ while B. sarana is 
closely related to these. ^ The series examined, however, is entirely 
too limited to decide whether these three species are really distinct. 

This fish is common in ponds in and around Madras and does 
not appear to occur in rivers. The breeding season seems to be 
about December, as the young are very common in January and 
February. In the young the eyes are comparatively large.* When 
they are an inch long, there are 4 undivided anterior rays in the 
dorsal lin. All the fins and the opercles are suffused with orange, 
the body is bright silvery and the dark lateral spot at the root of 
the caudal fin is very distinct. 

Uses. — Much valued as food. 

Barbus amphibius (C. and V.) 

Tamil — Niuiibriki Kendai. 

Both in the Fishes of India and in the Fauna of India Day 
gives the number of undivided anterior rays in the anal fin as 2, 
while in his Fishes of Malabar he mentions 3 such rays ; in Madras 
specimens the latter number usually occurs. 

Habitat and Habits. — Though not uncommon it does not 
appear to be very numerous except in some tanks. In the river 
Cooum it occurs within tidal influence. It is a shallow-water 
species subsisting on a mixed diet composed of aquatic weeds, 
worms, flies, etc. B. amphibius breeds during October, November 
and December and also according to Thomas during June and 
July.3 

Description of young. 

" When young the summit of the head is golden green, and a yellcw streak 
runs from opposite the centre of the eye to the centre of the tail. When about 
two inches in length the black spot on the side of the tail commences to appear, 
and bv degrees the golden streak along the side disappears." * 

Uses. — It is a small fish not much in demand as food. 

Barbus dorsalis (Jerdon). 

Tamil— Mufiandng Kendai. '' Saal Candee " (Day) is the name 

given to Labeo calbasu in Madras. 

Habitat and Habits. — B. dorsalis occurs in ponds and rivers, 
but nowhere abundantly. It is rare in tanks within city limits. 



' Day, Fislies of India, p. 562. ?' Report Piscicitlture S. Caiiara, p. 72. 
■^ Ibid., p. 561. * Day, Fishes of .Malabar, p. 214. 



256 Records oj the Indian Museum. [Vol. XII. 

The spawning season is said to extend from i\ugust to Octo- 
ber. Dr. Willey observes : 

" On August 31.SI a half-spent spawning ( Barbus dursalis) accompanied by a 
batch of adhesive eggs was brought from the Colombo lake. The eggs measured 
o*75 mm. in diameter with a pale grayish transparent yolk nearly uniformly granu- 
lous. The eggs had been caught in the act of being laid and were apparenth' 
unfertilized." ' 

Uses. — This species attains to at least eight inches in length 
and is fairly good as food. 



Barbus sophorc (H. B.)^ 

{B. stigma of the Fauna of Brit. India.) 

Tamil— Kulla kendai. 

In June, 1910 I obtained a dozen specimens of this species 
from a pond behind the Madras Museum, some of which pos- 
sess a pair of small maxillary barbels The chief characters of 
examples of the two kinds obtained simultaneously from the above 
pond are detailed below to obviate all possible doubt as to their 
identification — 

I. Specimens with a pair of maxillary barbels. 

1. A specimen 3 in. in length. 

D. 3/8. A. 3/5. V. 2/7. Ll. 26. 
A dark lateral blotch on scales 22 and 23 of the lateral line. 
Three rows of scales between the ll. and the ventral fin. 
Length of head 5 in total length. 
Nine scales before the dorsal fin. 
A scarlet lateral band. 

2. A specimen 4 in. in length, 

D. 3/8. A. 3/5. V. 2/7. Ll. 26. 
A dark lateral blotch on scales 22, 23 and 24 of the ll. 
Three rows of scales between the LL. and the ventral fin. 
A scarlet lateral band present. 
Ten scales before the origin of the dorsal lin. 

3. A specimen 4/,, in. in length. 

D. 3/8. A. 3/6. M. 2/7. Ll. 26. 

A scarlet lateral band. 

A dark lateral blotch on scales 22, 2j and 24 of the LL. 
Three rows of scales between the LL. and the ventral fin. 
Length of head 4.i , height of body 3.! in total length. 
The diameter of the eye 3,' in the length of the head. 
Ten scales before the dorsal fin. 



' SpoUa Zeylaiiica. \'II, \). ro:;. 

'■^ C'haudhuri, Mem. hid. Mas.. \. p. 43O (,iuif>.) 



1916.] B. SuNDARA Raj : Freshwater Fish of Madras. 257 

II. Specimens without barbels. 

1. A specimen 3I in. in length. 

D. 3/8- A. 3/5. V. 2/7. I.L. 25. 
A dark lateral blotch on scales 22 and 23 of the i,l. 
Three rows of scales between the ll. and the ventral fin. 
Length of head 4? in total length. 
Nine rows of scales before the dorsal fin. 
A scarlet lateral band. 

2. A specimen 4 in. in length. 

D. ^/d>. A. 3/5. V. 2 7. Ll. 25. 
A dark lateral blotch on scales 22 and 23 of the lateral line. 
Three rows of scales between the ix. and the ventral fin. 
Length of head 5, height of body yi in total length. 
The diameter of the eye 3i in length of head. 
Nine scales before the dorsal fin. 
A scarlet lateral band. 

In all the specimens the eyes are li diameters apart, the 
first dorsal ray is osseous and entire, the dorsal fin commences 
rather in advance of the ventral fin, midway between the end of 
the snout and the base of the caudal fin. The lateral line sense 
organs exist in all the specimens only on 25 scales, the 26th scale 
is a small scale, when present, without a perforation. In all, 
there are only 3 rows of scales between the ix. and the base of the 
ventral fin A dark blotch on the mid-dorsal rays is present in all. 

The only fish with which a possible confusion could arise is 
B. amphibiiis , which has a maxillary pair of barbels ; but in all 
the specimens described above, there are 3 rows of scales between 
the LL. and the origin of the ventral fin. This character apart 
from others, such as the greater breadth of the body in B. sophore, 
is sufficient to distinguish it from B. amphibms , which has only 
two such rows of scales. 

From the above statements it will be seen that maxillary bar- 
bels, while absent in most specimens, are present in some. If my 
observations are correct, the presence or absence of barbels is evi- 
dently variable and so cannot serve as a safe criterion for classify- 
ing species of Barhiis. Day also doubted if the two species 
B. mahecola and B. filameniosus, distinguished by the presence of a 
small pair of maxillary barbels in the former, were really distinct.' 

From the history of B. sophore it is seen that till i86g B. stigma 
(C & V.) destitute of barbels was considered identical with B. sophore 
(H. B.), and the mention of 4 barbels by the latter author in 
his description, as they were not shown in his figure, was considered 
a mistake. In 1869, Day discovered a form with 4 barbels in the 
Khasi Hills for which he adopted the name B. sophore, B. stigma 
being retained by him for the common form without barbels.'^ 



1 Day. Fishes of India, p. 556; Faicna Brit. Imi., I. pp. 293 and 294. 

2 lOay, /. c. p. ^(iU\ Proc. Zool. Soc, 1S69. p. .^i/r). 



258 Records of the Indian Museum. [Vol. XII, 

Though I have not seen the form with 4 barbels, it seems 
likely that these three forms — the common form destitute of 
barbels, the Madras one recorded in this paper with a pair of 
maxillary barbels, and the kind from the Khasi Hills with 4 
barbels — represent phases of a very variable species which accord- 
ing to time or locality may possess four, two or no barbels. 

Habitat and Habits. — B. sophoreis one of the commonest species 
in ^Madras, occurring in abundance in the shallows of ponds and 
rivers. In the Cooum it is found within tidal influence in brackish 
water. It breeds during the cold weather ; Day records finding 
1850 mature eggs in a female at Madras in January.' The young, 
which are common in November and December, closely resemble 
the adult, except in their paired fins, which are comparatively long ; 
the pectorals reach the ventrals and the latter the origin of the 
anal fin. The lateral scarlet band, frequently seen in the adult, is 
often present in the young also. 

Uses. — A small species, reaching a maximum length of about 
5 inches, not much in demand as food. Its flesh is bitter and is 
supposed to be medicinal. It is a valuable mosquito larvicide. 

Barbus filamentosus (C. & V.) 

Tamil — Sevdli (red tail) or Retha kendai. 

It is very doubtful if the present species is really distinct from 
B. mahecola (C. & V.)."^ Both forms, those with a pair of minute 
maxillary barbels {B. mahecola) and those without them {B. fila- 
mentosus), occur in Madras and are identical in all other characters. 

This handsome fish frequents streams in small shoals. 

Barbus mahecola (C. & V.) 

Occurs in a few tanks in the neighbourhood of Madras. 

Barbus vittatus (Day). 

Tamil — Sinna kulla kendai. 

Colour. — In Madras examples there are only three characteris- 
tic black spots, one on the dorsal fin, another at the root of the 
caudal and a third in front of the anal fin ; the last though fairly 
constant appears to be caused by fgecal matter. 

'• Inlhc immature ihc colours vary: when the fish is about 8 lOths of an 
inch long, a vertical stripe begins to show itself in the posterior third of the dorsal 
fin, the summit of which also becomes edged with black, whilst there are some 
irregular orange markings, in very young specimens the line of demarcation 
between the green of the back and the silvery abdomen appears like a white band 
running from the eye to the middle of the tail." (Day).^ 

^ Day, Fislies of hidia, p. 579. 

■2 Day, Fishes of /ui/in. p. 55(1. Da}- combines the two species in his Fishes 
of Malabar, p. 215. 

•^ Fishes of Molnbiir. p. 215: Fislies of India, p. 5S2 : Fauna Hrit.Ind.. 



1916.] B. SuNDAKA Raj : Freshwater Fish of Madras. 259 

Habitat and Habits. — Very common in several ponds in and 
around Madras and in rivers in fresh water. After a heavy shower 
this is one of the foremost fish to enter drains and gutters in 
the city. 

Uses. — Its small size, hardihood and the ease with which it 
could be kept alive for years in small aquaria make it one of the 
most valuable mosquito larvicides. 

Rasbora daniconius (H. B.) 

Tamil — Ovari or Paravu. 

In Madras specimens, two complete horizontal rows of scales 
do not exist between the h. line and the root of the ventral fin as 
stated by Day,' there being only one and a half rows as correctly 
shown by his figures*; the number of rows in front of the dorsal 
fin varies from 14 to 16. 

Habitat and Habits. — R. daniconius abounds in all the rivers 
and tanks in Madras in fresh water. It is a shallow-water species 
and feeds on both animal and vegetable matter.^ This species 
breeds during the rains in September and October in Madras, 
while its congener R. rasbora {R. buchanani of the ' Fauna") is said 
to breed on the West Coast in June and July.* The fry, which 
are very common during the breeding season, enter drains and 
are frequently caught there with the young of species of Arnbly- 
pharyngodon^ Niiria danrica and Barbus viitatus, the other common 
tank-fish of Madras. They are easily distinguished from the fry 
of Aniblypharyngodon by the absence of both the orange colour and 
the convex dorsal profile so characteristic of the latter ; but are 
not easily separable from the fr\' of N . danrica before the barbels 
appear in them, and the fry of B. viitatus. 

Uses. — Conflicting opinions exist as to their usefulness as 
mosquito-destroyers ; m}'' experiments show them to be at least as 
useful as N. danrica in this respect. 

Nuria danrica (H. B.) 

Tamil — Paravu. 

The height of bod}^ in some large examples is 5 in total length 
and the eyes are usually li diameters apart. 

Habitat and Habits. — A^. danrica is very common in ponds 
and not uncommon in rivers. The breeding season extends from 
October to December, when many adults have the caudal portion 



i Day, Fishes of India, p. 584 ; Fauna Brit. Ind., p. 337. 

■^ Day, Fishes of hidia, pi. cxivi, figs. 2 and 3. 

•5 Jerdon, Madras Joiirn. Lit. Sc, xv, p. 320. The statement of Messrs. 
Chaudhuriand Sewell in their Ind. Fish of Proved Utility as .Mosquito Destroyers, 
that this species is a pure vegetarian is contradicted by Mr. H. C. Wilson in his 
" Notes on larvicides and natural enemies of mosquitoes in South India," Proc. 
Gen. Mai. Commit., 2nd meeting, Madras, 191 2. 

* Thomas, Rep. on Pisci, South Cauara, p. 72. 



26o Records of the Indian Museum. [Vol, XII, 

of their bodies with the caudal fin stained crimson ; which is sup- 
posed by fishermen in Madras to indicate good rains. The fry are 
ver}^ common in November, when they frequently enter drains in 
the cit}^ after a heavy shower. Till they attain a length of 19 mm. 
the barbels are undeveloped and the scales are indistinct ; when 
25 mm. long, the maxillary barbels reach the eye, the colour is 
greyish white, a faint yellow band extends along the sides and 
some dark pigment spots are present at the root of the caudal fin. 
Uses. — This is a small species which is said to reach a maxi- 
mum length of 5 inches. Being a surface feeder it is valuable as a 
mosquito-destro3-er.' 

Amblypharyngodon microlepis (Bleeker). 

Tamil — Puli Elai Kendai or Pacha Thalai Kendai; both names 
refer to the metallic green colour of the back. 

The rows of scales between the L,. line and the base of the 
ventral fin is usually 6 and even 7; onl}^ occasionally is it 5 as 
stated by Day. 

Habitat and Habits. — A. microlepis is one of the commonest 
tank-fish in Madras. It inhabits shallow water and is among the 
first to migrate from ponds with the shallowest of overflows, in 
which act it is frequently caught in drains after a heavy shower. 

The breeding season extends from October to December, when 
the fry are extremely common. 

Description of Fry. — There are usually 9 rays in the dorsal 
and 8 in the anal fin. When less than 2 centimeters long the 
scales are indistinct, the body translucent and bright orange in 
colour^ except the abdomen, which is silvery ; the dorsal profile is 
very convex; a dark green crescent mark on the head behind the 
line of the eyes is very distinct in preserved specimens ; the pectoral 
fins reach the ventral, which reach the anal. 

Uses. — A small species not more than 3 or 4 inches in maxi- 
mum length, which enters largely into the diet of the poorer classes 
in consequence of its abundance. Experiments prove it to be a 
valuable mosquito-destroyer. 

Amblypharyngodon mola (H. B.) 

Not so common as A. microlepis in Madras, 

Chela clupeoides (Bloch). 

Tamil — Vellichi. 

C. clupeoides is found chiefly in ponds and only occasionally 
in rivers. Though not uncommon it is rarely abundant in any 
single locality. It is an active fish and a fast swimmer and in- 



l Sewcll and ( 'haudliuri. huL Fisli of Proved Ctility as Mosqiiifo-ih'stvovers. 
17- 



1916.] B. SuNDARA Raj : Freshwater Uish of Madras. 261 

habits clear water. Being a surface-feeder it is frequently seen 
near the surface of the water. 

" The chelas are remarkably active in the early mornings and evenings, which 
means that they are thoroughly on the feed then. During the middle of the da\- 
they seem to favour the deeper waters and become less active, occasional rises 
being seen in the centre or deep parts of the pool, but not feeding regularly." l 

In sport or when chased they shoot into the air ; more fre- 
quently the3^ expose their silvery sides at the surface of the water 
in bright sunshine. 

Uses. — This species attains a maximum length of six inches 
and is esteemed as food. The doubt cast on the usefulness of 
species of Chela in destroying mosquitoes by some writers* has been 
criticised by Mr. H. C. Wilson.^ My own experiments show that 
C. cliipeoides readily eats mosquito larvae at any rate in captivit}'. 
Possibly C. argentea differs from the present species in this respect. 

Perilampus cachius (PI. B.) 
(P. atpur of the Fauna of British India.) 

Tamil — Salvai. 

Cachius being the first of the two specific names {cachius and 
atpar)^ used for this species by Hamilton-Buchanan*, has to be 
adopted according to the law of priority. 

In Madras specimens the anal fin has only 20 to 22 rays, the 
number of longitudinal rows of scales between the L. line and the 
base of the ventral fin is frequently onl}^ 3^, and the number of 
perforated scales on the L- line usually only 50. I have not seen 
this species more than an inch and a half in length, though it is 
said to grow to a maximum length of 4 inches. 

It is a rare fish in Madras. I have met with it very occa- 
sionally in the Cooum river and in the Sembarambakkam tank. 

Uses. — Messrs. vSewell and Chaudhuri mention it as a mos- 
quito-destroyer.^ 

Lepidocephalichthys thermalis (C. and V.) 

Tamil — Asarai. 

This common species abounds in the rivers where the bottom 
is sandy, and in ponds. 

Habits. — L. thermalis inhabits the bottom mud or sand of 
rivers and ponds, where it usually lies buried during the day, 
venturing out to feed at night. ' The burrowing in mud or sand 
does not appear to be a laborious process. In an aquarium, when 

i Wilson, Some notes on larvicides and natural enemies of Mosquitoes in 
South India. Proceedings Tliii-d General Malaria Committee, Madras (Novem- 
ber 18th, 19th and 20th, 191 21. 

'^ Bentle}', 2nd Rev. Wellcome Laboratory, p. JiS; Sewell and Chaudhuri, 
/;/(/. Fish of Proved Utility as Mosquito-destroyers, p. 19. 

2 H. C. Wilson. I. c' 

* Hamilton-Buchanan, Fishes of the Ganges, pp. 258 and 259. 

^ Ind. Fish of Proved Utility as Mosquito-destroyers, p. 19. 



262 Records of the Indian Museum. [Vol XII, 

disturbed, it rapidly darts about and suddenly strikes the bottom 
sand head-forwards, diving into it by sheer force. A favourite 
position for the fish is to He buried with" just tlie snout and the tail 
above the surface of the sand ; often the latter is also concealed 
and the snout is withdrawn at the approach of danger, only to 
reappear almost immediately. 

Branchial respiration appears to be insufficient in this loach. 
In an aquarium it grows restless at varying intervals, and rises to 
the surface to take air, which is apparently swallowed; conse- 
quently it lives for a long time out of water. 

The erectile sub-orbital spine appears to be an organ of de- 
fence ; when the fish is seized by the tail it rapidly swings round 
and dashes its head against the hand, when the prick of the erected 
spine is felt. 

The breeding season extends from October to January, when 
the young, which resemble the adult, are quite common every- 
where in shallow collections of rain-water. 

Uses. — Though small it is considered very nourishing. 

Clarius batrachus (Lin.) ^ 

[Claritts magur (H< B.) of the Fauna of British India.) 

Tamil. — Kartippu theli {theli^^^scorpion, has reference to the poison- 
ous pectoral spines). 

Habitat and Habits. — C. batrachus is rare in Madras. It in- 
habits fresh and brackish water. 

I/ike most Silurids it is sluggish and prefers muddy to clear 
water. It lives and feeds at the bottom of ponds and rivers, and 
in the mud sometimes lies concealed for hours, with no movements 
save those of respiration and the constant lashing of its barbels, 
which appear to be its chief organs of perception. Experiments 
in an aquarium seem to prove that this fish is practically blind to 
objects beyond the reach of its barbels. The colour is eminently 
protective and effectively conceals the fish in dark muddy sur- 
roundings. 

As is well known C. batrachus is amphibious, possessing an ac- 
cessory breathing organ ; it lives a considerable time out of water. 
The pectoral spines in this species are not dreaded. 
Uses. — C. batrachus reaches a length of a foot and a half and 
is considered as wholesome and nourishing food. The air-bladder 
yields a coarse isinglass.'^ 

Saccobranchus fossilis (Bloch). 

Tamil — Theli. 

Cuvier and Vallenciennes in 1840 identified S. fossilis (Bloch) 
with 5. singio (H. B.).^ Gunther in 1864 held the two to be dis- 

1 Max Weber and De Beaufort, I iido- Australian Fishes, II, p. 190. (Limn.'-, 
Syst. Nat., 1758. p. 305). 

2 Day, Fislies of India, p. 4S5. 3 ]Iist. Nat. des Pais., XV, p. 297. 



19 16.] B. SuNDARA Raj : Freshi^'ater Fish of Madras. 263 

tinct species.' Again Day united the two in 1878,^ .Since then, 
5. singio (H. B.) has been ranked as a synonym of 5. fossilis 
(Bl.) by most systematists. Recent anatomical research, however, 
appears to show that the two are probably distinct species. 
Hyrtle * (1853), followed by Hiibrecht and Day (1877)*, states that 
in 5. singio the right accessory air-sac is supplied with blood by 
the first afferent branchial artery, the left on the contrary being 
supplied by the fourth afferent artery. Burne in 1894 found that 
in S. fossilis both air-sacs are supplied by the fourth afferent 
arteries.^ 

Habitat and Habits. — Quite common in ponds and ditches, 
where it frequents the muddy bottom. Its distribution does not 
appear to be limited to fresh water as on the west coast (Cochin) ; 
it is said to occur in backwaters where the fishermen catch it 
at night with a torch, the Hght of which attracts it. 5. fossilis 
is amphibious and consequentl}^ lives for a long time out of water. 
" Wounds from the pectoral spines of this fish are dreaded in 
India as they are reputed to be very poisonous."^ 

The breeding season extends from September to Deceml^er; 
during the rains the fish deposit their eggs in irrigated fields, 
where the young, which are copper-red in colour, are frequently 
caught for stocking tanks. 

Uses. — 5. fossilis attains a length of a foot and a quarter when 
full grown and is highly esteemed as food by Indians.'' 

Wallago attu (Bl. and Schn.) 

Tamil — Vdlai, Athu Vdlai. 

Habitat and Habits. — The " freshwater shark " inhabits lakes 
and rivers. Col. Tickell^ states that it occurs sometimes within 
tidal influence ; this is probably the case when it is carried down 
by floods, as the least salinity seems to disagree with this fish and 
to cause death. 

W. attu is a large and powerful fish and predaceous in habits. It 
feeds on both vegetable and animal matter, preferably on the latter, 
and is said to destroy fry and large numbers of smaller fish in ponds. 
It is sluggish in its movements and lives for the most part at the 
bottom. Thomas attributes the frequent slowness of this fish to 
discover the presence of food to deficient sight. The statement 
that it feeds mostly at night** appears to be incorrect, as I have seen 
it very active and freely take a bait by day. It is usually caught 
in large nets and when handled it makes fierce attempts to bite. 

' Brit. Mils. Cat. Irishes, V, pp. 30 and 31. 

2 Fishes of India, p. 486. 

3 Akad Wiss, Wien, XI, p. 302 (1853). 

* 'Jour. Lin. Soc. Zool., XIII, p. 198 (1877). 

5 Loc. cit., XV, p, 48 (1894). 

" and 7 Day, Fislies of India, p. 487. 

"* Rod ill India, 1881, p. 168. 

•' Day, Fauna of Brit. India, Fislies, I, p. 127. 



264 Records of the Indian AUisenm. [Vol. XII, 

Uses. — This is a large fish which is said to reach a maximum 
length of six feet though specimens above four feet are very rare. 
It is esteemed as food and salts well.^ 

Pseudentropius atherinoides (Bloch). 

Tamil — Na Keliti (the epithet na = dog and hence an inferior kind). 

The " three or four bands along the sides formed by black 
spots " (Day)"^ are not found in Madras specimens and the pecto- 
ral spines usually have about twelve denticulations. 

Habitat and Habits. — P. atherinoides inhabits lakes and ponds 
in the neighbourhood of Madras and is rarer than most other 
Silurids. 

Arius falcarius, Richardson. 

TsimW—Uppu Kali Keliti. 

In most Madras specimens the pectoral fin does not reach the 
ventral nor does the ventral the anal. 

Habitat and Habits. — A common estuarine species which occa- 
sionally ascends rivers and comes into fresh water. 

The interesting breeding habits of species of Arius are well 
known.^ The breeding season in Madras extends from September to 
November, when large numbers congregate in estuaries to deposit 
their spawn. One of the breeding grounds for this species in Madras 
is the mouth of the River Adyar. The eggs, which are large and 
yolky measuring -5 to "6 inches in diameter, are probably deposited 
in batches by the female. The male takes up the eggs — usually 
about eight — into his mouth and keeps them there for many days 
till they hatch out as fry. They are retained by the male till the 
yolk is absorbed. During the whole of this period the ovigerous 
male never feeds. During the breeding season the males frequentl}^ 
have the caudal, anal and part of the dorsal fins stained red. 

Uses. — A. jalcarius attains a maximum length of two feet, and, 
being common, enters largely into the diet of the poorer classes. 

Macrones cavasius (H. B.) 

Tamil — Solai Keliti. 

It is common in lakes and rivers at a distance from the sea ; 
while it is common in Sembadambakkam and Red Hills tanks, it 
is not known to occur within city limits. 

In habits it closely resembles other Silurids. The pectoral 
spines cause painful wounds. Though it does not breathe air 
direct, it lives for a long time out of its native element. 

Uses. — It is said to attain a maximum length of eighteen 
inches and is esteemed as food by Indians. 



' Day, Fisties of Malabar, p. 193. 

'^ Fisliesof India, p. 475 ; Fauna Brit. Ind., 1, p. 141. 

3 Spolia Zeylaiiica, VH, p. 97 (19111 ; Da)', Fishes of India, p. 457; Faiiiiu 
Brit, hid., p. 169. 



1916.J B. SuNDARA Raj : Freshwater Fish of Madras. 265 

Macroncs vittatus (Bloch). 

Tamil — Nattu Keliti. 

Habitat and Habits. — This is the commonest species of 
Macrones in fresh water in Madras. In the Cooura and Adyar 
rivers it frequently occurs within tidal influence. 

In habits it closely resembles the previous species; Day ^ 
observes : — 

" This fish is ternied ' the fiddler ' in Mjsore ; I touched one which was on the 
wet ground, at which it appeared to become very irate, erecting its dorsal fin and 
making- a noise resembling the buzzing of a bee, evidently a sign of anger. When 
I put some small carp into an aquarium containing one of these fish it rushed 
at a small example, seized it by the middle of its back and shook it like a dog" 
killing a rat." 

In April, 1911 I obtained from a ditch near Chetput, which 
contained large numbers of this fish, two albino specimens perfect- 
ly pigmentless ; they were translucent white, showing the surface 
blood vessels of the skin, and were less active and more sensitive 
to light than pigmented ones. 

In March I found a female with eggs. 

Uses. — Though small, it is very common, and is eaten by the 
poor. 

Macrones kcletius (C. and V.) 

Comparatively rare in Madras ; I have met with it only in 
one or two ponds in the city and in the Red Hills tank. 

Anguilla elphinstonei, Sykes. 
{AnguiUa hengalensis (Gray) of the Fauna of Brit. India.) 

Tamil — Velangu. 

Dr. Max Weber, in his recent revision of the species of Anguilla 
of the Indo-Pacific region, considers the earlier name A. hengalensis 
(Gray) invalid, as the figure published by Gray and Hardwicke is 
altogether inadequate to identify the species.* 

Habitat and Habits. — This is by far the commoner of the two 
species of Anguilla in Madras, and is abundant in ponds and rivers. 
It is carnivorous and is very voracious, hiding in the bottom mud 
during the day and emerging out to feed at night ; hence it is 
mostly captured at night. Indian fishermen have an easy way 
of taking it " they leave small-mouthed earthen pots with a 
bit of sheep skin in each overnight, and draw them up in the 
morning, with their fish lying coiled up most comfortably in 
them." ^ It is very tenacious of life and survives most adverse 
conditions such as drought and starvation. Like most eels, it 
lives for a long time out of water and leaving its native waters 

' Fauna of Brit. Ind., p. 158; FisJies of India, p. 449. 

■^ Max Weber, Revision der Indo-Pacifischen Anguilla-Arten. Zool. Jalirb., 
Sup. 15, Band I, p. 578 (191.21. 

S Thomas, Tank Aiigliiin; p. 100 118871. 



266 Records of the Indian Museum. [Vol. XII. 

migrates considerable distances overland in search of ponds and 
streams, when desirous of a change. " It is an irritable creature, 
swelling its head whenever angered ; and constantly, when it can, 
buries itself in putrescent carcases." ' 

Every year a large number of elvers, measuring two or three 
inches in length and perfectly transparent in colour, ascend the 
rivers Cooum and Adyar about November. 

Uses. — Though good to eat there is little demand for this eel. 
It is consumed chiefly by Mahomedans. A. elphinstonei attains a 
large size ; a specimen in the Madras Museum measures 4^ feet in 
length. 

Anguilla australis, Richardson.^ 

(.4. bicolor, McClelland, of the Fauna of Brit. India.) 

A rarer species than A. elphinstonei in Madras but resembles 
it in habits. It is a smaller species, attaining a maximum length 
of about two feet. 

Haplochilus melanostigma, McClelland. 
(PI. XXV, figs. I, 3, 4, 10; pi. xxvi, figs. 12-16). 

Tamil — Munda Kanni (=big eye). 

McClelland's specific name melasiigma (Gr. = black spot) has 
been corrected in the Fauna of British India into melanostigma , 
which is the correct etymological rendering of the word. 

The caudal fin is truncated and not rounded in Madras 
specimens. 

In the adult male, which is larger than the female, the anal fin 
has most of its rays prolonged in a filiform manner beyond the 
membrane, and each prsemaxilla has about four coarse * teeth ' 
at the angle of the mouth : whereas in the female the anal rays 
are not prolonged and the prsemaxilla is drawn out into a bifid 
' tooth ' at the angle of the mouth. 

Habitat and Habits. — This very common species abounds in 
ponds and rivers in both fresh and brackish water ; in the latter 
it seems to thrive best, as the largest specimens in my collection 
are from the Cooum within tidal influence. It inhabits the shal- 
lows of ponds and rivers, where it affects the surface and swims 
very close to it frequently with its mouth touching it. '' When 
swimming in their natural surroundings, the surface of the head 
is kept almost on a level with the plane of water." ^ The flat 
head and the transverse mouth are adaptations to surface feeding 
and the species is well-known as an effective mosquito-destroyer. 
The habit of inhaling the oxygenated surface water enables it to 

1 Hamilton-Buchanan, Fishes of the Ganges, p. 22. 

5^ Max Weber, Revision der Indo-Pacifischen Anguillid,-9e. Zool. Jahrh., Sup, 
15, Band I (1912). 

3 Sewell and Chaudhuri, Imh Fish of Proved Utility as Mosquito Destroyers, 
P- 3- 



1916.] B. SuNDARA Raj : Freshwater Fish of Madras. 267 

withstand to a considerable extent foul water full of organic im- 
purities detrimental to most fish : in the city it frequently occurs 
in gutters and sewage-farms. 

Being a surface fish it is diaphanous, but possesses a remark- 
able capacity to change colour in accordance with its environ- 
ment. Fish inhabiting the Cooum river often, within a distance 
of a few yards, show variations in colour ; those among green 
weeds are greenish, those in dirty water correspondingly brown 
and those in clear water translucent white ; while I have caught 
specimens reddish in colour during the floods, when the water 
is brick-red owing to the admixture of clay. 

The breeding season extends chiefly from September to Feb- 
ruary or even later, but is certainly not limited to these months. 
In the Cooum the earliest specimens with eggs are found in brackish- 
water and only later in fresh water higher up. The peculiar breed- 
ing habits were first observed by Dr. Jenkins.^ During the spawn- 
ing season the dorsal, caudal and anal fins in both sexes usually 
acquire a bright golden-yellow edge. The eggs after extrusion are 
attached in two rounded clusters, one on each side, to the genital 
opening of the female. In the natural surroundings the eggs are 
probably carried till they are hatched, a condition highly favour- 
able for their protection and aeration ; but in an aquarium they are 
sooner or later cast and, being demersal, sink to the bottom. Gobies 
and carp attack the fish when it is carrying eggs and feed on the 
latter. On an average from 20 to 40 eggs are carried by a female 
at a time. 

Description of egg. — The eggs are transparent and large, about 
I mm.* in diameter. Under the microscope the outer egg-membrane 
is seen to give off externally numerous short adhesive threads, by 
means of which the eggs adhere to one another or to foreign objects 
(figs. 12-14). PVom a certain area on each egg a group of very long 
filamentous threads arise, and these from different eggs are twisted 
together to form a common cord which protrudes from the genital 
opening of the female (fig. 12). In the yolk there is a small oil 
globule, not large enough to make the egg float. The embryo is 
clearly seen within the egg-membrane in all stages of development 
(figs. 13 and 14). In an advance stage dark pigment cells appear on 
the body of the developing embryo and the egg looks dark in colour. 

Distinguishing characters of the fry. — I succeeded in hatching 
some eggs in an aquarium. The fry when hatched measure 4 mm. 
in length and possess the pectoral fins and a single median fin start- 
ing dorsally about the middle of the back, and continued round 
the tail up to the remains of the yolk-sac on the ventral surface. 
They are easily identified from the fry of other fish by the charac- 
teristic arrangement of dark stellate pigment-spots. On the head 
and snout a few large scattered spots occur ; immediately behind 



i Jenkins, Rec. Ind. Miis., V, p. 137, pi. vi, figs 7 and 7a. 
'^ Jenkins, /. c. (His measurement of the egg " about a centimeter " is obvi- 
ously wrong). 



268 Records of the Indian Museum. [Vol. XII, 

the root of the pectoral fins, dorsally, is a semi-circular patch of 
close-set small spots : on the body and tail there are five longitu- 
dinal rows of spots, one mid-dorsal, two lateral and two ventral 
rows, one on either side of the mid-ventral line of the body 
(figs. 15 and 16). 

During growth the following changes occur : the dorsal, caudal 
and anal fins become distinct in about 3 weeks ; the pigment spots 
slowly disappear, except the lateral row which is retained in most 
adults as a faint black streak. The eyes acquire a glittering azure- 
blue colour and a pearly white speck is developed on the head 
— two unmistakable features of the immature H. melanostig^na. 

Uses. — A valuable mosquito-destroyer, 

Panchax parvus, sp. nov.^ 
(PI, XXV, figs. 2, 8 ; pi. xxvi, fig. 11). 
Tamil — Pachai Munda kanni. 
Br, VI. D. 2-3/5. A. 3/11-12. C. 24. V. 6. P. 12. Vertebrae 26. 

The length of the head is 35 to 3i times, and the depth of the 
body 4 to 4^ times in the total length (exclusive of the caudal fin). 
The snout is longer than the diameter of the eye, which latter is 
3I to 3^ in the length of the head, and nearly half the interorbital 
width ; the lower jaw is slightly projecting. Teeth are present in 
bands on both the jaws, some three vestigeal ones on the anterior 
edge of the vomer. Fins — the pectorals reach considerably 
beyond the root of the ventrals which reach the anal. In the 
male, the 4th or 5th dorsal ray and the nth and 12th anal rays 
are prolonged and both the fins reach the caudal ; in the female 
these fins are rounded and do not reach the caudal. Scales possess 
both concentric and radiating seriations. The lateral line is ab- 
sent ; there are 26 to 27 scales along the mid-lateral line of the 
body counted from the top of the branchial aperture to the root 
of the caudal fin (scales on the caudal fin are not included). Seven 
longitudinal rows of complete scales exist between the root of the 
dorsal fin and that of the anal. 

Colour. — Males are larger and are more brightly coloured 
than females. In both during life a metallic green spot exists on 
every scale of the back and upper half of the body, and on alter- 
nate scales of the mid-lateral row and a few horizontal rows below 
it. In this latter portion light Italian pink dots alternate with 



^ Day appears to have described this species from Madras under the name 
Panchax ruhrostigma {Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1867, p. 706) in the idea that 
it was identical with Jerdon's Aplocheilus ruhrostigma. Later, in 1878, in his 
Fishes of India the description of Haplochilus ruhrostigma is identical with 
that of jerdon, and obviously he has mixed up the two species. P. ruhrostigma 
differs from'the present species chiefly (i) in size, as it reachc^ nearly 3 inches in 
length, (2j in having the second ray of the ventral fin elongated. P. parvus 
reaches only a maximum length of \\ inches and never has the rays of the ventral 
hn elongated. 



1916.] B. SuNDARA Raj : Freshwater Fish of Madras. 269 

the above-mentioned green dots. The ventral surface is more or 
less translucent in life, and the scales possess a purplish gloss. The 
usual pearly white speck is present on the head. An ocellus, with 
a black centre and light margin, is usually present at the root of 
some of the anterior rays of the dorsal fin, most distinct in female 
and immature examples. In the males, the longitudinal rows of 
alternating green and pink dots extend over the proximal half of 
the caudal, dorsal and anal fins; in the two latter fins the spots 
gradually increase posteriorly so as to completely cover the pos- 
terior half of the dorsal and a third of the anal fin. In the female 
the above-mentioned fins are unspotted and of a light orange 
colour. These brilliant colours disappear more or less completel}^ 
in spirit. 

Type-specimen. — In the Indian Museum. 

Habitat and Habits. — P. parvus is found only in fresh water and 
confined, so far as I am aware, to the tanks and rivers in and 
around Madras city. It is somewhat local in distribution and in- 
habits stationary and sheltered waters of tanks and rivers over- 
grown with vegetation. 

The breeding season appears to be January and February. 
The eggs are demersal and adhesive and are not carried in clusters 
by the female after extrusion. Thomas remarks : 

" H. panchax " (I have no doubt he means this species) " extrudes one egg at 
a time and that disproportionately large, as big as its own eye. This keeps hang- 
ing to the vent as the fish is moving and feeding till it is cast and adheres ; and so 
single eggs are laid and distributed." ' 

Description of egg (pi. xxvi, fig. 11). — The egg of P. parvus 
closely resembles that of H. melanostignia but is slightly larger, the 
adhesive threads of the outer membrane are thinner, longer and more 
numerous. The chief difference, however, is the absence of the 
tuft of long processes by which the eggs of H. melanostignia are held 
together and are suspended from the genital opening of the female. 
This is obviously due to the fact that the eggs in this species are 
not carried about by the female. 

Uses. — A small species (adult male about 42 mm. and adult 
female about 28 mm.) which is valuable as a mosquito larvicide. 

Doryrhamphus * brachyurus (Bleeker). 

[Doryichthys bleekeri of the Fauna of Brit. India.) 

In a recent paper ^ George Duncker has united D. brachyurus 
(Bleeker) with D. bleekeri (Day). The only appreciable difference 
between the two, as would appear from descriptions, was in the 
number of the rays of the dorsal fin, there being 40-45 rays in 
D. bleekeri and only 36-37 in D. brachyurus ; from an examination 

i Thomas, Tank Atigling, p. 112 (1887). 

2 The name Doryrhamphus has priority over Dovyichthys. Max \\'eber, 
Fish. Sihoga-Expeditioii, 1913, p. 116. 

3 Duncker, Syngnathids from Ceylon. Spot. Zeylati., \TI, pt. 25, p. 26 
(igio). 



270 Records of the Indian Museum. [Vol. XII, 

of a large number of Ceylon examples Duncker has now shown the 
number to vary from 37 to 43. In an adult Madras example I 
found 41 rays in the dorsal fin. 

For want of material (ovigerous males), I have placed this 
species as usual in Kaup's genus Doryrhamphus { = Doryichthys) 
and not in Duncker's new genus Microphis. 

Habitat and Habits. — Rare in Madras, a few occur in theCooum 
River just above tidal influence in November. D. brachyurus 
is usually sluggish in its movements and keeps close to the banks 
of the river amidst grassy weeds ; when frightened, however, it 
swims very rapidly and skilfully after the manner of eels. Accord- 
ing to most writers ^ the Pipe-fishes swim in a vertical position 
like Hippocampi. D. brachyurus , D. cuncalus and at least one 
species of Syngnathus, which I have had the opportunity of ob- 
serving in their natural surroundings, swim in the normal horizon- 
tal position, flush with the surface of the water. 

The males are known to take charge of the eggs after extru- 
sion, in a brood-pouch on the abdomen. Such males were found in 
summer by George Duncker in Ceylon in 1909. " The eggs were 
small, in 4 — 13 longitudinal and 60 — no transverse rows." ^ 

Doryrhamphus cuncalus (H. B.) 

{Doryichthys cuncalus of the Fauna of Brit. India.) 

Tamil— U si kolachi (=needle fish). 

A few occur in the Cooum during November and December. 

In habits it closly resembles D. brachyurus , in whose company 
it frequently occurs. 

Belone cancila (H. B.) 

Tamil — Kolachi, " Pissu kolah " (Day). 

In Madras this species appears to be confined to freshwater 
ponds and lakes. Though common it is never abundant in any 
one locality. According to Jerdon *' It is very voracious and 
devours large quantities of the little Aplocheili " {Haplochilus and 
Panchax). 

Ophioccphalus striatus, Bloch. 
Tamil — Verahl. 

Habitat and Habits. — Common everywhere in ponds, ditches 
and rivers. In the Cooum it occasionally occurs within tidal in- 
fluence. In its natural surroundings 0. striatus often resorts to 
the margin of the water overgrown with weeds. It frequents shal- 
low water probably because air is easy of access and so suits its 
amphibious habits. The air-breathing habit of this fish is well- 
known : in consequence it lives hours, sometimes days, out of 

1 Fauna of Brit. India, Fislies, II, p. 460. 

2 G. Duncker, Syngnathids from Ceylon. Spol. Zeylan., \'II, p. 26. 



I9i6,j B. SuNDARA Raj : Freshwater Fish of Madras. 271 

water, especially when kept among moist water-plants. Like most 
other air-breathers it is never seen to perform the usual respiratory 
movements of fish. During the rains in Madras young Ophio- 
cephali are often caught on land in the course of their migrations : 
out of water they progress in a serpentine manner, by means of 
their pectoral fins and the alternate contractions of the lateral 
muscles of the body. During periods of drought they are known 
to bury themselves in the soft bottom mud of ponds. ^ 

All the species of Opiocephalus are monogamous and build 
nests* for depositing their eggs. Under favourable conditions 
0. striatus breeds twice a year, about January* and February and 
again in June and July ; but the same pair do not seem to 
breed twice in the year. The nest consists of a circular clearing 
in grassy swamps or in the weed}" edges of ponds and rivers. Both 
parents, the male in particular, keep guard. The eggs, which are 
large (i'25 mm.) and float at the surface, are never numerous but 
vary from a few hundreds to a few thousands according to the 
size of the fish. Dr. A. Willey gives a full description of the nest, 
egg and young of this species in Spolia Zeylanica, Vol. VI, pp. 
108 — 123. The following is a brief resume of facts observed 
by him. 

Eggs. — Translucent golden-yellow or amber-coloured. They 
are spread like a sheet, flush with the surface in a sub-circular area 
in the centre of the nest. Diameter of egg i'25 mm. 

" The floating- eggs owe their buoyanc}- to the presence of a single large oil- 
g-lobule which occupies the greater part of the ovum, and is immersed in the 
golden-yellow yolk. It is adjacent to the upper pole of the Qgg, and in surface view 
under a low power of the microscope is seen to be surrounded by a narrow zone 
of the yolk, the whole being contained within a space bounded by the vitelline 
membrane." 

The subjoined table gives a summary of the chronological 
data ascertained by him regarding the external features of the 
development of 0. striatus. 

Days after hatching. Total length. Principal events. 

I ... 3'5 mm. Yolk-sac circulation established; 

pigment cells develop their black 
colouration ; pigment begins to 
appear in eyes. 
2 and 3 ... 4-5 to 5 mm. Pectoral Hns arise; mouth opens, 

and respiratory movements com- 
mence. 

4 ... 675 mm. Larv?e leaving the surface and swim- 

ming freely at all levels. Bright 
yellow spots over eyes. 

7 ... 7 mm. Larvre swarming and turning" in 

unison at the slightest concussion 
Caudal cartilages appear. 

' Day, Fislies of India, p. 363 ; Fauna of Brit, hid., II, p. 359. 

■^ Col. Puckle (quoted by Day), Fishes of India, p. 362 ; Thomas, Rep. Pise. 
S. Cnnai'a, p. 37 (1870). 

3 Thomas, Rep, Pise. S. Canara, p. 74 ( 1870) ; Day, Freshivafer Fish and 
Fisheries of India ami Burma, p. 23 (Calcutta, 1873,. 



272 Records of the Indian Museum. [Voi.. XII. 

Days after hatching. Total length. Principal events. 

12 — 15 .. 675 mm. Posterior end of notochord bends up. 

28 ... 8 to 10 mm. Caudal rays jointed and articulated 

with the basal cartilages. I -arva- 
rise to surface to take air. 
37 ... 10 mm. Primordia of dorsal and anal rays. 

40 ... io"25 to 13 mm. Rudiments of ventral fins appear. 

Dorsal and anal fins separating 
from caudal. End of lar\al deve- 
lopment. 

[ . Fr\- now hide in the mud. 



63 ... 17 mm 

73 • 25 mm 



Characteristic colour of the Larvae} — On either side of the body 
there is a broad reddish-orange band occupying almost the entire 
height of the myotomes, commencing from the eye on each side, 
and ending behind with a rounded edge at the base of the caudal 
fins. The iris is golden with a red flush ; there is a bright golden 
occipital point, and the base of the anal and dorsal fins is black 
along their whole length. This characteristic livery is retained by 
the fry till they reach a length of about 40 mm. (nearly for 3 months 
after hatching) ; after which period the definitive markings begin 
to appear, in the form of 9 dark vertical half-stripes on either side 
descending from the base of the dorsal fin. 

Growth. — From the fifth day after hatching, when the larvse 
begin to feed independently, the daily growth begins to vary. 
Some young 0. striatus kept by Dr. Willey in Colombo had an 
average total length of about 35 mm. in February 1908, 45 mm. 
in July 1908, 96 mm. in April 1909 ; the series last measured con- 
sisted of six individuals ranging from 85 mm. to 115 mm. The 
average measurements of a brood hatched in the central pond of 
the Marine Aquarium, Madras, was as follows : — 

April 1913 . . . . hatched from eggs. 

,, 1914 . . . . 6 inches. 

,,1915 . . . , over a foot in length. 

In nature growth is even more rapid and the young under 
favourable conditions begin to breed in about two years. 

Uses. — 0. siriattts is one of the largest and most valuable food 
fishes of our inland waters. Being an air-breather it is transported 
with ease*; and is admirably adapted for pisciculture. Care, 
however, should be exercised in introducing it into preserved 
waters ^ as it is very voracious and destructive to fry. The 3'oung 
are susceptible to attacks from internal parasites ( ? Schistocepha- 
lus larvae).* 



' Willey, spot. Zeylan., V, p. 145 (1908); VII, p. 116 (1910). 
■2 Day, Rep. Fresliwater Fish a>id FisJieries hid. and Bur., p. 25 ( i<S73). 
^ Thomas, Rod in India, p. 234 (1897) ; Willey, Spol. Zeylnn., W p. 146 
(1908). 

4 Willey. I.e. 



1916.] B. SuNDAKA Raj : Freshwater Fish oj Madras. 273 

Ophiocephalus punctatus, Bloch. 

(PI. xxvii, figs. 17 — 22). 

Tamil — M aniang koravai {Para korava (Day) is the name of 0. 
gach'Ua in Madras). 

Habitat and Habits. — A very common species in ponds, ditches 
and rivers In the last it is known to occur in brackish water 
when it is said to acquire a purplish colour.^ It is a mud- burrow- 
ing fish* and prefers stagnant and muddy to running water.^ It 
is one of the fish Day saw exhumed from the mud of a dried-up 
tank.^ 

The breeding habits are very similar to those of 0. striatus. 
0. punctatus is monogamous, and breeds twice in the year, about 
Jaimary and February and again about July and August ; occa- 
sionall}' nests are met with at other times. ^ At these seasons the 
fish come together in pairs and construct a nest among the rushes 
in the shallows of ponds and rivers. I have never seen the nest 
in water deeper than a foot and a half, as a rule it is built in water 
only a foot in depth. The nest is the usual roundish clearing 
measuring 8 or 9 inches in diameter. The nests of 0. striatus differ 
in being larger (about 12 to 14 inches in diameter) and are found in 
water at least 2 feet, frequently 3 or 4 feet deep. At the surface 
the nests of both species appear as circular areas of clear water 
with the eggs floating in the centre. Both parents tend the nest; 
while the male keeps a vigorous guard, aggressively protecting the 
spawn from intruders, the female is found in the neighbourhood. 

-Cggs. — Oviposition usually takes place at night ; a few thou- 
sand eggs ^ are deposited by the female in a single night. The 
eggs measure about i"25 mm. in diameter and are of a pale am- 
ber colour. In size and appearance they are hardly to be distin- 
guished from those of 0. striatus and like the latter contain a large 
oil-globule and float flush with the surface of the water '' (figs. 17 
and 18). 

The rapidity of the embryonic development seems to depend 
on the strength of the sun. On all occasions when I obtained col- 
lections of eggs they invariably hatched during the night following, 
i.e., on the average in 24 hours after procuring them. This cor- 
roborates the statement of fishermen that the eggs of 0. punc- 
tatus usually hatch on the night following that on which they 
are laid. 



' Day, Fislies of India, p. 368. 

2 Willey, Spol. Zeylan., V, p. 149. 

3 Day, Fishes of India, p. 368; B'aiina of Brit. India, II, p. 365. 

* Day, Freshwater Fish and Fis/ieries of India and Burma, p. 28 ( 1873). 

■^ Willey records finding a nest in October, Spol. Zeylan., VII, p. loi (1911), 
and I have seen nests in the Cooum in December. 

'^ Day, Fislies of India, p. 318 (records findino- 4702 eggs in a female in 
February). 

7 Willey, Spol. Zeylan., VII, p. loi. 



274 Records of the Indian Museum. [Vol. XII, 

The embryonic and larval development of this species closely 
resembles that of 0. striatus,^ but is more rapid. In fresh eggs 
the outline of the embryo encircling the yolk becomes evident in 
about 8 hours ; the eyes and auditory sacs are developed in i6 
hours ; and the heart begins to beat and the curious yolk-sac 
circulation also starts soon after this (figs. 19 and 20). At the 
time of hatching the embryo violently twitches its tail, which is 
now free of the 3'olk-sac, and performs rotations within the egg- 
membrane. 

On hatching the fry measure 3'25 mm. in length and are 
almost identical in general appearance with the first day hatch- 
ings of 0. striatus (fig. 21). They, however, do not remain at 
the surface for 3 da^^s like the latter fry but begin to descend 
down even at the close of the first day, though this is accompHshed 
with considerable effort. 

On the second day, the pigment cells are well developed, the 
eyes being quite black ; the length increases to 4^ mm. ; the mouth 
opens and respiratory movements begin ; and the pectoral fins 
develop. The larvae move in unison and effect their descent from 
the surface in a long procession, swimming slowly close to the 
bottom sand of the aquarium. Most of the above changes are 
those of the 3rd da^^ in the development of 0. striatus. 

On the third day, the fry swim at all levels with ease. On the 
sides of the body the mid-lateral line is clear of pigment, but pig- 
ment is intense along the root of the dorsal and ventral portions 
of the median embryonic fin. During the second and third days 
the capillary network formed by the caudal vein in joining the 
subintestinal vein, and the "marvellous yolk-sac circulation " 
described by Dr. Willey, arise in the same way as in 0. striatus. 

On the fourth day (fig. 22), the length is 5 mm. The charac- 
teristic black and yellow colour of the fry, which distinguishes 
it from the brown and pink fry of 0. striatus, now begins to 
appear. 

It will be seen from the above observations that the larval 
development in this species, while it closely resembles that of 
0. striatus, goes forward more rapidly. This is true of most of 
the subsequent stages, such as the formation of the network of 
vessels at the root of the caudal fin (which happens about the 
eighth or ninth day instead of on the twelfth as in 0. striatus *) ; 
the deflection of the end of the notochord, the commencement of 
aerial respiration, etc. 

Characteristic colour of the young° (fig. 22). — The character- 
istic larval colouration begins to appear as early as the fourth 
day after hatching. On the sides of the body, as noticed above, 
pigment is intense along the root of the dorsal and ventral por- 



1 Willey, "Nests, eggs and larVcTe of Ophioceplialus sfriaftis." Spot. 
Zeylaii., W, pp. 10S-118 (1909). 

5^ Willey, Spot. Zeylan., VI, p. 112 (1909). 

» Wille)', Spot. Zeylan., V, p. 150 ; VI, p. 116. 



1916.] B. SuNDARA Raj : Freshwater Fish of Madras. 275 

tions of the median embryonic fin, but the mid- lateral line is free 
of pigment and is consequently traversed by a pale longitudinal 
band, which later on acquires a bright golden-yellow hue. There 
is also a more or less uninterrupted pale longitudinal band in the 
mid-dorsal line of the head and fore-body. 

The larval colours when fully assumed are as follows : — The 
body is dark olive along the back and sides, becoming slightly pale 
or whitish along the abdomen. This dark ground colour is re- 
solvable info close-set longitudinal stripes along the scales, clearl}^ 
seen in specimens preserved in spirit. Three longitudinal golden- 
yellow bands pass from the snout to the caudal fin ; a mid-lateral 
band on each side which becomes narrow as it passes over the 
opercle and the upper portion of the eye to meet its fellow on the 
tip of the snout, and a narrow median dorsal band extending from 
the junction of the above two bands on the tip of the snout, along 
the base of the dorsal fin to the root of the caudal. These three 
bands are of a brilliant golden-yellow colour and stand out clearly 
on the dark ground colour ; while the two lateral bands extend 
on the caudal fin to the extent of nearly one-third the length of 
that fin; the dorsal band, which is comparatively narrow and is 
more distinct in younger than in older stages, has two spindle- 
shaped enlargements in front of the dorsal fin (fig. 22). Thus the 
fry of 0. punctatus are easily distinguished from the fry of 0. striatus 
after they assume their characteristic larval colour. 

In growth the dorsal median band is the first to disappear. 
In specimens above two inches in length the dark olive brown of 
the back and sides changes to a dirty brown, and a double row 
of ill-defined brown blotches appear on either side of the body 
one above the other, the blotches of the upper row alternating 
with those of the lower. These blotches encroach on the lateral 
golden bands and disfigure and destroy it in growth ; the three 
golden bands are, however, retained for some considerable time on 
the head. 

The parents guard the young till they reach two inches in 
length, i.e., till they lose their larval colours. It is quite a sight 
to see the parents leading their brood of brightly coloured fry in 
bright sunlight in shallow water in fields,' where they usually come 
out to feed. 

Uses. — 0. punciatus is extensively eaten. 



Ophiocephalus gachua, H. B. 

(PI. xxvii, fig. 23). 
Tamil — Para koravai. 

Habitat and Habits. — This very common species is found in 
ponds but much more abundantly in rivers, where it often fre- 
quents brackish water within tidal influence. 

1 Willey, Spol. Zeylaii., V , p. 149. 



276 Records of the Indian Museum. [Vol. XII, 

In habits it closely resembles 0. punctatus. The breeding 
season is December and January in Madras (June and July in 
South Canara).^ I have not seen the nest of this species; from 
the accounts of fishermen it does not appear to be among weeds 
but in sheltered crevices in the bank. A brood of young with the 
parents were brought to me on the 15th February, 1911, from the 
river Cooum near Chetput. The adults refused to feed and died 
after a few days, but the fry continued to live. In habits and 
appearance the fry were very different to those of the previous 
two species. The entire brood consisted of some 300 individuals, 
a comparatively small number. 

Description of Fry (fig. 23). — The average length of the young 
was 7 mm. ; traces of the yolk-sac and the continuous embryo- 
nic median fin devoid of fin-rays were present. The colour 
was dark brown, due to a very considerable development of pig- 
ment cells, which were arranged on the sides of the body chiefl}" 
in two horizontal rows, one dorsal and one ventral, with a more 
or less unpigmented area between them along the mid-lateral line. 
Of the two the ventral band was the more conspicuous, being ver}' 
broad on the abdomen and tapering gradually into a streak pos- 
teriorly, A number of pigment spots are also found on the head ; 
a concentration of them occurs behind each eye. vScattered spots 
are found on the continuous median fin. 

Later on, some much older fry were brought to me from the 
same locality. These measured on an average 48 mm. long and 
had the following characteristic colour. The body was of a pale 
olive-brown, and the sides were crossed by ten or twelve <-shaped 
light bands with their apices on the lateral line pointing forwards. 
I have not seen the large ocellus on the dorsal fin mentioned by 
Day * and doubt if it ever occurs in this species. It is frequently 
present in the young of some larger species of OphiocepJialus. 

Uses. — A small fish not much in demand as food. 

Anabas scandens (Daldorff). 

Tamil — Panai eri fiendai (=fish that climbs palmyra-trees). 

Habitat and Habits. — " Estuaries and freshwaters ^ most 

numerous in maritime provinces and the deltas of the larger 
rivers " observes Day.* In Madras I have not seen it in estuaries 
or in rivers; Hamilton-Buchanan, Jerdon^ and Thomas* record 
it only from ponds and ditches. 

This species is the well-known " Climbing perch." Though 
I have never witnessed a display of the extraordinary scansorial 
powers attributed to it by Daldroff' and John, and wholly 

^ Thomas, Rep. Pise South Canara, p. 74 (1870). 

2 Day, FisJies of India, p. 368. 

^ Day, Fishes of India, p. 370; Fanna of Brii. hidia, II, p. 367. 

* Day, /. c, p. 369. 

6 Madras Joiirn. Lit. So., XV, p. 144. *" Tank Angli)!g, p. 99. 

" Daldorff, Trmis. Linn. Soc., Ill, p. 62. 1797. 



1916.] B. SuNDARA Raj : Freshwater Fish of Madras. 277 

discredited b}' most subsequent writers, I have no doubt it 
sometimes takes place. Gill records Mr. Rengaswamy Mudaliar's 
and Capt. J. Mitchell's (once Superintendent, Govt. Museum, 
Madras) experiments which show the reliability of the early reports.' 
Mr. Wilson of the Madras Fisheries tells me that he once trained a 
few of these fish to climb up a nearly vertical sheet of cloth , when 
held over the water in the aquarium in which he kept them. The 
highly mobile sub-operculum and its spines are the chief organs 
of climbing.^ 

Many records exist of these fish leaving their native waters 
and migrating long distances on land to other ponds, and of their 
aestivating during the hot months.' Day describes how they pro- 
gress on land * either by lying fiat on one side or by keeping their 
erect position. The power that the fish possesses of erecting its 
fins, scales and opercles assists it to move on land. 

The air-breathing habit of A. scandens is well-known, and 
its great tenacity of life enables it to live out of its native element, 
as Hamilton-Buchanan observes, even for six days. 

Tiie breeding season extends from May to July.^ On the 20th 
of May, 1915 a brood of very young fry were obtained from a 
pond. On the average they measured 17 mm. in length. They 
were of a light olive-brown colour above, becoming pale white 
below. On the sides there were eight (somewhat indistinct in live 
but quite distinct in preserved specimens) dark vertical bands 
extending from the pectoral to the root of the caudal fin. A dark 
terminal band was found at the free edge of the dorsal and anal 
fins. A very distinct ocellus, consisting of a black central spot 
surrounded by white, was present at the root of the caudal fin on 
either side. The iris was red. 

By the 25th of July they had grown to 25 mm. in length ; the 
anterior vertical bands were fading away, while the posterior ones 
were still clear ; the ocellus continued to be quite distinct. A 
dark band was observed to pass from the corner of the mouth 
backwards and downwards, and another parallel to it below : the 
upper and lower lips were silvery. 

By November the fish had attained a length of over 8 cm. 
and had lost all traces of the vertical bands; the ocellus, however, 
remained as a black round dot. 

The young of A. scandens grow up rapidly; the fry in the 
marine aquarium, spoken of above, have grown to 80 mm., i.e., 
more than four times their original length (17 mm.) in the course 
of six months (May to November). Dr. Willey records a much 



I Jordan, Guide to the Study of Fislies. II, pp. 367 and 368. 

'^ Jordan, I. c, pp. 366 — 368. 

3 Tennent, Nat. Hist. Ceylon, p. 354, 1861 (.speaks of a specimen dug out 
from a depth of afoot and a half in the bottom mud of a dried-up tank). 

^ Day, Fishes of Malabar, p. 133. 

6 According to Day the breeding season is June and July {Fishes of India, 
p. 370). I have seen them breed in May while Willey found a female egg-laden 
ate in January in Ceylon. Spot. Zevla'u., \'II, p. 92. 



278 Records of the Indian Museum. [Voi,. XII, 

slower growth in the case of half a dozen young which he kept 
under observation at Colombo.' 

I have recently obtained two albino specimens. 

Uses. — A. scandens is a small fish attaining a maximum length 
of 9 inches. It is highly esteemed as food. It bears transport 
well and is employed for stocking tanks. 

Nandus nandus (H. B.) 

{Nandus marmoratus of the Fauna of British India.) 

Tamil — Mapanji, or Seepu-meen (=comb-fish). 

Habitat and Habits. — A comparatively rare species which in- 
habits a few freshwater tanks in the interior. It is never abun- 
dant in any locality, feeds voraciously on small Cyprinidae and, as 
observed by Buchanan^ is very tenacious of life.'^ 

According to Thomas the breeding season is May and June 
and again in December and January ^ , when this '' fish builds nests 
among the rushes at the margin of the water, deposits its eggs 
therein and keeps guard over them like a stickle-back.* " 

Lates calcarifer (Bloch). 
Tamil — Kodiiwa . 

Habitat and Habits. — A common estuarine species which as- 
cends rivers and is frequently captured in fresh water. Immature 
specimens are met with in the Cooum river far above tidal influ- 
ence ; Day records the capture of one at Mandalay in Upper 
Burma about 680 miles from the sea.^ While it is common at 
the mouths of rivers and in backwaters, its occurrence at sea 
appears to be very scarce and occasional ; thus Willey records the 
remarkable fact that statistical reports show that this fish is never 
captured out at sea at Kalutura (Ceylon), where it is very common.* 

Pertwee'' observes that L. calcarifer breeds in backwaters and 
lagoons generally about January and February, but the breeding 
season is known to vary ; some spawn as late as March. 

Uses. — A highly esteemed food fish which attains a large size. 

Ambassis ranga (H. B.) 

Tamil — Sennel or Kaka Sennel. 

A. ranga appears to be very local in its distribution ; while it 
abounds in some freshwater ponds and ditches in the vicinity of 



i Willey, Spol. Zeylan., \'I, p. 120. 

■2 Hamilton- Buchanan, Fishes of the Ganges, p. 97. 

3 Thomas, Rep. Pise. South Canai'ci, p. 73 (1870). 

* Thomas, /. c, p. 57. 

6 Day, FresJitvater Fisli and Fisheries Ind. and Bitrma, para. XXVIII. 

6 Spol. Zeylan., VII, p. 100 (1911). 

"^ A. H. Pertwee, Notes on the Freshwater I^'ish of Ce3'lon. Spol. Zeylan., 

VIII, p. 246. 



1916.] B, SuNDARA Raj : Freshwater Fish of Madras. 279 

Madras, it is entirely absent from others, " It breeds everywhere 
during the rains and has in some instances been found breeding as 
early as March." ' 

Uses. — A small species which is said to be an effective mos- 
quito-destroyer.^ 

Ambassis ambassis (Lacepede). 

{A. coimnersoni of the Fauna of Brit. India.) 

Tamil. — Atme Kakachi. 

The occurrence of this species in fresh water is ver}' rare and 
occasional. 

Ambassis miops, Gunther. 

(PI. xxviii, figs. 24, 25). 

{Ambassis my ops of the Fauna of Brit. India.) 

A very common estuarine fish in Madras which ascends rivers 
when young and comes into fresh water. 

Fry almost certainly of this species swarm the river Cooum in 
November and December, which appears to be the breeding season. 

Characters of Fry. — D. 9/10. A. 10 (2/8). The fry measured 
from 12 to 14 mm. in length when captured. The scales were un- 
developed. The body was diaphanous, of a translucent yellow 
colour, except the abdomen and opercles which were bright silvery ; 
the upper two-thirds of the first dorsal j5n black ; a beautiful 
arrangement of dark stellate pigment-spots occur in clusters along 
the back. The shape of the body was similar to the adult (figs. 
24 and 25). 

Osphromenus gourami, lyacep.^ 

(0. olfax of the Fauna of Brit. India.) 

Tamil — Sangard . 

The gourami is a large freshwater fish of the Malay Archi- 
pelago* which has been introduced into Europe, Mauritius, 
Cayenne, Australia (1864), Madras (1866), Ceylon (1909)^ and 
other places as a valuable food fish. 

Sir William Denison^, when Governor of Madras, imported 
them from Mauritius about 1865. The fish arrived in the early 
part of lyord Napier's stay and were introduced into the Govt. 

i and '^ Chaudhuri and Sewell, hid. Fish of Proved Utility as Mosquito- 
Destroyers, p. 10. 

2 Tate Regan, Asiatic Fishes of the Family Anabantidae. Proc. Zool. Soc, 
1909, II, p. 774. 

* The locaHty China (Richardson and Day) has been omitted by most autho- 
rities such as Gunthei (Brit. Mits. Cat., Ill, p. 382); Boulenger {Cambridge 
Nat. Hist., Fishes, p. 669). 

6 Spot. Zeylan., VII, pp. 95, 96, 210 and 221. 

*> Rod in hidia, i88i, pp. 279 and 280 ; La Pisciculture et la Peche en Chine, 
1872. 



28o Records of the Indian Museum. [Vol,. XII, 

House ponds at Guind}^ and Madras, while a few were taken to the 
Nilgiris. In 1874 eight young fish are on record as having been 
caught in the ponds at Madras; about 1883 they must have been 
breeding in Madras as Gilbert ' mentions obtaining a supply of fry 
from Thomas for the Ana Sagar tank that year. Dr. Hender- 
son informs me that a few years ago they existed in two ponds 
close to the Madras Museum, from one of which he once took a 
four-pounder. One of these tanks has since been filled up and 
the other is at present low and said to contain no gourami. Mr. 
Wilson of the Madras Fisheries, in connection with his proposal to 
re-introduce this fish into Madras, examined the ponds at Guindy 
and Madras about April 1915*, with the result that he found only 
a few in the ponds at Madras and none at Guindy. 

In May, 191 1 I obtained from the Red Hills tank, seven miles 
from the city, two full-grown specimens. The larger was a female 
measuring 48 cm. in length and contained numerous small eggs of 
a bright orange colour. I am certain that the fish were breeding 
in the tank at the time, as later on, in July, I obtained a young 
one about 10 cm. in length. 

The above facts prove that the introduction of the gourami 
into Madras is not a failure, and the fact that they have done very 
well and were numerous and of fair size till lately in the Govt. 
House ponds, combined with their character as a non-predaceous 
and herbivorous species, show that they are well fitted for the 
waters of India. 

Gourami inhabit ponds and rivers and in the latter some have 
been found within tidal influence in brackish water ^ ; they how- 
ever prefer stationary waters and thrive best in the shallows of 
large weedy ponds and lakes. In Java, according to M. Dabry de 
Thiersant*, they thrive in ponds not more than three feet in depth ; 
survive with difficulty at 2800 ft. elevation and die promptly 
at any higher altitude. Its sensitiveness to cold is further shown 
by the fact that in spite of the numerous attempts to introduce 
it into France, the fish have never been successfully acclimatized 
in the Republic. 

The gourami though essentially a vegetarian, being fond of 
several araceous plants^ and of water-lilies in India, is omnivorous 
and feeds at times on flesh, fish, insects, etc. Among themselves 
they are said to be pugnacious.^ They are able to respire air 
direct and possess an accessory super-branchial organ ; but, ac- 
cording to Gilbert, this is done only when the water is foul.'' I 
doubt the accuracy of the latter statement. In a pond in the old 
Powder Factory grounds in Madras where some 200 gourami re- 
cently received from Mauritius and Java are kept under observa- 



' Jonrn. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc, VIII, p. 436. 

2 G. O. No. 632, loth March, 1915. Govt. Madras, Revenue Department. 
'i Jordan, Guide to the Study of Fishes, II, p. 369. (Quotes from Gill.) 
* La Pisciculture et la Peche en Chine, 1872. * Jordan, /. c. 

« Cantor, Cat. Mai. Fish. Joiirn. As. Soc. Bengal. XVIII, p. 1071 (1849). 
7 Joiirn. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc, \MII, p. 436. 



1916.J B. SuNDARA Raj : Freshwater Fish of Madras. 281 

tion, they are seen to come up at all hours and take air though 
the water is beautifully clear. 

The breeding season in Java is March ' and in Madras about 
May. "The fish is assiduous in the care of its young" and con- 
structs complex nests for the reception of its eggs. General Hard- 
vvicke * has described the interesting breeding habits of this fish 
in Mauritius, while Gilbert gives an account of its breeding in 
an aquarium.^ The nest is of a nearly spherical form composed 
of plants, preferably tufts of a peculiar grass {Paniciim jumentonim) 
which grows on the surface of the water, and considerably resem- 
bles a bird's in form. It is usually attached to plants or weeds 
growing at the edge of the pond and the bottom selected is muddy 
while the depth varies.^ According to Gilbert, whose observations 
were on aquarium fish, the gourami assume a jet black colour and 
flashing red eyes during this season and become highly pugnacious. 
The female emits a stream of 15 to 20 eggs which (in the aquarium) 
adhered to the undersurface of a rock, and are aerated by the 
female frequently rising to the surface and bringing down a mouth- 
ful of air which she lets go against the underside of the rock. In 
its natural surroundings the eggs are attached to water plants,^ 
The eggs hatch in about a month.* The fry on hatching are trans- 
parent and possess a yolk-sac. "When I had had them about 
two months " observes Gilbert "they were perfectly formed and 
very handsome but alas they were only two inches long at the out- 
side." 

The rate of growth appears to be rapid if conditions are 
favourable; " the gourami is known to attain a length of about 4 
inches in the first year, 7 or 8 in the second and 10 or 11 in the 
third " ; '^ " the young has black bands across the bod}^ and also a 
blackish spot at the base of the pectoral fin."^ In captivity they 
are fed on bran and oil cakes. 

Uses. — The gourami is well-known and highly prized as an 
article of food. It attains a large size (nearly 2 feet in length) and 
bears transport and acclimatization well. It is one of the few fish 
well adapted for pisciculture. 

Macropodus cupanus (C. and V.)-* 

{Polyacanthus cupanus of the Fauna of Brit. India.) 

Tamil — Punnah, Panni (Day). 

Habitat and Habits. — A rare species in Madras occurring in a 
few small ponds in the city. 

^ Dabry de Thiersant, La Pisciculture et la Peche en Chine, 1872. 
'^ Zool. Jonrn., IV, p. 309. 

s fourn. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc, VIII, p. 436. 
•* Jordan, Guide to the Study of Fishes, II, pp. 166-167. 
6 Dabry de Thiersant, /. c 

^ Hardwicke, Zool.Journ., \\, p. 309. 7 Willey, Spol. Zeylan., VI, p. 120. 
- Jordan, Guide to the Study of Fishes, II, p. 368. 

9 Tate Regan, Asiatic Fishes of the Family Anabantidae. Proc. Zool. Soc, 
1909, II, pp. 769 and 775. 



282 Records of the I vidian Museum. [Voi.. XII, 

''It lurks under stones or amongst weeds " observes Day, 
but so far as I have observed, it appears to be a gregarious surface 
fish. In an aquarium, however, it at times settles on the bottom, 
when the prolonged ventral rays are stuck perpendicularly into 
the sand to support the forepart of the body. They are pugna- 
cious and often fight and chase each other ; the immature fish are 
afraid of the adults. According to Jerdon ' ''it must be handled 
with caution, for the spines inflict a most severe burning pain 
which lasts a few hours." They are air-breathers and in an aqua- 
rium they mount up to the surface every 2 or 3 minutes to take 
air, but unlike most other fish which respire air, the act is not 
usually accompanied by the escape of air-bubbles. M. cupanus 
is essentially a vegetable-feeder and in captivity eats crumbs of 
bread, but feeds also on insects and insect larvae. Ground-feeding 
is not natural to this fish, as it does so with deliberation and 
effort, and in an aquarium I have often seen it fail to pick up the 
particle of food on the bottom in spite of repeated efforts : the 
mouth is dorsal in position and in order to feed on the bottom it 
has to stand almost vertically upside down. 

The breeding season has been ascertained to be May and 
June.* M. cupanus probably builds a nest like its congener M. 
viridiauratus.^ 

Uses. — According to Mr. Wilson it is an effective mosquito- 
destroyer. 

Etroplus maculatus (Bloch). 

(PI. xxviii, figs. 26 — 30). 
Tamil — Burakasu. 

Habitat and Habits.— This pretty little fish is abundant all 
over Madras in ponds, ditches and rivers ; in the last many habi- 
tually live and breed within tidal influence in brackish water. 

E. maculatus frequents the weedy shallows of ponds and 
streams and feeds for the most part on aquatic' vegetation and 
partly on worms and insects. It is highly pugnacious in disposi- 
tion and at times, as observed by Day *, turns almost black with 
passion. '' This species does not live long after its removal from 
water " observes Day ^ ; but on the contrary its tenacity of life 
has frequently surprised me. It is one of the few fish that is oc- 
casionally brought to the market alive ; out of water it sometimes 
makes, at regular intervals, a peculiar ticking noise by the sudden 
closing and opening of its mouth. 

The spawning season extends from January to April : most 
fish breed during February and March. The only account of the 
nidification was published in 1848 by Jerdon in his paper " On the 

1 Day, Fishes of India, p. 371. 

2 Thomas, Rep. Pise. South Canara, p. 72. 

3 Gill, Parental care among F. W. F"ishes. Ann. Rep. Sniifli. Inst. 1905, 
p. 529. 

* and ^ Iislies of India, p. 415. 



1916.] B. SuNDARA Raj : Freshwater Fish of Madras. 283 

Freshwater Fishes of vSouth India ' ' in the Madras Jour, of Lit. 
and Science, Vol. XV, p. 143. He observes that 

" At the season of spawning the fish (both male and female I beheve though I 
am not quite certain of this) assumes a brighter livery than at other times; the 
yellow of its lower surface deepens, and the one dark spot on its side is accom- 
panied by several others so much so as to give it a marbled appearance, which 
howe\'er is somewhat transient. The ^gg^ are not very numerous, and are depo- 
sited in the mud at the bottom of the stream, and when hatched, both parents 
guard their young for many days, vigorously attacking any large fish that pass 
near them. I have had an opportunity of observing this, as well among fish in 
confinement as in the streams." 

The colours are very variable, but usually become very vivid 
and bright during the Ijreeding season. The whole fish becomes 
orange, especially the ventral half of the body, the ventral fins 
turn jet black, and a broad terminal band of the same colour extends 
along the margin of the anal covering nearly Jths of that fin. 
The eyes are red, and shining metallic blue lines appear below them 
and on the opercles. 

During the breeding season the fish are found in pairs and 
several pairs build their nests close together in the same locality. 
Early in February, igio I had the opportunity of observing several 
such nests in an innundated paddy-field in Puruswakam, Madras. 
They contained eggs and fry in various stages of development, with 
the parents guarding them. The nest is a shallow cup-shaped pit, 
roughly an inch deep at the centre and about 3 to 4 inches in 
diameter, scooped in the bottom debris and lined with the silky 
fibres of the common freshwater alga (5/'i>ogy;'(3;).' All the nests 
were in very shallow water, the depth var^dng from 4 to 9 
inches. The eggs are not very numerous (in a nest recently 
obtained there were 266) and are demersal and adhesive in 
character. They are oval, about i| by i mm. each, and of a 
dark brown colour. They were deposited in the centre of the nest 
and each egg was found adhering to a plant-fibre, being attached 
at one end by a short thick stalk. The yolk is dark brown and 
contains a large oil globule (fig. 26). I have not been able to ascer- 
tain the interval between oviposition and hatching. The eggs 
hatch by the top of the egg-membrane lifting off like a lid. The 
shallow water which becomes tepid during the day no doubt helps 
to develop the eggs. The parents keep a vigorous guard and 
every now and then the male or female is seen to stoop over the 
nest and scrutinise the eggs. 

Description of fry, — A few eggs obtained from one of the above 
nests hatched in the aquarium. On the first day the fry measure 
4|mm. in length (fig. 27), the eyes are pigmentless, the yolk-sac 
is large, the median fins are continuous and there is no trace of 
the paired fins. The larvae rest on the bottom with the ventral 
surface uppermost. There are two cement organs on the head, one 
above the other, by which they adhere to the bottom debris. Once 

I Recently in South Arcot I saw a nest which was a mere pit in the sand and 
the eggs were attached to a submerged rock. 



284 Records of the Indian Museiim. [Vol. XII, 

the larvae are hatched they are restless ; an incessant vibration of 
their bodies continues day and night. 

On the second day the length increases to 5 mm. (fig. 28), 
pigment appears in the eyes and in the form of stellate cells on 
the yolk-sac, the pectoral fins appear as buds. The habits are the 
same as on the first day. 

In a few days the mouth and anus are formed, the fry assume 
their normal position, i.e. have their backs directed upwards, and 
the 3^olk-sac is considerably reduced. 

In a fortnight the yolk-sac becomes completely absorbed, only 
two clusters of pigment spots are now seen, one on the head and 
the other on the nape : the embryonic median fin still persists, 
and the fry still adhere to the bottom and oscillate their bodies 
(fig. 29). 

So long as the fr}^ keep to the nest the parents guard it and, 
in the natural surroundings, I have noticed that one of them, the 
female probably, is engaged in the task of what appears to be 
feeding the fr^^ She is seen constantly to go to a selected spot 
in the neighbourhood, usually only a few feet from the nest, and 
there dig with her mouth at the root of an aquatic plant and bring 
up a mouthful of dark sediment which she ejects into the nest. 
If the nest is attacked she leaves her task and joins the male in 
defence. 

As soon as the young are able to swim freely the parents and 
their brood desert the nest and a life of wandering in quest of 
food commences. In such rambles, the mother occupies general!}^ 
the centre of the family group and the male takes charge of the 
circumference. When thus engaged the adults are highly pugna- 
cious and vigorously attack any large fish that pass near them : 
on one occasion I saw an adult 0. piinctatus chased for several 
yards by one of these fish. 

As the body of the adult is much compressed and elevated, 
there is a curious disproportion at various stages of growth in the 
relative length and height of the body, as will be seen from the 
table below : — 

Length 9 — 12 — 16 — 18 — 19 — 30 mm. 
Height 3— 4!— 4|— 7I— 8—14 mm. 

In a specimen 9 mm. long the back is green or olive, a well- 
marked white band is found across the nape and the body is 
elongated (fig. 30). In young 19 mm. long there is a considerable 
increase in height so that the body is oval in shape, the back is 
olive and has 6 broad transverse bands descending half way on 
the sides and the ventral surface is dirty white. In the adult fish 
these bands disappear and the lower ends of 3 of them alone 
are retained as the characteristic 3 spots on either side of the 
body. When the young are about an inch long they are aban- 
doned by the parents. 



19 16.] B. SuNDARA Raj : Freshwater Fish of Madras. 285 

Etroplus suratensis (Bloch). 

Tamil — Pani shettai, Setha kendai. 

Habitat and Habits. — Fairly common in fresh and brackish 
water, both in ponds and rivers. Salinity does not appear to 
affect this fish, while it lives and breeds in the Red Hills in absolute 
fresh water. I have obtained adult fish on at least two different 
occasions from the sea opposite the mouth of the river Adyar. In 
the Madras marine aquarium specimens captured in the backwater 
live in sea water with marine fish. Saltwater specimens are much 
more vividl}'' coloured than freshwater ones. 

" Etvopus greatly affect the shallows of a tank or river and congregate near 
rocks and stones, and if there are wooden palings going into the water, they are 
often to be found round about them, probably for the sake of the moss and 
weeds." ' 

It is essentially a vegetable-feeder but takes worms and insects 
also, and according to Thomas ejects the cuticle. It is said to be 
a very powerful fish for its size, but very sluggish, 

" On hot days the Etroplus may be seen basking in large shoals on the surface. 
They take best from about fi\'e o'clock until dusk ; the larger fish especially seem 
very particular as to the time of day they feed." 2 

Day's statement that this fish buries itself in the mud ^ has not 
been confirmed b}^ other observers. Recently, while engaged in 
stocking operations when hundreds of E. suratensis had to be cap- 
tured, I have observed that it has the peculiar habit of lying flat 
on the bottom of ponds and rivers to escape drag nets. It occurs 
almost entirely in the maritime districts and hence is probably 
unsuitable for stocking waters far inland ; the experiment however 
is being made by the Madras Fisheries. 

The only published account of the breeding habits is that of 
Dr. Willey,* who describes the nest, eggs and young of this species 
in his preliminary account of the Inland Fisheries of Ceylon, 
(Reports of 1908 and 1909) ; from which the following extracts are 
taken: — 

The breeding habits are very similar to those of E. maculatus. 

"The eggs . . . are attached to the lower surfaces of stones and logs 
and are watched over by the male. On May 21, 1909, a Koraliya {E. suratensis) 

nest was found I went there about 11-30 A.M. and saw the 

adults, both male and female keeping guard. When the man who was with me 
advanced his hand to the small stone projecting from the bank of the canal under 
which the eggs were attached, the smaller, male, . . . approached and pecked 
at the man's fingers. The large, female, kept a little in the background in 

deeper water The eggs were attached contiguously in a single layer 

on the underside of the stone, which was partially imbedded in the earth at the 
base of the bank of the canal. Some of the eggs were white, indicating failure 
and death. The living eggs were in an advanced stage of development, the em- 
bryo being formed and the yolk pigmented. The yolk is yellow opaque, and 



' Thomas, Tank Angling, p. 91 (quotes from " Flenr de Lys "). 
2 Thomas, /. c, p. 92. 

'^ Day. Fishes of Malabar, p. 162 ; Fishes of India, p. 416. 
* Notes on the Freshwater Fisheries of Ceylon. Spol. Zeylan., \TI, p. 102 
(1911). 



286 Records of the Indian Museum. [Vol. XII, 

darkly pigmented, but no pigment was present in the eye. The circulation of the 
blood is active, and the embryo can change its position within the egg membrane. 

The surface of the egg appeared minutely rugulose. The length of 

the egg, without the short stalk, is 2 mm., the width i mm., slightly narrower at 
the free end. Within 24 hours after finding" the nest one of the eggs hatched out, 
the top of the egg membrane lifting up like a lid ; there is still no pigment in the 
eyes, and no mouth; length 5 mm. On the second day after hatching pigment 
begins to appear in the eyes, and on the third day, when the larva is 6mm. long, 
the mouth opens and respiratory movements commence ; foreign particles were 
noted adhering to what looked like a cement organ at the front of the head. The 
eggs of Koraliya are very difficult to rear when removed from their proper habitat. 
On May 23, and again on June i, more eggs were found attached to cocoanut 

husks, branches, and stones at Hunupitiya, Colombo On October 

28, 1909, another series of Koraliya eggs containing formed embryos .... 
was found .... attached to the outer surface of a short length of water- 
logged bamboo stem. This species is therefore a perennial spawner." 

According to Thomas ' E. surafensis breeds twice in the year 
in S. Canara, in May and June and again in December and 
January. In Madras the specimens in the Red Hills tank build 
their nests in the open canal in which water is brought to the 
cit3% during April and May. 

Of the later changes which the fry undergo in growth nothing 
is known, except that " very young fish have a large black ocellus 
surrounded by a white margin extending from the fourth to the 
tenth soft ray of the dorsal fin." * 

Uses. — E. suratensis attains a large size, more than a foot in 
length, and is a highl}?- esteemed food fish. Its nori-predaceous and 
vegetarian habits make it a very suitable fish for stocking tanks. 



Elcotris fusca (Bl. and Schn.). 

Tamil — Mussoorie (Day), in Madras Kul Uluvay. 

Habitat and Habits. — E. fusca is common in fresh and 
brackish waters, occurring in ponds, ditches, rivers, and more 
abundantly in the backwater. 

It is apparently nocturnal in habits. During the day it is 
very slow in its movements, ''conceahng under stones and among 
weeds, and remaining for hours motionless." ^ In an aquarium 
it becomes very active by night and frequently jumps out of the 
vessel if uncovered ; and as Jerdon has observed " it is very fond 
of fixing itself vertically to the side of a tub or vase (in which 
it may be confined) with its head downwards." Experiments 
with a specimen in confinement tend to show that the sense of 
sight in this species is very poor, at least by day. It is said that 
black fish appear pale white in colour at night ; and according to 
Jerdon "it has the faculty of changing its colour, at times becom- 
ing nearly black, at other times marbled; and usually with a 
strong line of demarcation between the tint of the back and sides." 
It is tenacious of life and fives a fairly long time out of water. 
It is carnivorous and a bottom-feeder. 



' Rep. Pise. S. Canara, p. 73 (1870). 2 Day, Fishes of Malabar, p. 162. 
3 Jerdon, Madras Journ. Lit. Sci., XV, p. 149. 



1916.] B. SuNDARA Raj : Freshwater Fish of Madras. 287 

E. jusca breeds during the cold weather in ^Madras, but in S. 
Canara, as ascertained by Thomas', in June and July and again 
in January and February. I have not seen young below 2 cm. 
in length, and when of that size they are easily distinguished from 
other young fish by their distinctive colour. A broad black lateral 
band, very conspicuous and sharply distinguished from the pale 
colour of the back and abdomen, extends from the snout to the 
caudal fin, while the summit of the head and the portions of the 
bod}^ above and below this band is pale gray. The younger the 
specimens the more sharply contrasted are the two colours. 

Gobius (Acentrogobius) neilli, Day. 

This small species abounds in shallow pools in the bed of the 
Cooum and Adyar rivers both in fresh and brackish water. 
Though essentially a backwater fish, I have kept it living for 
months in fresh water. 

It is a bottom-feeder with limited powers of swimming ; when 
resting on the bottom it spreads out its ventral sucker as a 
support and by means of this organ often adheres to stones and in 
the aquarium to the glass, and climbs aquatic weeds on the leaves 
of which it frequently rests. In its natural surroundings it delights 
to bask in the sun, coming up close to the margin of the water, 
receding at the least sign of danger and raising a cloud of mud 
under cover of which it escapes. 

G. neilli seems to be a perennial spawner as I have seen 
young ones throughout the 3^ear, but it is specially prolific about 
March and April. It is evidently monogamous and during the 
breeding season each pair inhabit. a horizontal burrow excavated 
in the mud. 

Gobius (Acentrogobius) acutipinnis, C. and V. 

Tamil — Nation pulowe (C. and V.). 

Cuvier and Valenciennes describe this species under the two 
names G. acutipinnis (from Malabar) and G. setosus (from Pondi- 
cherry) ; the chief differences between the two being: — (i) the 
length of the head is 6 in the total length in the former while it is 
only 5 in the latter; (2) spots and blotches occur on the body of 
the former whereas they are absent in the latter. There is no 
constant difference in the relative lengths of the head between 
the blotched and unblotched forms, and the difference in colour 
between the two forms appears to be due to the difference in sex ; 
the males, having their bodies spotted and blotched, represent 
G. acutipinnis and the females, being destitute of such spots, 
correspond to G. setosus. 

Habitat and Habits. — Not uncommon in pools within tidal 
influence, in the Adyar and Cooum rivers where the bottom is 
muddy ; occasionally ascending into fresh water higher up. 

' J^ef>. Pisc. S. Cdiuini. p. 73. 



288 Records of the Indian Museum. [Vol. XII, 

Like most of its congeners G. acutipinnis is a bottom-feeder 
with limited powers of swimming. It habitually inhabits hori- 
zontal burrows, which it excavates in the soft mud full of organic 
debris. These tunnels, which are nearly straight, measure on an 
average 4 inches in length and half an inch in diameter and are 
provided with two orifices, one at each end, hidden under some 
aquatic plant. A pair inhabit a burrow. The two entrances are 
a repetition of the usual device employed by shallow-water forms ; 
if danger threatens at one end, the fish escape by the other, causing 
a cloud of mud which effectually hides the animal and its burrow. 
G. acutipinnis breeds about February when the females contain 
ova. 

Gobius (Glossogobius) giuris/ H. B. 

(PI. xxviii, fig. 31 ; pi. xxix, figs. 32 — 36). 

Tamil — Uluvay or Nallatanni uluvay. 

The term uluvay appears to have been derived from a Tamil 
word which means to plough, and is appropriate to a fish which 
is a bottom-feeder and a burro wer. 

Habitat and Habits. — One of the most common and best known 
freshwater fish of Madras, occurring everywhere in ponds, ditches 
and rivers, in abundance. While the typical G. giuris is an ex- 
clusively freshwater form, the variety kokius is confined to back- 
waters and the sea. 

In habits G. giuris closely resembles other gobies. It is vora- 
cious and lives for a considerable time out of water, dying with 
its opercles dilated. The colour of this fish is well adapted to its 
muddy surroundings. 

The breeding season extends from October to December in 
Madras, while it is said to be May to July in Ceylon.* The fish 
deposit their eggs as a rule in shallow water, in crevices and 
burrows, usually not of their own construction. The nests have 
been found under submerged rocks and tiles, in demersed pieces 
of iron piping, bamboo and cocoanut shells, and more frequently 
in the deserted burrows of such aquatic animals as crabs {Para- 
telphusa sp.). 

The eggs are very numerous and of a pale greenish-yellow 
colour and are attached in contiguous clusters (fig. 31) to the 
roof of the burrow. The egg-membrane is in the form of an 
elongated tube 3 to 6 mm. long and about ^y to ^ mm. in diameter 
and holds the egg at the slightly swollen distal free end. It is 
attached at the other end by means of a short stalk to a shape- 
less basal stolon which adheres to the substratum (fig. 32). The 
parent remains on guard in the burrow and by the movements of 
its pectoral fins promotes the aeration of the eggs. 

In the early stages of development the embryo faces the at- 
tached end, with its tail coiled up in a spiral behind (figs. 33 and 



' Max Weber, Die Fisclie der Siboga-Expeditioii. p. 4-f)S (1915). 
•^ Willey, Spol. Zeylan., VII, pp. 102-103. 



1916.J B. SuNDARA Raj : Freshwater Fish of Madras. 289 

34) ; but when the tail is detached from the yolk-sac the embryo 
changes its orientation by the agitation of its tail (fig. 35). The 
fry on hatching (fig. 36) measure about 2"25 mm. long and are 
not quite so helpless as the larvae of Ophiocephalus , Etroplus, etc., 
but are able to feed and swim. The parents do not appear to 
guard them after hatching. The eggs and fry of this species are 
very difficult to rear when removed from their natural .surround- 
ings. 

Uses. — G. giuris grows to a foot and a half in length and 
fetches a high price in the local market when large. 

Gobius (Oxyurichthys)^ striatus (Day). 

(PI. xxix, figs. 37, 38). 
Tamil — Kundalam. 

Habitat and Habits. — Not uncommon in ponds, rivers and in 
the backwater. 

It is a sluggish fish, chieflj^ nocturnal in habits, and frequents 
sandy shallows, where it is fond of lying half buried during the 
day time. Its movements are for the most part confined to the 
bottom, but it swdms occasionally in a feeble clumsy manner, 
swaying and rolling irregularh'. 

This species breeds from October to November. Mr. Wilson 
of the Madras Fisheries obtained a nest of this fish with eggs in 
an advanced condition. Figs, ^y and 38 are copies of his figures 
reproduced by kind permission. The eggs closely resemble those of 
G. giuris and like them are attached to the under surface of de- 
mersed stones, tiles, etc., by means of a gelatinous stolon. 

_ Rhyncobdella aculeata (Bloch). 

Tamil — Aral. 

Fairly common in fresh and brackish water. 

In an aquarium R. aculeata habitually conceals itself b}^ day 
in the bottom sand or mud, with just the snout and at times the 
whole head projecting above the sand for respiration : even this 
is withdrawn at the least disturbance. At night however it 
emerges to feed. The pointed snout, the weak sight, the conical 
head, the absence of the ventral and the poorly developed pectoral 
fins are obvious adaptations to the burrowing habits of this fish. 
The dorsal spines are organs of defence, while the trilobed proboscis 
is evidently an organ of touch. The fish lives a long time out of 
water, and is known to withstand periods of drought by burrowing 
in the bottom mud of ponds and streams.'^ " It becomes drowned 
in water if unable to reach the surface, as it apparently requires 
to respire air directly." ^ 

Uses. — It is moderately esteemed as food. 

I Max Weber, Die Fische der Siboga- Expedition, p. 475. 
* '^ Day, FresJiwater Fishes and Fisheries of India and Burma, p. 28 ( 187 3 I. 
^ Fauna of Brit. India, FisJies. II, p. 332. 



290 Records of the Indian Museum. [Voi.. XII, 

Mastaccmbelus pancalus (H, B.). 

Tamil— Pi7 Aral. 

Colour. — In Madras examples the vertical stripes are as a rule 
absent in adults and the pectoral fins are unspotted. 

Habitat and Habits. — M . pancalus abounds in tanks all over 
Madras and in the Cooum, usually above tidal influence. Day is 
obviously in error in stating '^ I have taken this species in the 

Ganges but have not seen it in the Coromandel coast south 

of the Kistna " , as the fish is too common on the Madras coast 
to escape notice. Its habits are those of the genus. It is a much 
smaller species than M. armatus, and in its natural haunts it fre- 
quents the soft loose mud close to the margin of the water. One of 
the easiest ways to capture this fish is to draw ashore a portion of 
the weeds growing in the water and to search for it in the loose 
mud that is thus brought ashore. 

M. pancalus breeds during the cold weather. Early in Feb- 
ruary I obtained the young of this fish in a shallow pool in the 
Spur tank, Egmore; they measured on an average 30 mm. in 
length. 

Description of the immature fish. D. 24/31. A. 3/35. 

Shape of body same as that of the adult. 

Colour. — Pale olive along the back and sides, whitish beneath, 
iris red. A dark band from the tip of the proboscis to the eye and 
extending behind that organ over the opercles. About 31 dark 
transverse stripes at regular intervals on the sides of the bod}^ 
from behind the opercles to the root of the caudal fin. The spinous 
portion of the dorsal fin is placed in a yellowish groove on the 
back. 

Uses. — A small species attaining a maximum length of seven 
inches and of no market value. 

Mastacembelus armatus (lyacep.). 

Tamil — Kal Aral. 

Though it is said to occur in brackish water elsewhere in India ', 
in Madras it is not known to frequent estuaries or rivers within 
tidal influence. M. armatus appears to prefer stationary to run- 
ning water, and is fairly common in large tanks, where it is said 
to affect the neighbourhood of demersed rocks and stones. Early 
in February, 19 10 I found mature ova in a female. 

Uses — This species attains a much larger size than R. aculeata 
which it resembles, and is highly esteemed as food. 

' Day, Fauiuj of Brit. India, /''is/ies, II, p. 334. 



1916.] B. SuNDARA Raj : Freshwater Fish of Madras. 291 

APPENDIX. 

Remarks on the genus Haplochilus. 

Tate Regan ' has recently suggested a division of the genus 
Haplochilus into two genera, viz. the genus Haplochilus proper, 
represented in India by the single species inela.no stigma, and the 
genus Panchax, to include the remaining species panchax, lineatmn, 
rubrostigma, dayi and parvus. He has stated the differences as fol- 
lows : — 

" In the one I An/6-//(Lv) the praemaxillaries arc flattish and somewhat pro- 
duced, protractile, the cleft of the mouth is rather wide, horizontal, almost semi- 
circular, the teeth are in bands, with an outer and a more or less distinct inner 
series of enlarged teeth, vomerine teeth and pseudobranchiae are present, the 
gill-membranes are not united, and the pectoral fins are placed low. In the 
other {Haplochilus) the mouth is small, transverse, not protractile, with the teeth 
in a single series, sometimes followed by a second series of minute teeth ; there 
are no vomerine teeth or pseudobranchiae, the gill-membranes are broadh- united, 
and the pectoral fins are placed high." 

This division of the old genus Haplochilus has not been generally 
adopted in India and further research was desired on the sub- 
ject.** At the instance of Dr. Annandale I have recently ex- 
amined all the Indian species save H. rubrostigma and H. dayi ^ 
of Ceylon, with special reference to the differences between the 
two proposed genera, with the result that I accept Tate Regan's 
division of the genus but modify some of the differences he has 
pointed out between the two. In addition I have stated other 
differences, notably in the structure of the scales and in the habits 
of the two genera. 

The praemaxilla. — The shape of this bone differs considerably 
in the two genera (pi. xxv, figs. 3, 4 and 5). In Panchax, towards 
the mid-dorsal line of the body where the two premaxillae meet 
each gives off posteriorly a fiat triangular process of considerable 
length : the rest of the bone is narrow, elongate and bent back- 
wards and downwards, tapering to a spine at the extreme corner 
of the mouth. In Haplochilus the triangular process is feebly 
represented by a rounded extension, the rest of the bone is short 
and of uniform breadth, ending in two or more coarse teeth in the 
corner of the mouth, according to the sex. 

The mouth. — The cleft of the mouth in Panchax is wide but 
in Haplochilus it is small : beyond this there is very little to be 
said by way of a difference. If it is semicircular in Panchax, in 
Haplochilus melanostigma too it is so to a slight degree, and as to 
its being horizontal in Panchax and transverse in Haplochilus the 
distinction to a large extent depends on the proportionate lengths 

1 Tate Regan. Aim. Mag. Nat. Hist. (8), VII, p. 324. 

^ Sewell and Chaudhuri, Ind. Fish of Proved Utility as Mosc/iiito Destroyers 
p. 2. , ' ' ' 

3 Stemdachner, Denkscrifteii der kais. Akad. Weiii, LIX np ;76-:;77 
(1892). ^'' ■^' ''" 



292 Records of the Indian Museum. [Vol. XII, 

of the two jaws. In lineatum the upper jaw is longer, in panchax 
the two jaws are equal, in parvus the lower jaw is distinctly 
longer and the direction of the mouth-cleft in the normal unpro- 
truded condition is very similar to that in melanostignia (pi. xxv, 
figs. I and 2). 

The upper jaw is protractile in Panchax and in the normal 
unprotruded condition a deep transverse fold is formed across the 
snout (pi. xxv, fig. 2). In Haplochilus the upper jaw is not pro- 
tractile and there is no fold. 

Teeth. — Tate Regan lays special emphasis on the difference 
iu teeth, which he believes are present in a band in Panchax, 
while they occur in a single series sometimes followed by a second 
series of minute teeth in Haplochilus. A microscopical examina- 
tion of the isolated praemaxilla and mandible of H. melanostignia 
reveals the presence of a band of teeth hardly distinguishable 
from that in species of Panchax (pi. xxv, figs. 3 and 4). 

Vomerine teeth (pi. xxv, figs. 6, 7 and 8).— These are invariably 
present in all the known Indian species of Panchax, in lineatum as a 
narrow band composed of three or four rows of teeth, in panchaxin 
a single or occasionally double row ; in parvus about three vestigial 
teeth are borne by the vomers at their extreme anterior end, and 
in ruhrostigma and dayi also they are said to occur. It is quite 
likely that all species of Panchax possess these teeth in various 
degrees of development. While they are present as a prominent 
band in lineatum, the presence of the three teeth in parvus can 
only be detected by a microscopical examination of the vomer. 
At least so far as Indian species are concerned, their presence or 
absence constitutes a safe criterion of classification. 

The pseudobranchiae are glandular, richly supplied with blood 
during life, and covered by a highly pigmented mucous membrane. 
They are present in all the three species of panchax examined and 
probably in ruhrostigma and dayi, while they are absent in H. 
melanostignia. 

Gill-membranes.— These are broadly united with one another 
in H. melano stigma, while they are not united, but cleft to the 
chin in lineatum, panchax, parvus and probably in the other two 
Indian species of Panchax. 

Position of pectoral fins.— In melanostignia these are placed 
high, i.e. nearer the mid-dorsal line of the body than the mid- 
ventral, whereas in species of Panchax they are placed low 
(pi. xxv, figs. I and 2). 

Scales. — In melanostignia the scales possess only concentric 
(circular) striations, but in the three species examined and probably 
in all other species of Panchax radiating striae (basal radii) are pre- 
sent in addition to the concentric rings in the imbedded part of the 
scale (pi. xxv, figs. 9 and 10). 

Vertebrae. — Their number in the various species are as follows : 
in melanostigma 29, in lineatum 32, in panchax 29, in parvus 
26. Tate Regan seems to have supposed that the number 29 in 
the species panchax obtains in all the species of the genus Panchax. 



1916.] B. SuNDARA Raj : Freshwater Fish of Madras. 293 

Breeding Habits.— Theie is a wide difference between the 
Indian representatives of the two genera in spawning habits. H. 
melanostigma as stated above has the remarkable habit of carry- 
ing the extruded cluster of eggs suspended from a cord attached 
to the genital opening of the female, probably till they are 
hatched. Species of P^wc/wa; however show no such parental care, 
and according to the only observer Thomas/ who has recorded 
oviposition in this genus, Panchax {parvus ?) extrudes a single egg 
at a time which is soon deposited. The eggs of both genera, how- 
ever, are adhesive and demersal and are very similar in structure. 

In addition there are a number of minor differences which 
separate H. melanostigma from species of Panchax. From all this it 
is clear that Tate Regan's division of the genus Haplochilus of 
Giinther and Day is amply justified and quite natural and neces- 
sary. The diagnostic characters of the two genera and a key to the 
Indian species may be drawn up as follows : — 

Genus Panchax. 
Praemaxillae flat, elongate and protracticle, a deep transverse 
fold on the snout, mouth wide, vomerine teeth and pseudobranchia.' 
present, gill-membranes not united, pectoral fins placed low, and 
scales with concentric and radiating striae. 

A. With a prolonged ventral ray — 

Spotted with red ... ... ... riihrosfigDia. 

Body with vertical dark bands or blotche.s — 
32 to 34 scales on L. line ... ... ... lineatum. 

29 to 30 scales on L. line ... ... ... dayi. 

B. No prolonged ventral ray — 

Numerous vomerine teeth ; greenish or olive in 

colour; size large (3" to 3J'') ... ... panchax. 

3 vomerine teeth ; body greenish, with peacock- 
blue and sometimes Italian pink dots ; size small 
(li" to if") ... ... ... ... parvus. 

Genus Haplochilus. 
Mouth small, not protracticle, no fold on the snout, neither 
vomerine teeth nor pseudobranchise present, gill-membranes broadly 
united, pectoral fins placed high, and scales with concentric stria- 
tions only. A single species, H. melanostigma. 

I have classed P. dayi as a distinct species from P. lineatum, 
only provisionally, as it is very likely that further research will 
prove them to be conspecific. Steindachner in his description 
distinguishes dayi from lineatum by the intense sexual dimorphism 
of the former, the most conspicuous differences between the sexes 
in dayi consisting chiefly in the dark vertical bands of the female 
and in the elongation of the anal rays of the male. From an ex- 
amination of a large collection of P. lineatum from Coorg and Cochin, 
I venture to state that the above-mentioned sexual dimorphism 
is exhibited by this species also, though Day fails to record it.'^ 

J- Thomas, Tank Angling, p, 112 (1887). 

* In his Fishes of Malabar, p. 222, Day states that the colours vary according^ 
to the sex and that the vertical black stripes are absent in some specimens. 



294 Records of the Indian Museum. [Vol. XII^ 1916.] 

Apart from sexual dimorphism no salient anatomical feature has 
been stated in the description of P. dayi save the reduced number 
of scales on the lateral line mentioned in the above key to the 
species. 

History. — McClelland in 1839 founded the genus Aplocheilus, 
in which he included the two Indian species nielanostigma and 
panchax. In 1846 Valenciennes made Panchax a generic name and 
included under it the species panchax and lineattim. Later Bleeker 
distinguished the two genera, restricting the genus Panchax to those 
species possessing vomerine teeth and the genus Aplocheilus to 
those destitute of them. Giinther protested against this differ- 
entiation and included all the known species under the genus 
Haplochilus, on the ground that " the vomerine teeth of panchax 
are minute and rudimental, not offering a character on which a 
genus ma\' be founded. In one out of three specimens they are 
entirely absent." Day stated that the latter statement was 
not true of his numerous specimens. No such variation is shown 
by the species I have examined. Tate Regan in the paper cited 
above remarks that vomerine teeth are not invariably present in 
Panchax, probably on the authority of Giinther. At least so far 
as Indian species are concerned, vomerine teeth are always present. 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE XXV. 

Structural differences between the genera Haplochilus and 

Panchax. 

Figs, i and 2. — Heads of Haplochilus melanosligma, McClelland 
and Panchax parvus, sp. nov., showing the position of 
the mouth and pectoral fin. Note the fold over the 
snout of the latter. 

Fig, 3. — Right pre maxilla of a female H. melanosligma, McClelland. 
„ 4-— ,, ,, ,, male 

,, 5. — ,, ,, oi Panchax lineaHmi, C.y. 

Figs. 6, 7 and 8. — Vomerine teeth of Panchax lineatiim, C.V., P. 
panchax (H. B.) and P. parvus, sp. nov. 

., 9 and 10. — Scales of Panchax panchax (H. B.) and Haplo- 
chilus melanosligma, McClelland. 

C. S. = circular striations ; P. = pectoral fin: R.S. =: radiating striations ; 
T .?). =^ terminal spines (" feetli "). 



Rec. Jnd.Mus.,VoI.XII, 1916, 



PlateXXV. 




^^^' 



0mBf&iM^^m^ 



6. 



> 




^MA^^^^'^ 



.^^^ 








-.-...^-0.3. 



B. Sundara, RaT.del 



.^rs. 



'J'^*"'^- A.ChowdharjaitK. 

FRESHWATER FISH OF MADRAS. 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE XXVI. 
Fig. II. — Ovum of Panchax parvus, sp. nov. 

Ha-plochilus melanosti^ma , McClelland. 

Fig. 12. — A cluster of eggs with their long filaments twisted to- 
gether, 

,, 13. — Lateral view of embryo inside the egg-membrane. 

,, 14. — Dorsal view of embryo inside the egg-membrane. 

,, 15. — Larva just hatched from the egg (dorsal view). 

,, 16.— „ ,, ,, (lateral view). 

A. = adhesive threads ; An. = anus ; C. = pigment cells (chromatophores) ; 
Ch. = cord formed by twisted filaments from eggs ; Cir. = circulation in the 
yolk-sac ; E. = eye ; Fil. = filaments ; O. G. = oil globule ; V. = egg-membrane. 



Rec.Ind.Mus.,Vol.XI[, 1916 
\ 



Plate XXVF. 



^ U %^S 



O.Q 



CIT-.- 




ig^ 



r 



X 



A V ^ - * * ' 



^-X' 



■^^. 



:> 



]5. 




16. 



B Suri. dftr-a. Ray , del. 



frlshwater fish of madras 



A . Chowdha.ry, lith. 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE XXVII. 

Ophtocephahis punctatus, Bloch. 

Fig. 17. — Egg floating in water. 

,, 18. — Enlarged view of an egg. 

,, 19. — Lateral view of embryo inside the egg-membrane. 

,, 20. — Dorsal view of embryo inside the egg-membrane. 

,, 21. — Larva just hatched from the egg. 

,, 22. — Larva 5 mm. long. Note the first appearance of the 
mid-dorsal streak (&) with its two spindle-shaped en- 
largements. 

Ophtocephahis gachua, H. B. 
Fig. 23. — Larva 7 mm. long. 

B. ^ mid-dorsal band ; B. V. = blood vessel ; C. = chromatophores ; Cir. = 
circulation in the yolk-sac ; D. = ear : D. F. = dorsal fin ; E. = eye ; H. = heart 
O.G. =: oil globule ; V. = egg- membrane ; W. = water ; Y. = yolk. 



Rec. Ind. Mus., Vol, XII, 1916. 



PlateXXVII. 



<>r -r-^-r - -?"^>, 




W: "-n 



^':V- 



^ 






-o.g. 

...if. 

....V. 



18. 



cu. 







Zl. 



dj. 









B . Suridara I^^j' ^^^ 



A.Cho-wdharyilith. 



FRESHWATER FISH OV MADRAS, 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE XXVIIL 

Ambassis {miops?), Gunther. 

Fig. 24, — Lateral view of a young fish. 
,, 25. — Dorsal view of the same. 

Etroplus maculatus (Bloch). 

Fig. 26. — Egg attached to a plant filament. 
,, 27. — Larva just hatched from the egg, 4I mm. long. 
,, 28. — Larva on the second day, 5 mm. long. 
,, 29. — Larva a fortnight old. 
,, 30. — Young fish 9 mm. long. 

Gohius {Glossogobius) giuris, H. B. 
Fig. 31. — Two clusters of eggs attached to the root of a plant. 

An. = anus; B. = white band on the nape; B.V.:= blood vessel: Ch. 
chromatophores ; C.g. = cement organs ; C. E. = cluster of eggs ; D. = ear; E. 
eye; H.=: heart; O. G. := oil globule ; P. = stalk; P.P. = plant filament ; V. 
egg - inein b ran e ; Y . ^ yol k . 



Rec.lnd.Mus.,Vol.XIi, 1.916, 



Plate XXVllI. 




C.q 











iV7i. 30. 



B Sundara Raj, del 



FRESHWATER FISH OF MADRAS. 



A . Chowdha.ry,lith. 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE XXIX. 

Gobius {Glossogobius) giuris, H. B, 

Fig. 32. — Enlarged view of two eggs attached to a root. 

,, 33. — Lateral view of embryo within the egg-membrane. 

,, 34. — Dorsal view of the same. 

,, 35. — Lateral view of a more advanced embryo still within 
the egg-membrane. The tail is uncoiled and the 
embryo now faces the free distal end of the egg. 

,, 36.— Larva just hatched from the egg, 2*25 mm. long. 

An. = anus; B. V. = blood vessel ; D. = ear; E. = eye ; H. = heart; M. = 
mouth; N. = nasal organ ; T. ^tail; V. = egg-membrane ; Y. = yolk. 

Gobius (Oxyurichthys) striatus (Day). 

Fig. 37. — Outline of three clusters of eggs attached to a rock. 

,, 38. — Enlarged view of two eggs with embryos in an advanced 
stage of development. 

a. ^ egg-membrane ; b. ^ yolk ; c.=oil globule ; d. = heart ; e. ■=eye. 



Rec. Ind. Mus., Vol. XII, 1916. 



PI ate XXIX. 




FRESHWATER FISH OF MADRAS, 



A. ChowdhaT-y,]ith. 



XVIII. STUDIES IN INDIAN HEL.AIIN- 
T H O L O G Y . 

No. III. 

On an unsuccessful attempt to infect Mus decumanus 

WITH UYMENOLEPIS NANA, SlEBOI.D, AND ON THE 

Sectional Anatomy of that Parasite. 

By F. H. Stewart, D.Sc, Capt., I. M.S., Hon. Assistant, 
Indian Museum. 

(Plates XXXIV— XXXV). 

The question of the specific identity or distinctness of Hy- 
menolepis nana, Siebold, and H. murina, Duj., is a matter of prac- 
tical as well as of scientific interest, Grassi, Calandruccio, and 
Ro\elli (i, 2 and 3) consider that the two species are identical 
and that H. nana is only a dwarfed variety of H. murina. 
Moniez (7) and Linstow (5) have maintained on anatomical 
grounds that they are two valid species. Grassi and Rovelli (3) 
state that on feeding rats aged between one and three months 
with ripe proglottides of H. murina the contained onchospheres 
developed to cysticercoids in the intestinal villi of the rat^ and 
further that the cysticercoids ultimately rupture into the lumen of 
the intestine and there become adult. They apparently did not 
attempt to infect man with the tapeworm from the rat or to 
perform the reverse experiment. Grassi (i) had previously ad- 
ministered to a boy ripe proglottides of H. nana and had found 
proof of the subsequent existence of the parasite in the bowel. 
He did not, however, consider this to be conclusive proof of direct 
transmission from man to man as Hytnenolepis nana is very 
frequent in the district where the experiment took place. 

If the two species are identical and if the development in 
the rat is direct as described by Grassi and Rovelli, it is clear 
that infection in man will as a rule be due to contamination of 
food by rats. To prove or disprove the transmissibility of H. 
murina to man or of H. nana to the rat would therefore be of 
considerable practical importance. It is also clear that when 
such eminent zoologists differ on anatomical grounds as to whether 
the species are one or two, the scientific question can only be 
decided by feeding experiments. 

The experiment which the present paper records could unfor- 
tunately be conducted on a small scale only and as it proved 
negative would require to be repeated on a larger scale to be 



296 Records of the Indian Museum. [Vol. XII, 

conclusive. It is, however, of considerable value in consideration 
of the statement of Grassi and Rovelli that they obtained infec- 
tion in every rat employed which was between the ages of one 
and three months. 

On the 19th of January two young white rats {Mus deci^ 
manus albino) were obtained which were stated to be twenty days 
old and which appeared to be about that age. Their faeces were 
examined and no eggs of parasites found. On the loth of Febru- 
ary they were presumably 42 days old. Five specimens of H. 
nana were obtained on that day from an Indian soldier after the 
administration of 01. Chenopodii. One specimen was stained and 
mounted and proved to contain onchospheres. The remaining four 
were given, two each, to the two young rats and were actually 
swallowed by them. On the loth of March and 5th of April the 
faeces of these animals were examined and found not to contain 
any ova. One rat died on the 12th of April, the second was killed 
on the 17th. No tapeworms were found in their intestines. 

The experiment' therefore tends to prove that Hymenolepis 
nana and H. murina are two distinct species and that the rat is 
not the source of infection of man. 

On the Sectional Anatomy of H vj/enole pis xana, Sieb. 

The anatomy of Hymenolepis nana, Sieb., has been described 
by Leuckart (4, pp. 832, 995), Linstow (5), Miura and Yamasaki 
(6), Railliet (9), and other authors. A full account of the litera- 
ture is given by Ransom (10). None of the authors mentioned 
above have illustrated their papers with figures of sections except 
diagrammatic figures. The present writer therefore considers it 
desirable to publish drawings of the actual sections together with 
some pictures of the undissected animal and a short account of 
the anatomy of the reproductive system. 

The female reproductive organs are fully developed from the 
50th segment; fertilisation takes place between the 62nd and 
66th (fig. 12). It takes place abruptly ; thus in the 6ist segment 
all the eggs are unsegmented; in the 62nd, if this is the first 
fertilised segment, the left lateral and ventral half of the egg-mass 
is segmented, the right lateral and dorsal half unsegmented; in 
the 63rd segment all the eggs with the exception of one or two 
near the yolk-gland are segmented. Fig. 12 shows this transition 
between the 62nd and 63rd segments, it also shows the commenc- 
ing atrophy of the yolk-gland in the fertilised segments and the 
testes, seminal vesicle and cirrus sac. 

Figs. 1-5 are drawn from sections of the 6oth segment. They 
show the yolk-gland, the bilobed ovary, the receptaculo-ovarian 
duct, the receptaculum seminis and vagina. The receptaculo- 
ovarian duct has not been described previously in this species. It 
leads from the receptaculum in the direction of the ovary, but its 



1 [I understand that the experiment was carried out at Hong Kong. — Kd.] 



1916.J F. H. Stewart : Indian Hehninthology. 297 

exact lower connection cannot be determined. A uterus is not 
recognisable apart from the cavity of the ovary. The tissues of 
the animal are, however, so loose that it is impossible either to 
prove or to disprove the homology of some of the spaces with the 
uterus of larger forms. On passing from the unfertilised to the 
fertilised segments (fig. 12) the egg-mass broadens out. This may 
be due to a change of situation of the eggs or merely to an increase 
in size. 

The present writer has not been able to recognise a shell-gland. 

The yolk-gland atrophies at the 65th segment, having decreased 
in size from the 63rd. 

Development of the ova. — The ova in the 50th segment have 
no cell outlines, the nuclei being embedded in a syncytium (fig. 
6), At the 53rd segment irregular cell outlines appear (fig. 7). 
In the 54th segment yolk granules occur in the protoplasm (fig. 
8), which increase markedly in size up to the 60th segment (fig. 
9). Fig. 10 shows the segmented egg of the 62nd segment. The 
embryos develop double-contoured shells in the 90th segment and 
embryonic hooks in the 91st. 

Male reproductive organs in the 60th segment. — The three testes 
lie near the posterior margin of the segment close to the dorsal 
surface (fig. i). The vas deferens (figs. 2 and 3) leads forward to 
the base of the seminal vesicle. The seminal vesicle (fig. 4), a 
sausage-shaped thin-walled structure, runs from the midline to- 
ward the left side to become continuous with the cirrus pouch. The 
walls of the latter (fig. 5) are markedly thicker than those of the 
former and contain muscle fibres. A definite cirrus has not been 
recognised by the present writer. 

The seminal vesicle can first be observed to contain sperma- 
tozoa in the 44th segment. The testes are progressively^ com- 
pressed behind the 63rd segment and disappear about the 67th or 
68th. 

Fig. 1 1 represents the 57th segment of an undissected prepa- 
ration seen from the ventral surface. It shows the three testes, 
the vas deferens and seminal vesicle, the ovary, yolk-gland and 
receptaculum seminis. 

Literature referred to in the Text. 

1. Grassi. — Die Taenia nana und ihre medecinische Bedeutung. 

Centralbl. f. Bakt. und Parasitol., 1887, p. 97. 

2. Grassi and Calandruccio.— Weitere Nachrichten ueber Taenia 

nana. Ibid., 1887, p. 282. 

3. Grassi and RoveUi. — Embryologische Forschungen an Cesto- 

den. Ihid., 1889, p. 370. 

4. Leuckart. — Menschliche Parasiten. 

5. Linstow. — Ueber Taenia nana, Sieb. und T. murina, Duj. 

Jenaische Zeit. f. Naturwiss., 1896, p. 570. 

6. Miura and Yamasaki. — Ueber Taenia nana. Mitth. a. d. med. 

Fac. d. kais. Jap. Univ. Tokio, 1897, p. 239. 



298 Records of the Indian Museum. [Vol.. XII, 1916.] 

7. Moniez. — Sur le Taenia nana, parasite de I'homme. C. R. Ac. 

Set. Paris, 1888, p. 368. 

8. Meniez. — Traite de Parasitologie, Paris (1896). 

9. Railliet. — Traite de Zoolog. Med. et Agricole, Paris (1895). 
10. Ransom, B. H. — An account of the tapeworms of the genus 

Hymenolepis parasitic in man. U.S.A. Hyg. Lab. Bull., 
No. 18, 1904, Washington, D. C. 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE XXXIV. 

Hymenolepis nana, Siebold, 

P'lG. I. — Transverse section through the posterior end of the 60 th 
segment. X 400. 

,, 2. — Transverse section 24 microns anterior to the above. 
X400. 

,, 3. — Part of a transverse section 20 microns in front of sec- 
tion 2. X 1050. 

,, 4. — Transverse section 8 microns anterior to section 3. X 400. 

,, 5. — Transverse section microns anterior to section 4. X 400. 

,, 6. — Section of the ovary of the 50th segment. X 1360. 



Rec.Ind. Mus.,Vol.X!I, 1916. 



Plate XXKJV. 




Tecr- 



Rs.er ov. 



0V.60. 




d'-^^^^o. 



JV. 




0V.60- 



F.H.S.del. 



<o. 



HYMENOLEPIS NA NA, Siebold. 



A . Chowdhary,lith. 



EXPLANATION OF PIvATE XXXV. 

Hymenolepis nana^ Siebold. 

Ftg. 7. — Section of the ovary of the 53rd segment. X 1360. 

8.— Section of the ovary of the 54th segment. X 1360. 

9. — Section of the ovary of the 60th segment. X 1360. 

10. — Section of an embryo in the 62nd segment. X 1360. 

ri. — The 57th segment, stained with borax-carmine. x68o. 

12. — The 62nd and 63rd segments, stained with haematoxylin. 
X68o. 

Referoice letters. — cir. p. ^ cirrus pouch ; emb. = embryo ; gen. ap. ^ genital 
aperture ; I.e. = longitudinal canal ; n. =: nucleus ; ov. := ovary ; r.o.d. = recepta- 
culo-ovarian duct ; r.s. = receptaculum seminis ; s.v. =: seminal vesicle ; t. =:testis ; 
\ag. = vagina ; v.d. = vas deferens ; y.g. =: yolk-gland ; y.g'r. = yolk -granule. 



Rec. Ind. Mas., Voi.XII, 1916. 



Plate XXXV. 







y'^*'^ **''"" / 'f W 




G^a^o 







'^a-e ^i- 



<3 







e-nvb. 







T.H.i^.rh.l 



A Chowdhary.lith. 



HYMENOLEPlS N ANA , Siebold. 



/• 



XIX. ON A COLLECTION OF OLIGOCHAETA 

BELONGING TO THE INDIAN 

MUSEUM. 

By J. Stephenson, MB., D.Sc. (Loud.), Lieut.-Col. I. M.S., 
Professor of Zoology, Government College, Lahore. 

(Plates XXX-XXXIII). 



CONTENTS. 



Introduction 

Fam. Naididae ... 

Gne. Slavina 

, , Stylaria 

, , Pristina 

Aulophoriis 

Fam. Tubificidae 

Gen. Lini7iodrilus 

Fam. Moniligastridae 
Gen. Draivida 

Fam. Megascolecidae 
.Subfam. Megascolecinae 
Gen. Pontodrilus 
, , Megascolides 
,, Lamj)ito 
, , Perionyx 
Notoscolex 



Page 
299 

300 
301 
303 
30^ 
304 

307 
307 

307 
307 

3^1 

311 
311 

315 
317 

325 



Gen. Megascolex 
, , Pheretima 
Subfam. Octochaetinae 
Gen. Octochaetus 
,, Eiityfhoeus 
Subfam. Trig-astrinae 
Gen. Endichogaster 
, , Dichogaster 
Subfam. Ocnerodrilinae 
Gen. Ocnerodrilus 

Fam. Glossoscolecidae 
Subfam. Glossoscolecinae 

Gen. Po7itoscolex 
Subfam. Microchaetinae 
Gen. Gly-phidrihis 

Fam. Lumbricidae 
Gen. HelodriLus 



Page 

327 
334 

338 
342 

344 
346 

348 

349 

349 

349 

352 

352 



INTRODUCTION. 

The following paper describes a collection of Oligochaeta 
belonging to the Indian Museum, which has been accumulating for 
some time. Contained in the collection were a number of worms 
from Trivandrum and places in the vicinity, handed over to the 
Indian Museum by the authorities of the Trivandrum Museum. 
I have also added a few records of worms that have come into my 
hands from other sources during the preparation of the paper. 

Nineteen forms are described as new, either species or varie- 
ties ; and one or two more, which I have not named, may be so 
also. In addition I have given fairly complete descriptions of a 
few forms which have only been recorded and described once, and 
that, perhaps, some time ago. 

There is no addition of importance to our knowledge of the 
distribution of Indian earthworms; indeed this is hardly to be 



300 Records of the Indian Museum. [Vol. XII, 

expected, at any rate from regions represented in the present 
collection. The genus Megascolides appears again in its double 
distribution, on the one hand S. India, and on the other the E. 
Himalayas (c/. Stephenson, 23). The record of an apparently 
endemic species of Pheretima in S. India represents an extension 
of the proper range of the genus beyond the limits that have 
hitherto been assigned to it. New species of Perionyx from the 
E. Himalayas are in accordance with what was to be expected. 

The Glyphidfilits described below {G. tuherosus) is an interest- 
ing novelty ; the genus has, however, previously been recorded in 
India, and its bearing commented on by Michaelsen (14), The new 
species belongs distinctly to the Further India group, and is not in 
any way closely related to the African G. stuhlmanni . 

Artificial introduction must account for the presence of Dicho- 
gaster holaui (Mchlsn.) subsp. pahnicola (Eisen), described by Eisen 
from the Pacific Coast of America, in the compound of the Mu- 
seum. 

An interesting series of specimens of Aulophorus necessitates 
the fusion of two species, and it is possible that another will sooner 
or later have to be merged in A . furcatus. Some of the specimens 
were sexually mature, and I give below an account of the appear- 
ances ; so far as I know there has hitherto been no description of 
the genital organs of any species of Aulophorus 

My best thanks are due to Dr. Annandale for kindly allowing 
me the opportunity of examining this extensive collection. 

Fam. NAIDIDAE. 

The determination, from preserved material, of species belong- 
ing to the Naididae is liable to be very unsatisfactory. Though 
the family is particularly fascinating to study in the living condi- 
tion, spirit specimens are extraordinarih'^ troublesome ; and this is 
due to several causes. In the fiist place the setae, on the minute 
description of which so much depends, cannot be seen as a rule in 
their whole extent nor in one plane. One can easily, simply by 
allowing the water to evaporate, cause the coverslip to exercise 
sufficient pressure on a fresh specimen to flatten it completely ; 
but this does not answer with preserved material. The only way is 
to soften the specimen by treatment for some time with solution of 
potash ; and I once thought that this would prove a method of 
some value. But I now find that the potash distorts the setae ; 
and the more, the longer the specimens remain in the solution. 
According to my observations the setae may actually swell from a 
thickness of 3/- to as much as 7^ ; and although the length, position 
of nodulus, and even the general curve of the shaft are more or less 
maintained, the shape of the terminal prongs is quite unreliable in 
specimens so treated. 

Secondly, the preservation of the setae often leaves much to 
be desired. It may happen that throughout the whole length of a 



1916.] J. Stephenson : Indian Oligochaeta. 301 

specimen not a single dorsal seta is found perfect. In some cases 
nearly the whole of the dorsal setae may actually be broken off 
level with the body- wall, scarcely one being left projecting ; so that 
I was for a time misled, in the examination of one of the present 
specimens, into thinking that I had before me one of the genera 
which are without dorsal setae. But even where the ends of the 
setae of one single segment are alone damaged, it may be difficult or 
impossible to discriminate, for example, such forms as PnsHna 
longiseta from the other species of its genus. 

Thirdly, there is frequently more than one species represented 
in a limited amount of material ; and there is naturally the liability 
to confusion, especially if some of the specimens are fragmentary. 
Confusion may easily result if, in order to get a complete description, 
one specimen is used for the dorsal, another for the anterior ven- 
tral, and a third for the posterior ventral setae, according as they 
happen to be well shown in one or other specimen ; additional 
specimens have frequently to be taken for a description of the 
process of budding, or perhaps for the internal organs. It is prac- 
ticall)' impossible ever to write a complete description from a single 
specimen. 

I thus spent much time over a tube of eight small worms 
from Bhim Tal. Besides two specimens that I can say nothing 
definite about, there was one specimen of a Nais without eyes ; 
three of a Slavina which I describe shortly below, but which I do 
not feel justified in naming; and two of a Stylaria which seems to 
to me to require specific distinction. 

Gen. Slavina. 
Slavina sp 

(Plate XXX, fig. i). 

Bhim Tal, 4450ft., Kumaon, W. Himalayas, 2 — io-v-1911 {S. W. Kemp). 
Three specimens, one considerably damaged. 

Length 5-5"5 mm., diameter about "25 ram. Segments 47 or 48, 
with a small undifferentiated zone at the hinder end. No zone of 
budding. A considerable amount of debris adherent to the surface. 

Prostomium blunt. No eyespots. 

The anterior ventral setae are in length 135/^, in thickness 
3A'. The proximal prong of the fork is almost equal in length to 
the distal, but is twice as thick, and this on the whole is much the 
more massive of the two ; the distal prong is slightly claw-like. 
The curve of the shaft at its proximal end is slight ; the nodulus 
is proximal to the middle point of the shaft, the relation between 
the segments of the shaft proximal and distal to the nodulus 
respectively being 2 : 3 or 3 : 5. There may be up to four setae 
per bundle (fig. i). 

Behind the first few segments the ventral setae are not very 
different from those just described. The length is rather less, 125/i, 



302 Records of the Indian Museum. [Vol. XII, 

and the number in a bundle does not exceed three ; but I could 
not be certain of any other constant distinction. 

The dorsal setae begin in segment vi, and the bundles consist 
of one hair-seta and one needle. The hairs are equal to the diame- 
ter of the body in length, that is about 250M, and taper finely 
towards the tip ; none are specially lengthened, the one on segment 
vi being in fact rather shorter than that of vii. The needles are 
straight or perhaps slightly curved at the tip (this last character 
was only noted in a potash preparation), which is simple ; they 
taper to a point distally, and in length are from 50 to nearly 
6o/>. 

The bodywall contains pigment grains. 

Chloragogen cells begin in segment vi ; there was a stomachal 
dilatation in vii in one specimen, but none in another. 

The sensory papillae characteristic of S. appendiculata are 
present. They are flat-topped, of some considerable height, often 
higher than broad, truncated or cylindrical. They are segmentally 
arranged, several in each segment rather behind its middle, often 
about at the level of the setal bundles. 

Remarks. — If I could be certain that no specially elongated 
setae had dropped out from segment vi, this would be an extreme- 
ly well-defined species (I say 'dropped out' because so far as I 
could see there were no broken stumps on segment vi). It would, 
I think, be necessary to enlarge the scope of the genus Slavina, 
defining it by the sensory papillae and covering of foreign par- 
ticles, without reference to the elongated dorsal setae of vi. The 
papillae and the foreign particles are such peculiar characters that 
I cannot doubt the close relationship of this form to 5. appendi- 
culata ; and it would be pedantry to remove it to another genus 
(e.g. Nais) or to form a separate genus for its reception, merely 
because of the absence of specially long setae in a particular 
segment. 

Whether such setae have fallen out or not, I think these 
specimens are specifically distinct from S. appendiculata. Eyespots, 
which are absent here, are present in S. appendiculata ^ as a rule, 
at any rate, though perhaps not constantly ["Augenflecke meist 
vorhanden'' Michaelsen, 13 ; '' meist mit 2 Augen," Michaelsen (i) ; 
though Piguet (19) apparently allows no exception]. Is it not pos- 
sible that where eyespots are not present in 5. appendiculata it is 
because the individual — on this supposition the former posterior 
component of a chain — has separated before complete differentia- 
tion of the head region ? 

The stomachal dilatation, here in vii, is in viii in 5. appendi- 
culata according to Piguet, and it is in viii also in the specimens 
which I previousl}^ distinguished as S. punjabensis (20), but which 
Michaelsen (15) thinks are to be included under 5. appendiculata. 
The point of the dorsal needles is expanded at the tip in 5. appen- 
diculata (Piguet, 17). 

I think Michaelsen's statement (13) that the nodulus is distal 
in the ventral setae of S. appendiculata is probably a slip. 



1916.] J. Stephenson : Indian Oligochaeta. 303 

Gen. Stylaria. 
Stylaria kcmpi, sp. nov. 
(Plate XXX, fig. 2). 

Bhim Tal, 4450 ft., Kumaon, W. Himalayas, 2— io-v-1911 {S. W. 
Kemp). Two specimens. 

Length 2-25-4 '^^- No eyes. The prostomium forms a long 
narrow proboscis, in length equal to three times the diameter of 
the body. ^=25. 

The anterior ventral setae (fig. 2) (segments ii-v) are 120^ in 
length ; the terminal prongs are very unequal, the distal being 
large, the proximal very short. The nodulus is markedly proximal , 
the relation between proximal and distal portions of the shaft 
being i : 2. The distal curve of the seta is slight, the shaft being 
straight almost to its end; there is a slight bending forwards 
(in the direction towards which the prongs point) of the shaft at 
the nodulus. The number in a bundle is six or fewer. 

The posterior ventral setae (vi backwards) are 96-100/^- in 
length. The proximal prong is perhaps even more rudimentary 
than in the more anterior setae. The nodulus is still proximal, 
but not so markedly, the relation of the two parts of the shaft 
being 2:3. There is a slight ' kinking ' of the shaft at the nodulus 
here also. The number in a bundle is six or seven. 

The dorsal setae begin in segment vi. In each bundle there is 
a long hair 450-600A1, i.e. twice, three times, or even more than 
three times as long as the diameter of the body. In addition to 
the long hair there are others, shorter, equal in length to the 
diameter of the body or less, 200/* down to 120/* or less, even 80/^. 
A third component of the dorsal bundles exists in the form of two 
or three short, fine, and sharp needles, 40/^ in length; these do not 
appear to differ (except in length) from the shortest of the hairs, 
and may be merely a younger stage of the latter. It is possible 
also that the shorter hairs are merely a stage in the growth of the 
long hair; certainly they are much thinner, but then they naturally 
would be thinner if they represent only the distal portion of the 
fully formed long seta. There is apparently however only one 
long hair per bundle, which seems to mark it out as a. special 
structure. 

There are no septal glands. The gut may show either a 
sudden and considerable widening, or only a slight dilatation, in 
segments viii and ix, taking up both these segments. 

Remarks.— ^he chief difference between this species and the 
common 5. lacustris is the absence of eyes in the present case. 
This would seem to be an absolute distinction, since Piguet ( 17) 
states that he has seen hundreds of specimens of S. lactistris, but 
none without eyes. 

Piguet also describes a pigmented band encircling the gut 
(not always marked) in each segment after the sixth in S. lacustris ; 
I did not observe this in the present specimens. Michaelsen (13) 



304 Records of the Indian Museum. [Vol. XII, 

would limit the length of the hair setae of S. lacustris to, at most, 
a little more than the diameter of the body. 

The present specimens have no resemblance to S. lomondi^ 
Martin (8). 

Gen. Pristina. 
Pristina longiseta, Ehrbg. 

Aquarium, Elphinstone College, Bombay, 26-11-1913 {S. P. Agharkar). 
A few small specimens, along with some examples of AiilopJwrus 
(v. inf.). 

Pristina aequiseta, Bourne. 

Allahabad, Jumna River, io-i-1909 {A. D. Imms). A number of speci- 
mens. 

The specimens correspond with the Naidium tentaculatum of 
Piguet (17). This author has however (18) more lately united the 
Swiss species with the Pristina aequiseta of Bourne"(3). This is not 
accepted as beyond doubt by Michaelsen (13), who denotes Piguet's 
species as " P. tentaculata ., Piguet (? < P. aequiseta, Bourne)." 

Gen, Aulophorus. 

The collection under review contains specimens of Aulophorus 
from two localities, — a hot spring at Khed, and an aquarium in 
Elphinstone College, Bombay. Before assigning them to their 
position in the genus, I wish to make a few remarks on them, and 
to indicate the conclusions which it is possible to draw. 

In the specimens from Khed, besides the palps, there were 
three pairs of gills, all about the ^ame size, arising from within 
the margin of the funnel ; the dorsal margin of the funnel projected 
backwards slightly as an indented prominence, which was apparent- 
ly not gill-like (pi, xxx, fig. 3), In one specimen examined, how- 
ever, the dorsalmost of the three gills, though of large size, seemed 
to be continuous with the margin of the funnel, — to be itself the 
folded margin, in fact. It may be noted also that in the specimen 
from which the figure is taken the anterior gill on the right side is 
almost completely continuous with the margin of the funnel. 

In the specimens from Bombay, there are three pairs of gills, 
decreasing in size anteriorly, all separate from and within the 
margin of the anal funnel. The dorsal margin of the funnel has 
the form of a .straight edge, without projections, and is not gill- 
like (this was confirmed by sections). In one specimen however 
the dorsal Hp projects slightly, — according to my original notes, 
not unlike what is described for A. stephemoni, Mchlsn., where there 
is a gill-like projection on each side {v. inf.). 

Now let us consider the following series of forms : — 

(i) Aulophorus furcatus. — Two pairs of gills, with one pair of 
accessory gills, the latter being the dorso-lateral project- 
ing margin of the funnel ; when the funnel is fully 



19 16.] J. vStephenson : Indian Oligochaeta. 305 

expanded these appear merely as a fold of the margin 
(c/. Stephenson, 24). 

(2) The single specimen from Khed, referred to above, in which 

the anterior of the three pairs of gills are continuous 
with the margin of the funnel. 

(3) The specimen figured (fig. 3), where one of this pair is well 

within the margin. 

(4) The bulk of the specimens from Khed, with three pairs of 

true gills {i.e. all separate from and within the margin). 

(5) The Bombay specimens, similar to the last, the dorsal 

margin of the funnel not gill-like. 

(6) The single specimen from Bombay, with three pairs of 

gills, and projections of the dorsal margin of the funnel. 

{7) Aiilophorus stephensoni, described as having four pairs of 
gills, the anterior being the smallest, and forming only 
small projections on the margin; using the recognized 
terms, there are three pairs of true and one pair 
accessory gills. 

(8) Aulophoms palustris, Mchlsn. (n, 22) possessing four pairs 
of gills, all within the margin of the funnels. 

The series is not in absolute strictness one of increasing com- 
plexity throughout, since the Khed specimens (2, 3 and 4) have a 
somewhat projecting and indented dorsal margin, while this is 
quite straight in 5. But it does show in a striking manner the 
evolution of successive pairs of gills as differentiations of the 
margin of the anal funnel. 

I think it will be admitted that, with the exception of number 
8, the difference between the arrangements of the gills in successive 
terms is nowhere sufficient to allow us to separate the successive 
terms as different species or even varieties. No. 6 is almost identi- 
cal with 7; so is 5 with 6, and moreover comes from the same 
hmited batch of material ; both 3 and 6 must therefore be united 
with 7, The same reasoning obhges us to unite 2, 3 and 4 with i. 
But 5 is identical with 4, or even slightly less differentiated, since 
it wants the slight bifid projection of the dorsal margin of the fun- 
nel. From a consideration of the characters of the gills, then, we 
must conclude that Aulophorus furcatus, A. stephensoni, and all 
intermediate forms constitute a single species. 

I have said " from a consideration of the characters of the 
gills." The case would be different if we could differentiate the 
terms of the series by means of other structures, —for example the 
setae. I do not think we can. There is a considerable amount of 
variation to be met with amongst these forms. Recent descrip- 
tions of A.furcatus have been given by Piguet (19) and myself (24) ; 
Piguet finds a stomachal dilatation of the gut in segm. viii, which 
was absent in my specimens, and there are slight differences in 
the accounts of the setae. I found that in the Bombay specimens 
the prongs of the posterior ventral setae were as a rule equal in 
length, and the distal was about two-thirds as thick as the proximal ; 



3o6 Records of the Indian Museum. [Vol. XII, 

but sometimes the distal was shorter than the proximal, and ver\' 
fine. The position of the nodulus is known to vary in setae of the 
same bundle in A. siephensoni (21), as well as in A. furcatus (24). 

I have made a careful comparison of the setal and other 
characters of all the forms tabulated above ; and I have come to 
the conclusion that the differences, such as they are, cannot be 
used for purposes of discrimination between them. They are of 
the same order as the differences of which examples have just been 
given, and therefore fall within the limits of individual variability. 

As to the outlying term of the series, A. palustris, the setal and 
other characters here also allow of no distinction. The gap 
between it and its next neighbour, in regard to the gills, is how- 
ever fairly well marked, and it may therefore be allowed for the 
present to retain the distinction of a separate specific name. 
A. stephensoni ^ however, must disappear, and it is probable that 
A. palustris will eventuallj^ have to follow it. 

Aulophorus furcatus (Oken). 
(Plate XXX, fig. 3). 

Aquarium, Hlphinstone College, Bombay, 26-ii-it)i3 {^S. P. Agliarkai'). 
Several specimens. 

Hot spring at Khed, Poona Dist., 31-X-1912 {S. P. Ag/nirknr). Numer- 
ous specimens. 

Some of the specimens from Bombay were sexual, though 
perhaps not quite fuU}^ mature (apparent absence of female 
funnels). However, the individuals which were examined by 
sections had already copulated (presence of spermatozoa in the 
spermathecae). 

The clitellum extends from the anterior end of segment v 
back to the middle of vii {=2^). This region is not thickened, 
and is not distinguishable except m sections. I would not say 
that I definitely identified the testes and ovaries in segments v and 
vi respectively ; there may have been some confusion with the 
ganglion cells of the ventral nerve cord. 

Many developing spermatozoa were free in v. The spermsac, 
as usual a backwardly directed diverticulum of septum 5/6, extends 
back to the hinder end of vii. 

The male funnels are cup-shaped, near the middle line, close 
together, indeed apparently continuous with each other. They 
look upwards and backwards, and are placed in the mouth of the 
spermsac; thus, though morphologically in v, they appear at first 
sight to be in vi. The vas deferens runs on septum 5/6 downwards 
for a short distance, and enters the anterior face of the atrium. 

The atrium, in segment vi, is small, subspherical, and in the 
specimens examined contained ripe spermatozoa. Its wall is com- 
paratively thin ; its lining epithelium is cubical, and there is no 
covering of prominent peritoneal cells. The ejaculatory duct is 
short and somewhat invaginated upwards into the atrium ; a thick 
cluster of cells surrounds it. The aperture is on segment vi. 



19 16,] J. Stephenson .■ Indian Oligochaeta. 307 

The ovisac extends backwards into segment ix ; as usual it 
encloses the spermsac. It was mostly occupied, in the specimens 
examined, by discrete yolk granules; a cluster of young ova was 
seen in segment viii, neither at the anterior nor the posterior end 
of the sac. The female funnel, oviduct, and aperture were not 
identified. 

The spermathecae are ovoid sacs, confined to segment v ; 
their long axis is mainly longitudinal, but directed somewhat 
downwards as well as backwards ; they take up nearly the whole 
length of the segment in a longitudinal direction. They are 
thin-walled and, in the examples investigated, contained sperma- 
tozoa and granular matter There is no prominent peritoneal 
investment. The duct leaves the ventral surface of the ampulla ; 
it is narrow, straight, and as long as the ampulla is high. Its 
lining epithelium is cubical. The aperture is near the anterior 
border of segment v. 

Fam. TUBIFICIDAE. 

Gen. Limnodrilus. 

Limnodrilus sp. 

Sona Sar Lake, Kashmir, 12500 ft., no date {H. S. Biou). A number 
of specimens. 

The worms showed the first stages in the development of the 
genital organs. Testes and ovaries were present, but the male 
ducts and spermathecae were very incomplete. The diagnosis of 
the genus is suggested by the fact that the dorsal setae are of the 
same type as the ventral. 

Fam. MONIUGASTRIDAE. 

Gen. Drawida. 

Drawida jalpaigurensis, sp. nov 

(Plate XXX, figs. 4, 5). 

Mud at edge of R. Tista, Jalpaiguri, base of E, Himalayas, s-vi-igii 
(A^. Aiinaiidale and J. IV. Kemp). A single specimen, in a poor state of 
preservation. 

External Characters.— length about 23 mm. (the specimen was 
much curled up) ; diameter 2 mm. Colour dark grey, blotchy 
( ? due to state of preservation), the same on both surfaces ; the 
anterior end much lighter, almost white. Segments 106. 

Prostomium? prolobous, relatively large; first segment very 
short. 

Dorsal pores absent. 

Setae small very closely paired ; aa < be, dd=^ circumference 

Clitellum not certainly distinguishable, perhaps x-xiv =5. 



3o8 Records oj the Indian Museum. [Vol. XII, 

The male apertures are on prominent oval papillae, with their 
long axis transversely disposed in furrow 10/ ii. The papillae ob- 
literate the furrow where they lie, and extend in a transverse direc- 
tion inwards to the line of setae b, outwards not much more than 
halfway from b to c\ in a longitudinal direction they take up half 
the length of segment xi, and nearly half of x. The apertures 
themselves lie between the lines b and c, but nearer to b. 

The female apertures were not seen. 

The spermathecal apertures are in furrow 7/8, between b and c, 
but nearer to c. 

There is a pair of genital papillae anteriorl}^ on segment vii. 
These are flat-topped and circular, with their anterior margin 
touching furrow 6/7, they are rather internal to the spermathecal 
apertures, and therefore their centres are about midwa}'^ between 
b and c. 

Internal Anatomy. — Septa 5/6, 6/7, 7/8, 8/9 are all considerably 
thickened, 9/10 is very thin, and so are the rest. Septa lo/ii and 
11/12, in fact, seemed to be defective; no ovarian chamber had 
been formed and these septa were not recognizable at all dorsal to 
the gut. But they seem to be present in the ventral part of their 
segments, and a fringe on one of them perhaps represents the 
ovary. 

The gizzards are four in number, in segments xii-xv, that in 
xii being smaller than the rest. These gizzards are bands of 
muscular gut which are separated from each other by thinner and 
quite soft bands of gut-wall ; the bands of one kind are about 
equal in breadth (antero-posteriorly) to those of the other kind. 

The last heart is in segment ix. 

The testis-sacs are large, subovoid in shape, attached to 
septum 9/10, but wholly dependent into segment x, being attached 
indeed onlj^ by a slender neck. The sac of the right side was much 
posterior to that of the left, being displaced backwards by a bulging 
of the alimentary tube on that side. The vas deferens runs from 
the lower and anterior end of the testis-sac downwards, and joins 
the anterior end of the prostate a little to the inner side of its 
longitudinal axis ; its course is relatively short, since though wavy 
it is otherwise straight. 

The prostate of the right side, in the single specimen which 
came under examination, was vertically flattened, with a generally 
circular outline and small marginal lobulation. On the left side it 
was much more elongated, and bent on itself with the convexity 
looking outwards ; the ental (remote from external aperture) end 
was posterior, thicker than the ectal portion, and markedly lobu- 
lated, — more so than the ectal part of the gland ; the vas deferens 
here passes from the anterior end along the outer border to end at 
the middle of the outer surface (fig. 4). 

All that can be said of the ovaries and ovarian chamber has 
been noted when describing the septa. 

The spermathecae, in segment vii, are large ovoid sacs full of 
white flocculent matter, which touch each other in the middle line. 



1916.] J. vStephb:nson .• hidian Oli^ochaeia. 309 

The duct passes downwards behind septum 7/8, and in its course 
presents a number of coils ; it then pierces the septum close to the 
body wall, and immediately joins the posterior face of the atrium. 
The atrium here appears as a simple projection, sessile on the 
body wall ; but from it, rather towards its inner side, there arises a 
stalked sac, in shape a much elongated ovoid, which rises vertically 
upwards. The stalk of the sac is about half as thick and half to a 
third as long as the sac proper. Both atrial swelling and stalked 
sac are completely contained within segment vii (fig. 5). 

Remarks. — In the presence of the free sac just described the 
present species resembles D. travancorensis, Mchlsn. (14) ; from 
which however it is distinguished by the setal relations, the charac- 
ters of the male apertures, the situation of the spermathecal aper- 
tures, and the relation of the testis-sac to the septum. 

Drawida robusta (Bourne) f. typica. 

Jungle, Coonoor 6000 ft., Nilgiris, June, 1912 \Capt. Seyvioiir Se'd'ell, 
I. M.S.). A single specimen. 

External Characters. — lyength 136 mm. ; diameter 6 mm. 
Colour a blotchy brownish grey, lighter at both ends. Body dorso- 
ventrally depressed behind the anterior region ; there are indica- 
tions of the demarcation of dorsal, ventral, and lateral areas, as in 
a number of other Moniligastrids {e.g. Drawida ghatensis, Monili- 
gaster deshayesi var. gravelyi, of. 25). Segments 176. 

Prostomium prolobous ; segments i and ii very narrow. 

Dorsal pores absent. 

On segments iii-xviii there are a number of minute white 
papillae arranged in a ring round the segment, and looking like 
the papillae on which setae are implanted in Perichaetine forms, 
though they are not quite as regular as these. They are situated 
in line with the setae in each segment ; they may be met with 
also behind segment xviii. Similar papillae occur in other Moni- 
ligastrids also {of. description of the two species just mentioned), 
and it would be worth while investigating them histologically in a 
well preserved specimen; they are not improbably sensory in 
nature. 

The setae are very minute, and very closel3" paired ; aa > be ; 
dd is distinctly more than half the circumference. No ventral 
setae are distinguishable in segment ii ; lateral setae in this seg- 
ment could be seen only on the right side. 

Nephridiopores are in the line cd', there is no alternation in 
position. 

No clitellum was distinguishable. 

The male apertures are conspicuous slits with tumid lips in 
furrow 10/ 1 1 ; the middle point of each aperture is between the lines 
of the ventral and lateral setae, slightly nearer the latter. 

The female apertures were doubtfully identified as a slight 
whitening of furrow 11/12, in the lines of the ventral setae. 



310 Records of the Indian Museum. [Vor,. XIT, 

The sperraathecal apertures appear on separating the Hps of 
furrow yjS as sHts a little below the level of setae e. 

Internal Anatomy . — Septum 5/6 (the first) is slightly, 6/7 moder- 
ately, 7/8 and 8/9 considerably thickened. 

There are four gizzards, in segments xii-xv. 

The last heart is in segment ix. 

The meganephridia are of the usual type in the famil3^ 

The testis-sacs are large, subovoid, asymmetrical. The left 
projected into both ix and x, but more forwards into ix, where in 
this specimen it reached septum 8/9 ; it is not constricted by the 
septum 9/10 on which it is suspended. The right projected back- 
wards only, reaching and bulging back septum lo/ii. 

The vas deferens forms a closely packed coil in front of 9/10; 
if unravelled it would form a tube of considerable length. Its first 
portion is very fine. 

On opening the testis-sac and shelling out the contents the 
thin transparent sac-wall shows a slight but well-defined circular 
opacit}^ around the commencement of the vas deferens ; this thicken- 
ing represents the funnel. The testis is a small round mass 
attached to the wall of the sac just in front of the funnel. Both 
funnel and testis were anterior in position to the septum on the 
left side (this sac being the one opened). 

The prostate, in x, is a white ovoid mass attached to the 
parietes by a narrower base. The junction of the vas deferens 
was not seen distinctly ; but the vas seems to go under the perito- 
neum and some muscular strands in the last part of its course, 
and to join the base of the prostate at the outer and anterior side 
of the gland. Exceptionally numerous and definite muscular bands 
radiate outwards and backwards from the base of the prostate to 
the bodywall. 

The ovarian chamber, limited as usual by septa lo/ii and 11/12, 
remains unopened in the dissection for opening and displaying the 
worm, i.e. these septa meet and fuse some distance beneath their 
combined attachment to the dorsal parietes. The chamber contains 
the nephridia, ovaries and oviducal funnels. The ovaries, not fully 
developed in the present specimen, appear each as a fringe on the 
anterior wall of the chamber, and arch upwards on each side 
towards the middle dorsal line. No egg-sacs were developed in the 
present specimen. 

The spermathecae present a pear-shaped ampulla, which 
narrows at its outer and lower end to form the duct. This latter 
forms a long coiled tube in segment viii, which passes downwards 
behind 7/8 to the junction of the septum with the parietes. Here it 
joins the atrium, which is partly buried in the bodywall, but when 
freed forms a finger-like, somewhat curved projecting lobe on each 
side of the septum. 

Remarks. — The original account of this species is by Bourne 
(2, 4). The above description is fairly complete, and adds a con- 
siderable number of details. 



1916,] J. Stephenson : Indian Oligochaeta. 311 

Fam. MEGASCOLECIDAE. 

Gen. Pontodrilus. 

Pontodrilus bcrmudcnsis, Bedd. f. cphippiger (Rosa). 

From a rotten palm tree lying in the water, Pamban, Ramnad Dist., 
2i-ii-iu3 (.y. ir. Kemp). Several specimens. 

Gen. Megascolides. 

Megascolidcs tcnmalai, Mchlsn. var. karakulamensis, var. nov. 

(Plate XXX, figs. 6, 7). 

Karakulam, 17-X-1911. Two specimens, both incomplete posteriorly. 

External Characters. — Length 70 mm. + ; breadth i-ii mm. 
Colour a nondescript medium grey, clitellum brownish yellow. 
Segments 93 +. 

Prostomium absent (or invisible). 

Dorsal pores small, the first in groove 4/5 (?). 

Setae in front of clitellum have the following relations : — taking 
the interval ab as the standard, aa=2ah {= 2lab near anterior 
end), bc-=2ab^ cd=i\ab. Behind the clitellum aa = 2-2\ab, 
bc = 2ab, cd^ i^iab or less. The seta d is above the lateral line of 
the body, dd being about J of the circumference. 

The clitellum extends ventr ally from xiv- 2xvii = 31, dorsally 
xiv-xvi = 3. A faint annulation is visible; ventral setae are not 
discoverable on these segments. 

The male pores, on segment xviii, are associated with a pair 
of irregularly ovoid elevations, longitudinally placed with the an- 
terior ends slightly converging. The posterior ends of these eleva- 
tions are narrower than the anterior ; the male apertures are pos- 
sibly on the inner margin of the elevation, in a slight indentation 
where the narrower passes into the broader part; if so, they would 
be in line with seta a. The anterior slightly converging ends of 
the elevations are thus within a ; in length the elevations take up 
about the length of the segment, but slightly transgress groove 
17/18 in front and fall short of 18/19 behind (fig. 6). 

The female pore or pores are contained within a circular 
whitish patch on xiv, just behind the groove 13/14. The extent of 
the patch is less than the interval aa. 

The spermathecal apertures, small, in 7/8 and 8/9, are in line 
with b. 

Internal Anatomy. — Septum 4/5 is very thin, 5/6 thin, 6/7 
somewhat thickened, 7/8-10/11 moderately thickened, 11/12 on- 
wards somewhat thickened even as far as 18/19. 

The gizzard is in segment v, of moderate size, and rather soft. 
There are no calcareous glands. The intestine begins in xvii. 

The last heart is in xiii. 

Beginning from the hinder end of the pharynx, the micro- 
nephridia form large tufts in each segment, but there are none on 



312 Records of the Indian Museum [Vol. XII, 

the bodj^wall in front of the ditellum, — none visible, at any rate. 
Behind the clitellum the disposition is quite different ; the micro- 
nephridia, few and relatively large, are attached to the bodywall- 
towards the posterior end of the (incomplete) specimen there were 
about half a dozen nephridia of moderate size on each side in each 
segment, but no meganephridium. 

Testes and funnels are free, in segments x and xi. The vesi- 
culae seminales are two pairs, in xi and xii, on the anterior wall 
of each segment. Those in xi are very small , those in xii of moder- 
ate size. 

The prostates are one pair, long, fiat and strap-like, with slightly 
lobed margins, and extending backwards to segment xxi ; they 
look at first sight like small flattened masses of coagulum on the 
bodywall. The portions of the gland in successive segments are 
connected only by narrow necks ; but each of the quadrangular 
expansions which occupy the individual segments appeared to be 
lobular in constitution, and the margins are slightly indented. 
One gland was sectioned ; not more than one duct was visible, 
which was seen to give off, in one section, a small side branch; but 
even the single central duct becomes difficult or impossible of 
distinction some distance down the series. 

The prostatic duct begins near the anterior inner angle of the 
gland, and forms an oval loop, passing first inwards and backwards, 
then curving round outwards and forwards ; it is of equal diameter 
throughout and is confined to segment xviii. No penial setae were 
discovered. 

Ovaries were present in xiii ; funnels were not identified. 
A couple of small structures in xiv may perhaps represent ovisacs ; 
but the specimen was too small to allow a definite determination 
of their nature. 

The spermathecae (fig. 7) are pyriform sacs, narrowing to form 
a duct which is not marked off in any way from the lower part of 
the ampulla. A single diverticulum arises from the middle of the 
length of the duct; it is narrow and club-shaped, with a simple 
cavity, and in length is about two-fifths as long as duct and ampulla 
together. No spermatophores were seen ; and there were no glan- 
dular appendages round the duct. 

Remarks. — The differences of the above specimens from the 
typical form (Michaelsen, 14) entitle it to rank as a variety. The 
distinguishing marks are the prostomium, the setal intervals, the 
smaller extent of the clitellum, the position of the gizzard (here in 
v), and the absence of glands round the spermatheca. I think the 
nephridia are also likely to form a distinction ; Michaelsen could 
not see any ; they must therefore be very small in the typical 
form, or else Michaelsen 's specimens must have been in a very bad 
state of preservation, — which however is not stated to have been the 
case. Even in a badly preserved specimen I think nephridia of the 
size of those I found would probably have been visible. Michael- 
sen puts the male pores on the swellings in xviii; they seemed to 



1916,] J. Stephenson .• Indian Oligochaeta. 313 

me to be probably at the inner margin, but I will not say that they 
might not be at the outer margin with almost equal probability. 

Megascolides oneilli, Stephenson var. monorchis, var. nov. 

Darjiling to Soom, 7000-5000 ft., E. Himalayas, i4-vi-i9i4 (F. //. 
Gravely). A single specimen. 

External Characters. — Length 115 mm., maximum breadth 
5 mm. Colour pale buff, somewhat mottled on dorsal surface and 
towards posterior end. Segments 188; segments iv, v biannular, 
the rest triannular as far as some distance behind the male pores. 

Prostomium prolobous. 

Dorsal pores very obvious, from groove 9/10 onwards. 

Setae very small ^ paired. Behind the clitellum the relations, 
expressed in terms of the distance ah, are: — aa = 3-4a&, 6c is 
rather less than aa and = 3a&, cd = zab or rather less further back. 
In front of the clitellum rt:(2 is rather less, > or = zab, be = or < ^ab, 
cd as before = 2rt6. The interval dd==% circumference, or nearly. 

The clitellum was indistinguishable. 

The male pores are on segment xvii. Ventrally this segment 
presents a somewhat thickened pad, extending laterally rather 
beyond c, and taking up the whole length of the segment in an 
anteroposterior direction. The apertures are minute, between the 
lines of setae a and b. Secondary furrows are present in front of 
and behind the apertures, somewhat as in the typical form. Setae 
cd of xvii are present, but ab are absent. The anterior two-thirds 
of the ventral surface of xviii is also thickened, and the ventral 
setae are absent. 

The female apertures are not visible. 

The spermathecal apertures are in line with a, in grooves 6/7 
and ■yj^. 

Internal Anatomy. — Septum 5/6 is thin, 6/7-9/10 are much 
strengthened, lo/ii and 11/12 somewhat strengthened, and the next 
few decreasingly thinner. 

The gizzard is large and barrel-shaped, in segment vi, and is 
preceded by a soft dilated crop-like portion of the oesophagus. 
Well-marked calcareous glands are present in segments viii-xii; 
each is kidney-shaped, well set off from the gut, and contained 
within the curve of the corresponding heart. The intestine begins 
in xiv; there is a conspicuous typhlosole of a curious appearance, 
characterized by possessing numerous closely set transverse folds 
along each side. 

The last heart is in xii. 

There are large tufts of micronephridia by the side of the crop, 
but in general the nephridia in the anterior part of the body are 
minute and scattered. At the posterior end of the bod}'- the 
arrangement is different ; meganephridia are present in addition 
to micronephridia, as very slender and much elongated loops. 
The meganephridia are not seen in any number on the bodywall 
on pinning out the animal, since for the most part they remain 



314 Records of the Indian Museum. [Vol. XII, 

attached to the intestine. They have an attachment dorsally to 
the dorsal vessel, by a connective tissue strand, at about the 
middle of each segment, and extend downwards nearly as far as 
the level of seta h. 

Testes and funnels are free in segment ix, and in this segment 
only. Vesiculae seminales are present in segments x, xi and xii, 
on the anterior wall of each segment ; those of x were of moderate 
size, those of xi and xii were small and obviously not fully de- 
veloped, — indeed the one on the left side of xii was wanting. 

The prostate, in the single specimen, was small, tongue-like, 
and contained mostly in segment xix ; passing forwards it becomes 
the considerably coiled duct, which remains soft and non-muscular, 
and, keeping the same diameter all the way, ends in segment xvii. 
The vas deferens joins the gland at its base, where it passes into 
the duct. From the number of strands which radiate from the 
neighbourhood of the male aperture to the bodywall this region 
appears to be very retractile. 

Small ovaries were present on both sides. 

The spermathecae were small and not fully developed. They 
were situated in segments vii and viii, opening in 6/7 and 7/8, near 
the middle line, and appeared as small ovoid sacs, narrowing to a 
duct, which is scarcely separately distinguishable ; there is a single 
diverticulum which arises from the base of the ampulla, is cylin- 
drical in shape, and about half to two-thirds as long as the 
ampulla. 

No penial setae were discoverable. 

Remarks.— 'X:\ie remarkable shifting forwards of the organs in 
the anterior part of the body occurs here as in the type form 
(23). The chief differences which mark the present example as 
distinct are the extra pair of calcareous glands in segment viii, 
and of seminal vesicles in xii, and especially the presence of only a 
single pair of testes and funnels. Less important are the differ- 
ences in the setal arrangement, and in the extent of the dorsal 
pores. 

Through the kindness of Dr. Annandale I was able to re-ex- 
amine the type form of the species, in order to compare the condi- 
tion of the nephridia in the hinder part of the body. Here also I 
found meganephridia of considerable size, which lie, in the dissec- 
tion, not on the bodywall but on the intestine ; the nephridia are 
attached to the intestine in the immediate neighbourhood of the 
dorsal vessel; each consists of a series of loops, of which the dorsal 
are the largest ; and thus each nephridium as a whole is stouter 
dorsally and thins towards its ventral end. 

I also took the opportunity of re-examimng the type form as 
regards the prostates. I found that they were much lobulated, 
indeed cut up to an extreme degree, and nothing could be further 
from the tubular type. The condition is illustrated in pi. xxx, 
fig. 8. The difference between the variety and the type form is 
probably due to the earlier stage of development of the latter. 



1916.] J. Stephenson : Indian Oligochaeta. 315 

Gen. Lampito. 
Lampito mauritii, Kinb. 

Trivandrum ; miineroiis specimens taken on a number wf occasions. 

Cape Comorin, 7-xi-ioii. Several specimens. 

Ihider stones by tank, Museum compound, Calcutta, <j and ii-iv-iQio 

(F. H. Gravely). 
In mud in flower-pots, Ross I., .\ndamans, 26-iii-l(jil ( (". Paiva). .\ 

single specimen. 
Silif?uri, base of E. Himalayas, ;^ — 4-\i-i()ii (.V. Aniiaiidale Rnd S. IV. 

Kemp). Three specimens. 

Lampito dubius, sp. nov. 
(Plate xxxi, fig. 9). 

Kurseong-, K. Himala\-as, 4700 ft., 14 — i-/-\v-igii (N. Aiinamialf')- .\ 
single specimen. 

External Characters. — Length io6 mm., but originally more, 
as the hinder end was regenerated. Breadth 6 mm. Colour slate 
blue, slightly lighter on the ventral surface. Segments 94 plus 40 
regenerated, and in addition a small undifferentiated zone. 

Prostomium epilobous \; the sides of the tongue, wide apart 
anteriorly, almost meet behind at an obtuse angle. 

Dorsal pores from 6/7. 

The setae are disposed in rings, the dorsal break being small, 
about equal to 2yz, irregular, or sometimes absent. There is no 
ventral break, and the ventral setae are smaller and closer together 
than the dorsal The numbers counted were as follows: — 91/v, 
S8/ix, 69 xii, ca. 8i/xix, 82/xxvi. 

No clitellum was visible. 

The male pores are on segment xviii. The midventral portion 
of the segment is pale iti colour and presents a short transverse 
groove just behind the line of the setae, the setae being on the 
sloping anterior wall of the groove. In the groove are two small 
slits, the male pores, close to the midventral line. A few setae in 
the neighbourhood of the slits appeared to be lost, but none seemed 
to be transformed. 

The female aperture is represented by a slight transverse 
depression midventrally on xiv, a little in front of the line of the 
setaCj but no opening was distinct!}^ visible. 

The spermathecal apertures were indistinct, close together, 
but slightly wider apart than the male pores, in 7/8 and 8/9. They 
seemed not to have pierced through to the exterior. 

Internal Anatomy. — Septum 4/5 is present, but thin; 5/6, 6/y 
and y/8 are slightly strengthened, 8/9 is moderateh' thickened, 
and all succeeding septa down to 15/16 are considerabh' strength- 
ened. After this the thickness gradually diminishes, but some 
strengthening is visible as far as 28/29. 

The gizzard is large and firm, and takes up two segments, v 
and vi. There are firm lateral swellings of the oesophagus in seg- 
ments X to xiii, which when opened present on their inner walls 



3i6 Records of the Indian MusetDii. [Vol. XII, 

very numerous and closely set villous processes ; the swelling and 
the processes are both less marked in xiv, but there seems to be no 
definite posterior limit to this portion of the canal. The intestine 
begins in xix ; the typhlosole in the middle of the body is low , and 
presents a number of parallel transverse folds. 
The last heart is in xiii. 

The condition of the nephridia is interesting. On the body- 
wall, in each of the most anterior segments, are a number of tufts, 
one on each side, each component of a tuft being a fairly stout 
coiled micronephridial tube; there are about half a dozen such 
tubes in each tuft, and all these loops or coils converge and are 
united at the base of the tuft into what may be compared to the 
main trunk of a bush. In segment vi, on the right side, the tuft 
is large, and two loops are considerably longer than the others ; in 
vii the five loops or coils are of various sizes, from long to short; 
in viii and ix two are much longer than the rest ; but this is not 
so noticeable in the immediately succeeding segments. In xii, of 
three coils, two are long and one short ; in xiii there is a diminishing 
series of four. After this there is constantly one long loop stretch- 
ing outwards on the body wall. In addition, there are a large 
number of very minute micronephridia scattered further out on the 
bodywall; but not in the most anterior segments, — that is not in 
front of about segment x. 

In the middle region of the body there is a large meganephri- 
dium and a number of small micronephridia on each side in each 
segment. The latter form a transverse line about the middle of 
each segment. Each meganephridium(fig. 9) begins as a cluster of 
funnels, about half a dozen in number, underneath the intestine ; 
they are situated just in front of the posterior septum of the seg- 
ment. The tubes leading from the funnels pierce the septum in a 
bunch, and become continuous with the main portion of the nephri- 
dium, which is situated as usual in the segment behind the funnels. 
This portion presents, besides a mass of coiled tubes, the course of 
which I did not minutely investigate, two considerable loops, 
which stretch outwards on the bodywall; one stout and conspi- 
cuous, and another, which at first escaped my observation, incon- 
spicuous and very thin, but very long ; the parallel limbs of which 
this longer loop is constituted extend very far out on the bodywall, 
almost to the mid-dorsal line. 

The funnels, examined microscopically, show a deeply inden- 
ted lip on one side of the margin ; cilia were seen in various parts 
of the tube, but I could not distinguish any on the funnel ; a mass 
of disintegrating cells was seen to surround the apertures of the 
funnels. 

Testes and fujinels are free in segments x and xi. 
Vesiculae seminales are present in segments xi and xii. In xi 
there is a single sac, attached to the anterior septum of the seg- 
ment, large, flocculent looking and not lobed, extending quite 
undivided across the middle line. In xii the sac is small, similar 
in position, and also continuous across the middle line. 



1916.] J. Stephenson : Indian Oligochaeta. 317 

The prostate, situated posterior to the nephridium in xviii, is 
extraordinarily small. It appears as a small white mass fra3'ed 
out into a number of finger-like processes laterally ; it is almost 
sessile on the bodywall, and no separate duct is visible. 

Ovaries and funnels are present in the usual situation, A curved 
ridge on each side on the posterior face of 13/14, embracing with 
its fellow the alimentary tube, may possibly represent an ovisac. 

No trace of spermathecae was visible internally. 

Remarks. — There is a possibility that the specimen is imma- 
ture. The absence of spermathecae (though there is an indication 
of their apertures), small size of prostate, and absence of clitellum 
seem to point to this ; the rest of the sexual apparatus however is 
well developed, and small size or absence of prostate is not very 
infrequent {e.g. the common Pheretima heterochaeta, Michlsn.). 
The condition of the nephridia however decided me to describe the 
specimen; one might say that the meganephridia are here caught 
in the act of dividing up. The mixed mega- and micronephridial 
condition which results is certainly not that of the known species of 
Lampito however, and the systematic position of the specimen is a 
little puzzling. 

Gen. Perionyx. 
Perionyx excavatus, E. Perrier. 

Almora, 5500 ft., Kumaon, i6-ix-i9ii (C. Paivd). Several specimens. 

Under stones or mud by tank, Museum compound, Calcutta, S-iv-igio 
(F. H. Gravely). Three specimens. 

In leaves of water plants, Sahasar Dhara, near Dehra Dun, ()-iv-igi4 
(^Pi'of. S. R. Kashyap). A single specimen. 

Painsur, above Lohba, 8000 ft., 23-iv-i9i4 (Co/. Tytler). Several speci- 
mens. (Doubtful, immature). 

Perionyx pulvinatus, sp. nov. 
(Plate xxxi, figs. 10, 11). 

Near Ghoom, 7000 ft., R. Himalayas, i6-iv-i9ii (.V. Aimaiida/e). Six 
specimens. 

External Characters. — Length 57 mm., maximum breadth 3-5 
mm. Dorsally the colour is in general a deep brown with darker 
median stripe, but is lighter over and in front of the genital region ; 
ventral surface pale. Body dorso-ventrally compressed, except the 
most anterior segments ; ventral surface flat, indeed rather concave ; 
posterior end tapering. Segments 126. 

Prostomium well-marked, epilobous |, tongue delimited b}^ a 
groove behind; prostomium and first two segments marked by a 
median dorsal groove. 

Dorsal pores exist from furrow 5/6. 

The setal ring shows a small and irregular dorsal break ; 
zz= 2-^yz. The neighbouring intersetal distances are also irregular. 
The ring is unbroken ventrally ; and the setae are much closer 
ventrally than dorsally. All the setae are small and difficult to 
count. The following numbers were met with: 56/ vi, 54/ix, 50/xii, 



3i8 Records of the Indian Museum. [Vol. XII, 

48/xix ; but these figures must not be considered as anything more 
than approximate. 

The clitellum covers xiii — |-xix = 6|. It is rather indefinite, 
and setae and dorsal pores are present. 

A conspicuous depression on the ventral surface, rectangular 
with rounded corners, takes up the whole length of segment xviii 
and neighbouring parts of xvii and xix; the breadth of the depres- 
sion is slightly greater than its length. Within this depression 
are two large oval cushions, touching each other in the middle line, 
and taking up nearh- the whole of the depression, — but in such a 
way as to leave deep transverse hollows in front and behind, while 
laterall}' their margins merge into the margin of the general depres- 
sion. The apertures are anterior and internal to the middle point 
of each cushion, and hence are in front of the line of setae of the 
segment (fig. 10). In one specimen the cushions were not situated 
in a depression ; in another the cushions were fused with each other 
in the middle line, and there was considerable tumidity around 
the apertures. 

The female aperture is single, and is situated on segment xiv 
between the line of the setae and the anterior limiting furrow. 

The spermathecal apertures are large, in 7/8 and 8/9, about 
one-half of the circumference apart, and opposite the tenth seta on 
each side. 

Internal Anatomy. — No septa are notabl}^ thickened; yj^ is 
perhaps slightly so. 

There is a very rudimentary gizzard in segment vi ; its walls 
are soft and not much thickened. The oesophagus is rather bulged, 
and its walls have apparently a lamellate structure, in segments ix 
and X. The intestine begins in xv. 

The last heart is in xii. 

The excretory S3^stem is meganephric. 

Testes and funnels are free in segments x and xi. 

The seminal vesicle in segment xi is a single large lobed mass 
in the middle line. The second vesicle is double in segment xii, 
but the pair of which it is composed fuse together incompletely 
in xiii, and completely' in xiv and xv, so that in these segments 
there is a single median vesicle only. 

The prostates are of moderate size, lobed, of the Pheretima 
type, and occupying on each side segments xviii and xix. The 
duct is stout, and beginning at the middle of the gland forms a 
loop with its convexity forwards. The duct is bound down to the 
bodywall by a number of muscular bands ; its first part is the 
broadest. 

The ovaries and funnels have the usual situation. 

The spermathecae (fig. 11) present an irregularly shaped am- 
pulla with a nodular surface ; its form might very roughly be called 
pyramidal. The duct is extraordinarily wide, — almost as wide as 
the ampulla ; in length it is also equal to the ampulla. There is 
no diverticulum. 

There are no penial setae. 



igr6.] J. vStephenson : Indian Oligochaeta. 319 

Perionyx pincerna, sp. nov. 
(Plate xxxi, figs. 12, 13). 

Near Ghoom, /ooo ft., I'-. Himalayas, i6-i\'- kji i (.V. .l////^/;/(/r(/('). A 
single specimen. 

External Characters. — Length 45 mm.; breadth 3 mm. Colour 
a light brownish grey. Body cylindrical, not flattened ; posterior 
end blunt and squarish, so much so as to give the idea of mutila- 
tion without time for subsequent repair. Segments ^^. 

The prostomium is epilobous i, the short tongue being broad 
and delimited by a groove behind. 

The first dorsal pore is in furrow 4/5. 

The setae are in rings ; the dorsal break is small and irregu- 
lar,— on the average less than 2yz. In front of the clitellum the 
ventral break is absent, or small and irregular ; behind the cUtellum 
it is small and variable. The setae are set closer together ventral- 
ly than dorsally, but there is no apparent dift'erence in the size of 
the ventral and dorsal setae, nor any marked difference in different 
parts of the body. The numbers counted were : 47/v, 57/ix, 60 xii, 
50/xx. 

No clitellum was distinguishable. 

On segment xviii is a transversely elongated oval ventral depres- 
sion, the margin of which being more sunk than the centre consti- 
tutes a moat around the central area ; surrounding the whole is a 
very thick whitish lip, which, though not much raised above the 
general surface, extends as far as to embrace the posterior half of 
xvii and the anterior half of xix. The actual apertures are scarce- 
ly visible, but may be in line with setae c ox d. A few penial setae 
are visible as blackened points in the neighbourhood of the male 
pores (fig. 12). 

The female aperture is not visible. 

The spermathecal apertures are small slits near the middle 
line, about one-tenth of the circumference apart, in furrows 6/7 
and 7/8. 

Internal Anatomy .—Se-^to. 5/6 to 9/10 are slightly thickened. 
The gizzard, in segment v, is in some degree rudimentary; it 
is of moderate size, but its walls are quite soft and thin. The 
intestine begins in xviii. 

The last heart is in segment xii. 

The meganephridia show no alternation in the position of their 
pores. 

Testes and funnels are free in segments x and xi. 
The vesiculae seminales, in xi and xii, are single in each seg- 
ment, situated in the middle line, semicircular in shape, and arch- 
ing over the dorsal vessel and intestine. They are attached to the 
anterior septum of the respective segments. 

The prostates are small lobed masses confined to segment xviii. 
The duct is narrow, of the same diameter throughout, not shining 
nor resistant, and passes, with a slight wavy course, almost directly 
inwards. 



320 Records of the Indian Museum. [Vol. XII. 

The ovaries and their funnels have the usual position. 

The spermathecae, in vii and viii, are simple oval sacs sessile 
by one of their extremities on the body wall, and without distin- 
guishable duct. 

The penial setae (fig. 13) are of very simple form. The tip is 
blunt and very slightly curved, and the proximal end of the shaft 
is bent at an obtuse angle ; otherwise the shaft is straight. There 
are faint sculpturings near the tip, — fine points, forming irregular 
and much broken circles round the terminal portion of the shaft; 
there are about a dozen such circles in all. In length the setae 
are '63 mm., and in diameter at the middle of the shaft 24/^ . 

Remarks. — The species which the present form most resembles is 
Perionyx aborensis, Stephenson (23). Besides minor differences, the 
fusion of the vesiculae seminales, and the presence of penial setae 
in the present specimen, suffice to distinguish the two. 

Perionyx inornatus, sp. nov. 
(Plate xxxi, fig. 14). 

Sandakphu, Darjiling district, 12000 ft., V.. Himalayas, i4-iv-i9io 
{C. W. Beebe). A single specimen. 

External Characters. — Length 96 mm. ; breadth 5 mm. Colour 
yellowish brown. Segments 124, The specimen was not easy to 
examine, owing perhaps to the method of preservation, which 
besides contracting it had rendered it hard and brittle. 

Prostomium apparently proepilobous. 

Dorsal pores from furrow 6/7. 

The setal rings show no ventral break, nor any dorsal break 
in front of the genital region ; behind this, however, there is a small 
and irregular dorsal break. The setae are set closer together ven- 
trally than dorsally. The following numbers were counted : — 56/v, 
70/ix, 75/xii, 83/xix. 

No clitellum was distinguishable. 

There is no apparent modification of the skin over the region 
of the male apertures. On segment xviii there is present a median 
shallow depression, with shelving sides, oval in shape with its long 
axis transverse. The whole extent of the depression is about one- 
ninth of the circumference, and the small male apertures are on its 
sides, about in line with the setal interval de. 

The female apertures were not seen. 

The spermathecal pores are near the middle line in furrows 
6/7 and 7/8; the distance between them is about equal to that 
between the male pores. 

Internal Anatomy. — Septum 5/6 is thin, 6/7 and 7/8 slightlj''. 
8/9 and 9/10 moderately thickened, lo/ii, 11/12, and 12/13 again 
slightly thickened. 

The gizzard is in segment v, of squarish outline and consider- 
able size, but soft and with comparatively thin walls, i.e. in some 
degree rudimentary. The intestine begins in xiv. 

The last hearts are in xii. 



1916.J J. Stephenson : Indian Oligochaeta , 321 

The excretory system is meganephric. 

Testes and funnels are free in segments x and xi. 

The vesiculae seminales, in xi and xii, are single in each seg- 
ment, large and conspicuous, placed dorsally over the alimentary 
tube and dorsal vessel. 

The prostate, small and confined to segment xviii, is of the 
Pheretima type. The duct is soft, white, comparatively narrow 
and of the same diameter throughout; it has a straight course, 
passing transversely inwards. 

Ovaries and funnels have the usual situation. 

The spermathecae, in segments vii and viii, are simple small 
sacs of ovoid form. The duct is short and stout and not marked off 
from the ampulla. There is no diverticulum. 

The penial setae (fig. 14) are in length 92 mm., in thickness 
at the middle of the shaft 30|U . The point is blunt, the shaft is 
straight and without any proximal bend ; the tip is ornamented 
with about fourteen rows of very minute sculpturings. 

Remarks. — The present species shows a certain amount of 
similarity to the last, from which however it is distinguished by its 
greater size, more numerous setae, and the characters of the male 
genital area. The paucity of external markings is remarkable. 

Perionyx parvulus, sp. nov. 
(Plate xxxi, fig. 15). 

Near Ghoom, K. Himalayas, ca. 7000 ft., i6-iv-ic)ii [ N . Aiiiitinthile). 
\ single specimen. 

External Characters. — Length 23 mm. , maximum breadth 2 mm. 
Colour dorsally a light brown with slight purplish tinge, clitellum 
rather paler ; ventrally a pale grey. Segments 75. 

Prostomium relatively large and prominent, epilobous f . 

Dorsal pores from furrow 4/5. 

The setal rings show a small dorsal break, equal to or less than 
2VZ. The ventral break is very small, — little more than the ordinary 
distance between two setae. No setae are specially enlarged, and 
there are no considerable differences among the intersetal intervals. 
Xear the middle of the body the number is about 40 per segment. 

The clitellum, distinguishable only by its colour and only on 
the dorsal surface, extends over xiv — xvii. There is some modi- 
fication of segment xiii also. 

The male apertures, transverse and slit-like, are on segment 
xviii, -with their centres opposite the interval cd. The lips of the 
apertures have a slightly whiter appearance. The interval between 
the slits is rather greater than the length of each slit. The setae 
of xviii begin with / or g outside the region of the slits. 

The female aperture is single, between the setal row and the 
anterior margin of segment xiv. 

The spermathecal apertures are small, in 7/8 and 8/q ; six 
setae intervene, so that the distance between them is about equal 
to that between the male pores. 



322 Records of the Indian Mjiseum. [Vol. XII. 

Internal Anatomy. — No septa are notabh' thickened. 

A soft, small and very rudimentary gizzard is present in 
segment vi. The sides of the oesophagus are much swollen out in 
xiii, and to a less degree in xii; the swellings are not set off from 
the alimentary tube^ and their cavity is in free communication 
with the lumen. The intestine begins in xv. 

The last heart is in segment xii. 

The excretory system is meganephric. 

The male funnels are present in segments x and xi ; testes. 
present in xi, were not certainly identified in x. The vesiculae 
seminales depend from the anterior wall of their segments into xi 
and xii. They are large flocculent-looking masses, squarish and not 
lobed, each meeting its fellow dorsally in the middle line, "but not 
fusing there. 

The prostate is a compact-looking mass, confined to segment 
xviii and causing septum 17/18 to bulge forwards. Its inner face 
can be separated into lobes. The duct arises in a hilus, forms a 
small loop with its convexity upwards (in the position of the dis- 
section), and then passes inwards to its aperture; it is of the same 
diameter throughout and rather soft 

The ovaries and their funnels have the usual situation. 

The spermathecae, lying in segments viii and ix, are small 
and extremely simple in form ; they are cylindrical with a rounded 
internal end, without any distinct duct, and without diverticulum. 

The penial setae (fig. 15) are small, in length '525 mm., and 
in breadth at the middle of the shaft 14/' . The shaft is straight 
and tapers towards the tip; the tip itself however is blunt and 
squarish. Near the tip are a number of relatively stout short spines, 
arranged in rings, of which there are about five. 



Perionyx fulvus, sp. nov. 
(Plate xxxi, fig. 16). 

Calcutta, 3-\iii-i()i() {R. D. Banevjee). A single specimen, incomplete 
posteriorly. 

External Characters. — Length 106 mm. (+), diameter 375mm. 
Colour yellowish brown, almost unpigmented, anterior segments 
with a darker, slightly bluish tinge dorsally; a median dark dorsal 
stripe along whole length. vSegments 139 (-h). 

Prostomium epilobous |, tongue partly cut off behind by an 
inturning of the sides. 

Dorsal pores from groove 4/5 ; an indication of a rudimen- 
tary pore in 3/4. 

The setal rmg presents a small and rather irregular dorsal 
break, on an average less than 2.yz. There is an irregular small 
ventral break in the anterior part of the body (less than 2ah), but 
none at all posteriorly. The setae are closer together ventrally than 
dorsally. The following numbers were counted: — •48/v, 55/iX' 
52/xii, 53/xix, 55/xxv. 



1916.] J. Stephenson : Indian Oligochaeta. 323 

The clitellum, not very distinct^ extends over xiii- xvii = 5 ; 
the body is rather narrower here. 

The male apertures, not very close together on segment xviii, 
are situated on small porophores which are slightly depressed and 
turned inwards towards each other, so that the apertures point (in 
the normal position) inwards as well as downwards. The papillae 
are separated from each other by a small median groove, and are 
bounded in front and behind b3^ transverse grooves, but are not 
delimited from the general surface at their outer border. 

The female pore is a conspicuous round aperture on segment 
xiv, midway between the row of setae and the anterior border of 
the segment. 

The spermathecal apertures, in furrows yjS and 8/9, are close 
together near the middle line. The grooves are obliterated at the 
situation of the pores, which are level with the general surface. 

Internal Anatomy. — Septum 4/5 is extremely thin, 5/6 and 6/7 
are thin, 7/8 and 8/9 slightly thickened, and the rest thin. 

The gizzard, in segment vi, is small, rather square in shape, 
soft, and rudimentary. Moderately large kidney-shaped calcareous 
glands are present in xiii , in xi and xii there are lateral enlarge- 
ments of the oesophagus which are not set off from the tube. The 
intestine begins in xvi. 

The last heart is in xii. 

The excretory system consists of meganephridia, the openings 
of which do not alternate. 

Testes and large male funnels are free in segments x and xi. 
Vesiculae seminales are present in xi and xii ; the sacs in xi are 
large and meet dorsally but do not unite ; those in xii are united 
and prolonged backwards through xiii. 

The prostates, in segment xviii, are rather small, compact and 
squarish masses, not cut up into lobes. The soft short duct lies 
curled up in a hollow on the inner and under side of the gland ; it 
becomes broader towards its ectal end. 

The ovaries and funnels occupy- the usual situation. 

The spermathecae are considerable sacs, of an irregular ovoid 
shape, with, in cases, small wart-like projections. The duct is short 
and stout, and there is no diverticulum. 

The penial setae (fig. 16) are in length -83 mm., in breadth 20/x 
at the middle of the shaft, and i8/x nearer the distal end. The shaft 
is almost straight, the tip slightly curved and pointed. The distal 
end is ornamented with about twelve rings of narrow, comparative- 
ly long spines. 

Perionyx sp. 
(Plate xxxi, figs. 17, 18). 

Peiadenija, Ceylon, iO-vi-igio (£\ S. J.). A single specimen. 

External Characters. — Length 8 mm., maximum diameter i mm. 
According to a note in the tube, the ground colour of the living 
worm was whitish, and each segment was girdled with a broad 



324 Records of the Indian Mtiseum. [Vol. XII, 

dark reddish-brown and black band. In the preserved condition 
the ground colour was still whitish, and the bands were of a 
dark purple ; in width the bands were the equivalent of more than 
the middle third of each segment ; they were less distinct ventrally, 
especially behind the genital region. The setae were indicated 
by whitish points in the dark rings. Segments 30, but the speci- 
men had previously been mutilated at the hinder end. 

Prostomium epilobous I, with curved posterior border. 

The dorsal pores begin from furrow 4/5. 

The setae are in unbroken rings ; I was unable to count them, 
but found them set closer together ventrally than dorsally. 

No clitellum was visible, nor was it, later, distinguishable in 
sections. 

The male genital area, on segment xviii, is a clean-cut oval 
with its longer axis transverse, which occupies the whole length of 
the segment. The apertures appear as black points on considerable 
rounded papillae which project upwards slightly from the floor of 
the oval depression; these papillae are almost confluent, being 
divided from each other only by a slight longitudinal depression in 
the middle line. The depth of the oval is therefore greatest in two 
transverse lines within its anterior and posterior boundaries respec- 
tively (fig. 17). 

The female aperture was not distinguishable. 

Spermathecal apertures were made out near the middle line 
as minute white points in the furrows from 5/6 to 8/9 ; but sections 
subsequently showed them to be seven pairs in all, beginning in 2/3. 

Internal A natotny. — This was investigated by means of sections. 

The pigment of the bodywall appears as an opaque darkish 
green in the stained sections ; it is disposed as a ring in each seg- 
ment in the deeper portion of the circular muscular coat, and alto- 
gether superficial to the longitudinal fibres. 

The first septum is 4/5 ; that and the following one are thin ; 
the rest are all of the same thickness, none being specially thick- 
ened. 

The septal gland cells extend back into segment vii . 

There is no trace of a gizzard. The oesophagus extends from 
the pharynx to the intestine as a straight, almost perfectly cylin- 
drical tube, without segmental swellings, widening very gently 
however in xii, xiii, and xiv before suddenly dilating to form the 
intestine in segment xv. The internal surface of the oesophagus 
is somewhat more papillose in xiv than elsewhere, without however 
forming lamelliform folds or calcareous glands. 

The last heart is in xii. 

The excretory system is meganephridial. 

Testes and funnels are free in segments x and xi, enveloped 
in masses of developing spermatozoa which fill up the whole of the 
two segments. 

The vesiculae seminales, in xii, attached to the posterior face 
of septum 11/ 12, are paired, and come near but do not touch each 
other in the middorsal line. 



1916.J J. vStephenson : Indian OHgochaeta. 325 

The prostates, compact in form, are confined to xviii. The 
duct is stout and very muscular, and passes from the middle of the 
gland downwards and then inwards. 

The ovaries and their funnels have the usual position. 

The spermathecae are seven pairs, the first opening in furrow 
2/3 and the last in 8/g. The ampulla is ovoid, the first of the 
series is '2 mm. long, and some subsequent ones '25 mm. The 
duct is short and comparatively stout, — half the length and half 
the thickness of the ampulla. The diverticula are either one or 
two in number, globular, in diameter -06 to "12 mm., and attached 
by short stalks to the junction of ampulla and duct. 

The penial setae (fig. 18), in length "27 mm. or possibly as 
much as "3 mm., and in breadth yii near the base, are absolutely 
straight and rod-like; and taper very gradually along the shaft, 
more suddenly at the tip, which is bluntly pointed. There is an 
ornamentation of fine spines at the distal end. 

Remarks. — This is a particularly well-marked species, by rea- 
son of the bands of pigment and the extraordinarily large number 
of spermathecae. It is possible however that it has already been 
described. Michaelsen (10) has given an account of a form which 
he has named P. ceylonensis, also from Peradeniya in Ceylon. 
Unfortunately I am for the present unable to obtain his paper, so 
that I am quite in the dark as to whether this species is or is not 
the same as his. Should it ultimately turn out to be the same, a 
second and independent description of this interesting little worm 
will perhaps not be altogether without value. 



Gen. Notoscolex, 

Notoscolex graveiyi, sp. nov. 

(Plate xxxi, fig. 19; pi. xxxii, fig. 20). 

I.ady Blake's Drive, Kandy, Ceylon, 22-v-igi^ { F. H. Gravel}'). A 
single specimen. 

External Characters. — Length 29 mm., maximum breadth i'75 
mm. Colour a dirty brown (white in life according to a note 
accompan^^ing the specimen). vSegments no, 

Prostomium epilobous |, tongue broad, cut off behind. 

The first dorsal pore apparently in furrow 9/10. 

The setae are widely paired. In the anterior part of the body 
ah=\aa = \hc==cd^ and dd is equal to half the circumference. 
Posteriorly ah and cd are a little greater relatively to aa and he, 
and cd may be rather greater than ah. At the hinder end aa = 
J)C==cd or almost so {i.e. the lateral setae are no longer paired) ; 
ah is about f aa, and dd considerably less than half the circumfer- 
ence. 

The clitellum extends over xiv-xvi = 3. 

The male apertures are situated on segment xviii in line with 
setae h, on slightly raised transversely oval areas which extend 



326 Records of the Indian Museum. [Vol. XII, 

inwards to ^, but not outwards to a corresponding distance out- 
side h. 

The female apertures are apparently paired, in a minute 
whitish groove equal in length to the interval aa and situated just 
in front of the level of the setae. 

The spermathecal apertures were not seen externall5^ From 
the dissection they were found to lie in furrows yl^ and 8/9, a lit- 
tle ventral to the line of setae c. 

A pair of small papillae on segment xvii in front of the male 
pores may quite possibly be artefacts. 

Internal Anatomy. — Septum 5/6 is apparently present, but very 
thin; 67 is very thin; y/8 is still thin, though thicker; 8/9 is 
slightly strengthened, 9/10 moderately so; a number of succeeding 
segments are moderately or slightly strengthened, as far as 13/14, 
but it is difficult to be precise as regards these degrees in so small 
a worm. 

The gizzard, in segment vi, is large, barrel-shaped, and firm. 
The oesophagus is much bulged lateralh^ in xv and xvi, but there 
are no separate calcareous glands. The intestine begins in xix. 

The last hearts are in xiii. 

The excretor^T- system shows a mixed condition. In and in 
front of the prostatic segment, as far as segment x, bushy tufts of 
micronephridia, of relatively considerable length, are implanted 
ventrally in each segment, one on each side by the side of the ali- 
mentary canal ; in ix the tuft is implanted on the anterior face of 
9/10 or at least is adherent to it; in viii none were seen; but there 
are very large tufts on each side behind the pharynx, on a level 
with the anterior end of the gizzard. 

Behind the prostate mega- and micronephridia coexist. The 
first meganephridium is in xx ; thence backwards the megane- 
phridia are prominent structures, appearing as elongated loops in 
each segment, and so continue through and behind the middle of 
the body. Towards the posterior end they become less con- 
spicuous, and the micronephridia, which have accompanied them 
throughout, become more numerous and relatively more prom- 
inent. About twenty segments from the end the meganephri- 
dium becomes indistinguishable, or only doubtfully distinguishable, 
from the micronephridia. The nephridia cover the bodywall on 
each side from the level of b to above d, or rather more than one- 
third of the half- circumference. 

The small testes and moderate-sized funnels are free in seg- 
ments X and xi. 

The vesiculae seminales are small, racemose in form, and 
situated on the anterior septa of segments xi and xii. 

The prostate is small and confined to segment xviii ; it is com- 
pact in form and only slightly lobed on the surface; possibly, in 
the single specimen available, it is not fully developed. The duct 
begins in the middle of the gland as from a hilus; it is compara- 
tively long, shining, with a rather bent or wavy course, and passes 
transversely inwards. 



1916.] J. Stephenson : Indian Oligochaeta. 327 

The ovaries are large, in xiii. A pair of relatively consider- 
able ovisacs are present in xiv, attached to septum 13/14 along a 
curved line on each side of the alimentar}^ canal. 

The spermathecae (fig. 19) are two pairs, which pierce the 
body wall in a rather lateral position in 7/8 and 8/9. The ampulla 
is elongated, of a rather irregular ovoid shape, and narrowing with- 
out any distinct demarcation to become the duct, half as long and 
half as wide as the ampulla itself. The diverticulum is implanted 
at the junction of ampulla and duct, and has the form of an ovoid 
sac with a stalk as long as itself. The whole diverticulum includ- 
ing the stalk is about one-third the length of the main ampulla. 

The penial setae (fig. 20) are in length '9 mm., and in thick- 
ness 7 /< ; thus they are relatively very narrow. They have a 
gently undulating shape, but the proximal half is fairh' straight, 
the curves being mainly in the distal portion. The tip is pointed ; 
the end may taper gradually, or there may be a slight bulbous 
swelling just above the extreme point. There is no ornamenta- 
tion, but there is a curious series of minor irregularities all along 
the distal portion of the shaft, which are illustrated in fig. 20. 

Remarks. — Noioscolex is a micronephridial genus; the presence 
of a species with a mixture of mega- and micronephridia is how- 
ever perhaps not more anomalous than the presence of similar 
species in the genus Megascolex {cf. descriptions of several such 
species in Stephenson, 25). Perionyx also, a typically megane- 
phridial genus, contains a species with the mixed condition (P. 
annulatus, Stephenson, 23). The present species is near A'', sarasin- 
orum, of which it may even be the direct ancestor. I at first 
thought of putting it in Woodwardia, — a genus w-ith perichaetine 
setae, meganephridia, and Pheretinia prostates ; and it may indeed 
represent a connecting link between the two genera. It is usual, 
however, to derive Notoscolex from Megascolides by increased 
breaking up of the nephridia and development of a lobed prostate 
{Fheretima--£>rost'Ate) out of the tubular prostate of the latter 
genus. But there is no reason, as far as I can see, why some of 
the genera of Megascolecinae should not be polyphyletic ; — e.g. 
M'e^ascolcx itself may be derived both from Notoscolex by the mul- 
tiplication of setae, and from Lajnpito (and so ultimately, perhaps, 
from the Perionychella forms of Perionyx) by the breaking up of 
the nephridia ; such a double origin appears to be hinted at by 
Michaelsen (12). 

It may be remarked that if Lampito is a valid genus, separated 
from its allies on account of the mixed mega- and micronephridial 
condition, the present species might also lay some claim to generic 
distinction. 

Gen, Megascolex. 

Megascolex ratus, Cogn. 

Trivandrum, 191 1. A number of specimens on several different occasions. 

A few notes may be added to supplement the original descrip- 
tion (5) 



328 Records of the Indian Museum. [Vol. XII . 

The prostomium was proepilobous in some specimens. 

In front of the clitellum the ventral break in the setal ring 
was small, equal to 2ah or ^ah, and the ventral setae were numer- 
ous and closely set at slightly irregular intervals ; the dorsal break 
was irregular, and both it and the intersetal distances on the dor- 
sal side were greater than the corresponding intervals on the ven- 
tral side. Behind the clitellum aa is very regular, and equal ap- 
proximately to 2ab ; the dorsal break is about the same size as 
the ventral, and is also pretty regular. 

The clitellum includes ^ of xiii and f of xix = 6. Dorsally 
the greater part of xiii is discoloured, and xix is not included ven- 
trally, — indeed in the midventral region xvii and xviii also want 
the purple colour which distinguishes the clitellum in general. 
Setae are distinguishable ventrally in xvi, xvii and xix, and less 
easily in xv and xiv; there are two or three on xviii between the 
male pores. 

The most conspicuous genital markings were a pair of concave 
sucker-like discs, circular and sharply delimited, in 16/17, the in- 
terval between them being equal to the diameter of one of the 
discs. In addition there were smaller eye-like markings in 19/20, 
20/21 and 21/22, circular, flat, not raised, with dark centre and 
lighter periphery ; they may be surrounded by a slight groove. 
The interval between those of a pair is small, = aa only; in an 
antero-posterior direction they take up the posterior and anterior 
thirds of the segments bordering the grooves on which they lie. 
In some specimens these markings were only present on 19/20 and 
20/21. In one specimen there were similar markings on 14/15 and 
15 16 also. 

The large firm barrel-shaped gizzard I find to be in segment v, 
though the septa in this region are not easy to distinguish. The 
first well-marked septum is 4/5, a stout sheet of tissue behind the 
pharynx, convex backwards; 7/8 is also thickened ; and between 
the two there is certainly one extremely tenuous septum (6/7), as 
well as, in front of this, an extremely fine membrane around the 
gizzard, — a delicate bag in which the gizzard is contained, which 
is probably septum 5/6. 

Mcgascolcx konkancnsis, Fedarb. 

Trivandrum, 191 1 ; numerous specimens taken on several occasions. 

Out of a large number of examples a very few showed the full 
development of the male genital field. This I should describe as 
follows: — 

On the flattened ventral surface of segment xviii are two 
large shallow depressions, oval in shape, with clean-cut margins 
and slightly prominent lips ; the lips approach each other in the 
midventral line, where they are separated only by a median groove. 
The breadth of segment xviii is increased by the presence of these 
depressions; they encroach slightly on xix, and more on xvii; the 
axis of the oval is a little oblique, being directed forwards and 



T9i6.] J. Stephenson : Indian Oligochaeta. 329 

inwards. Across each oval passes a transverse ridge, at a level be- 
tween a third and a quarter of the length of the oval from its pos- 
terior margin ; the floor of the oval is thus formed of two declivi- 
ties, an anterior longer and gently sloping, and a posterior shorter 
and steeper. The male aperture is probably on the ridge. 

Megascolex cingulatus (Schmarda). 
(Plate xxxii, fig. 21). 

Lady Blake's Drive, Kandy, Ceylon, 29-v-i9i() (F. H. Gravelv). A 
single specimen. 

In length the specimen was 53 mm., originally more, the hin- 
der end having been mutilated and showing signs of commencing 
regeneration ; the diameter was 3 mm. 

Calcareous glands were present in segments x — xiii. 

Seminal vesicles were present in segments x, xi and xii ; there 
were none in xiii, and those in xii were not grape-like. 

The spermathecae (fig. 21) are characteristic. The ampulla 
is soft, slightly lobed and somewhat pyramidal in shape. The 
duct consists of two portions, an ectal (nearer the external aper- 
ture) which is exceptionally stout, flattened, and slightly constric- 
ted below its middle; and an ental, a shining cylindrical tube, 
lying underneath the ampulla in the natural position of the parts ; 
it begins at the rounded apex of the ampulla , after emerging from 
underneath which it dilates to form the much stouter ectal portion 
already mentioned. There is a single diverticulum, implanted 
above the constriction in the ectal portion of the tube; this is 
elongated, pear-shaped or club-shaped, and extends from its attach- 
ment to the base of the ampulla, against which it rests ; the diver- 
ticulum, like the duct, is firm, shining and muscular. From it 
near its attachment originate two small stalked secondary diver- 
ticula, with one, three or four minute grape-like chambers each. 

Megascolex insignis, Mchlsn. 
(Plate xxxii, fig. 22). 

Karakulani, 17-X-1911. Several specimens. 

The dorsal pores begin from furrow 5/6 or 6/7. 

The ventral break in the setal ring was found to be equal to 
^ah. The number of setae counted was:— ca. 34/vi, ca. 34/viii, 
38/xii, 34/xix, 29/xxii. 

The male apertures are contained in a pair of slightly sunken 
darker coloured conical depressions; surrounding the depressions 
on the outer sides are a pair of slightly raised whitish semicircular 
curved lines. 

The gizzard appeared to me to be in segment vi. 

Ovisacs were present in segment xiv. 



330 Records of the Indian Museum. [Vol. XII, 

The spermatheca (fig. 22) differs in some respects from the 
original description by Michaelsen (14) ; a comparison of the figures 
will render description unnecessary. 

Megascolex trivandranus, sp. nov. 
(Plate xx.xii, figs. 25, 26). 
Trivandrum, igii. Two specimens, taken at different times. 

External Characters. — Length 72 mm., diameter 2 mm. Colour 
in general an equable grey, with darker middorsal line ; clitellum 
a reddish brown. Segments 136. 

Prostomium epilobous \ to |. 

Dorsal pores from furrow 5/6. 

The dorsal break in the setal rings is equal to 2 - ■yyz. Ven- 
trally aa^='^ah, or it may be ^ah behind the clitellum. The inter- 
setal distances increase towards the sides, ah being distinctly the 
smallest. The numbers were : — 36/v, 43/ix, 41/xii, 34/xix, and 
29 in the middle of the body. 

The clitellum extends over approximately xiv — xvii = 4, or 
ventrally |xiii — |xvii. Setae are easily distinguishable and dorsal 
pores are well marked. 

The male apertures are borne on small porophores on segment 
xviii; these are situated in he or c, at the ends of a transversely 
elongated depression, which, deepest at its ends, is slightly curved 
with its convexity forwards. The depression is surrounded by a 
well marked whitish lip all round; in longitudinal extent the 
depression with its lips takes up the whole of segment xviii (fig. 
25). In the second specimen the transverse depression was prac- 
tically divided into two, its median portion being but little below 
the level of the general surface. 

The female area is a white oval patch on xiv, in which the 
actual apertures could not be discriminated. In breadth it extends 
over the interval 5&, in length it takes up not quite the whole of 
the length of the segment. 

The sperm athecal apertures, in furrows j/^ and 8/9, are situa- 
ted on minute papillae just external to the line of setae h. 

Internal Anatomy.—SQ^td. 4/5, 5/6, 6/7 are very thin; 7/8 is 
slightly thickened, the succeeding ones up to 11/12 moderately, 
thence up to 15/16 progressively less so. 

The gizzard, of which one- third is contained in segment v and 
the rest in vi, is subspherical with a flattened anterior end. The 
oesophagus is segmentally swollen and dark in colour {i.e. vascular) 
in segments ix-xiv. The intestine begins in xvi. 

The last heart is in xiii. 

Behind the clitellum the micronephridia are arranged in a 
transverse row or band, just behind the septum in each segment, 
which does not attain the middorsal region. In segments xiv to 
xvi the arrangement is similar, but the individual nephridia are 
very considerably larger, with much more numerous coils; in 



1916.I J. Stephenson : Indian Oligochaeta. 331 

xii the row is very short and consists of one or two large tufts 
only. In front of the clitellum there are no nephridia on the bod}'- 
wall; but in each segment by the side of the alimentary canal 
there is a considerable stalked tuft with numerous branches. The 
first tuft of the series is a large one connected with the hinder 
angle of the pharynx. 

The male funnels are free in segments x and xi ; testes were 
not identified. 

The seminal vesicles depend'from septa lo/ii and 11/12 into 
segments xi and xii. They are racemose and not large ; those in 
xii however are larger than the anterior pair. 

The prostates, small and confined to segment xviii, are of the 
Pheretima-type, and are made up of small closely compacted lob- 
ules. The relative^ stout duct passes transversely inwards; it is 
thinner at its ental end and gradually widens. 

The ovaries are in xiii, and in xiv there are small struc- 
tures which may be minute ovisacs, or possibly only nephridial 
tufts. 

The spermathecal ampulla is smooth, regularly ovoid^ and of 
an opaque white colour. The duct is relatively stout, half as 
broad and two-thirds as long as the ampulla. There is a very 
long diverticulum, two- thirds as long as ampulla and duct combined ; 
it is a coiled and twisted tube which takes origin from the ter- 
mination of the duct and at its free end is dilated into a small 
spherical chamber with a simple cavity (fig. 26). 

There are no penial setae. 

Megascolcx pentagonalis, sp. nov. 
(Plate xxxii, figs. 23, 24). 

Trivandrum, 24-vi-r9ii. A single specimen, incomplete posteriorly. 

External Characters. — Length 108 mm.-j-, diameter 3 mm. 
Colour a uniform medium grey. Segments 94-!- ; vii, viii and ix 
with three or four secondary annuli. 

The anterior end of the animal is truncated, not tapering; 
the prostoraium is seen on looking at the animal from the front ; 
it is small and triangular, the pointed posterior angle being direc- 
ted upwards. 

The first dorsal pore is in furrow 5/6. 

The ventral setal interval is equal to 2ab (in front of the 
clitellum), or 2^ab (behind it). The ventral setae are in fairly 
definite longitudinal lines ; those on viii and ix are remarkably 
small. The dorsal setae are not in definite lines, and the dorsal 
break is large ; thus it is 4— 5y^ in front of the clitellum, 6yz or 
even Syz posteriorly. The numbers were: — 14/v, i6/x, 6-}-8/xii, 
74-6/xix, 9-|-io/xxii, further back lo-f-io or io-f-12; at the pos- 
terior end of the (incomplete) specimen there were 32, all setae 
were at irregular intervals, and the dorsal break was much smaller, 
--=2yz only. 



332 Records of (lie Indian Museum. [Vol.. XII, 

The clitellum is not definitely limited; it appears to extend 
over xiv — :fXvii=3|-. 

On segment xviii is a thickened area, of the shape of an 
irregular pentagon with its base forwards and its lateral angles 
produced outwards. This area is surrounded by a moat-like chan- 
nel, deepest posteriorly where the margin of the pentagon over- 
hangs; the pentagon itself is marked by a J.-shaped depression. 
The male apertures are under the overhanging posterior borders of 
the area, near its lateral angles, and in line with setae b. The 
transverse extent of the thickened area w^th the surrounding moat 
is equal to the interval cc; in a longitudinal direction it occupies 
the anterior two-thirds of segment xviii (fig. 23). 

The female apertures are perhaps represented by two small 
whitish dots in line with the setae of xiv in such a position that 
^$ = 5 $ = $a. 

The spermathecal apertures, in y/S and 8/9, are small pores 
in line with setae h. 

Internal Anatomy. — The first distinguishable septum is 5/6, 
which is thin; septa 6/7 — lo/ii are considerably thickened, the 
next few moderately so, after which they are diminishingly thick- 
ened as far back as 16/17 • the rest are thin. 

The gizzard, in segment v, is of fair size, firm and barrel- 
shaped. There are no calcareous glands. The intestine begins in 
xvi. 

The last heart is in segment xiii. 

The micronephridia are present as large tufts in the anterior 
segments from v to the clitellum, especially in from v to ix ; there 
are few or none on the body wall in front of the clitellum, but the 
inner surface of the parietes in segments xiv, xv, xvi and part of 
xvii is thickly covered with micronephridia ventrally and laterally. 
They are scattered and fairly numerous on the bodywall behind 
the prostate. 

Testes and funnels are free in x and xi. 

Vesiculae seminales are attached to the anterior walls of seg- 
ments xi and xii. Those in xi are small, those in xii moderate in 
size ; all are much cut up into small lobes. 

The prostates, long, flat and much divided up, lie on the 
bodywall in segments xvii to xx. The duct, with a sinuous or 
curled course, passes backwards and inwards from its origin on the 
inner margin of the gland at about the level of septum 17/18 ; its 
first part is the thinnest. 

The ovaries and their funnels have the usual situation. 

The spermathecae (fig. 24) are of a general sausage-shaped 
form, bent inwards towards their free (posterior) end, and slightly 
dilated at the extremity. The duct is short and moderately stout, 
half as thick as the ampulla. There is a single diverticulum, 
which arises from the duct close to its junction with the ampulla; 
it is of an elongated club shape, and more than half as long as the 
ampulla, reaching about as far as the bend in the latter. 

There are no penial setae. 



19 16.] J. vStkphicnson : Indian Oligochaeta. 333 

Remarks. — The present species seems to be related to M. 
travancorensis, Mchlsn. (14). But though the characters of the 
male area in the latter are variable, it does not seem possible to 
reduce the condition in the present specimen to the same type. 
One has here, as so often, to regret that the form is represented 
by only a single specimen. 

Megascolex pumilio, sp. nov. 

Trivandrum, ii-ii-1911. Two mature specimens, one immalure, and 
one fragment. 

External Characters. — lycngth 54 mm., maximum diameter 
\\ mm. Colour an equable grey, clitellum a marked reddish 
brown. Segments 109. 

Prostomium epilobous ^, tongue not delimited behind. 

Dorsal pores begin from furrow 5/6. 

For the greater part of the body there are twelve setae per 
segment. In front of the clitellum these are arranged in three 
pairs, the intervals he and de being rather greater than ah, cd and 
ef. The setae a are in regular rows, one on each side, and the 
same is the case with z ; the setae h form regular rows for the 
greater part of the length of the body, but c does so only in the 
anterior part ; the row y is irregular. The dorsal interval is con- 
siderable; in front of the clitellum zz (or ff) is equal to about ^yz 
(or ef), behind the clitellum to about -^yz. 

The number twelve persists till near the hinder end of the 
body; but there 16, 17 and 18 are found, irregularly arranged 
and not in pairs. 

The clitellum extends over segments xiv — xvi=3 ; the situa- 
tion of the setae is shown by white dots on the brown-red back- 
ground. 

The ventral surface of segment xviii shows a transversely 
elongated thickened patch, extending from beyond the line h on 
the one side to a corresponding point on the other. The male 
apertures are only faintly indicated in or just outside h. 

A small white patch, circular and midventral, in the line of 
the setae of xiv, represents the female aperture. 

The spermathecal apertures are faintly indicated in the fur- 
rows 7/8 and 8/9, in line with setae h. 

Internal Anatomy. — The anterior portion of the animal was 
cut into sections of I2y/ diameter. 

Septum 4/5 is very thin, 5/6 thin, 6/7 somewhat thickened, 
7/8, 8/9 and 9/10 considerably so; from lo/ii to 14/15 they be- 
come progressively thinner again. 

The gizzard, in segment v, is of moderate size and thick- 
walled. The oesophagus, narrow in segment vi, is bulged seg- 
mentally from vii to xiv ; there are no separate calcareous glands, 
but the epithelium is raised into villous processes or folds which 
extend inwards towards the centre of the lumen. The intestine 
begins in xv. 



334 Records of the Indian Museum. [Vol. XII, 

The last heart is apparently in xiii. 

The excretory system is micronephridial ; the very large tufts 
in segment v, by the side of the anterior end of the gizzard, are a 
conspicuous feature. 

Testes and funnels are free in x and xi. Seminal vesicles are 
present in ix and xii. 

The prostates, of the Pheretima-type, are relatively large, occu- 
pying segments xviii to xxi. They are most bulky in xviii and xix , 
thinner and dorsally situated in xx and xxi. The duct is rela- 
tively stout and sharply curved 

The ovaries and their funnels are in segment xiii ; the ovi- 
ducts unite before debouching externally. 

The sperraathecae, in segments viii and ix, have an ovoid 
ampulla of relatively considerable size. The duct is not sharply 
demarcated; it is as long as and nearly half as thick as the am- 
pulla, and has a slightly curved course, forwards or forwards and 
then downwards to the exterior. The single diverticulum is club- 
shaped; it originates from the upper end of the duct just below 
the ampulla; it is about half as broad as the ampulla, and reaches 
dorsalwards nearly as far as the latter. 

Gen. Phcretima. 
Phcrctima posthuma (L. Vaill.). 

Lucknow, 15-X-1910 (Ml-/. Mohsin Khan). Se\eral specimens. 
Same place, 1916 (Z,. Hainwrinjaii Das). Several specimens. 
Kalka, base of Simla Hills, 2400 ft., ig-vii-igii {Museum Collector). 

Several specimens. 
Under stones or mud by tank. Museum compound, Calcutta, S-iv-igio 

(F. H. Gravely). A single specimen. 

Pheretima heterochaeta (Mchlsn.). 

Darjiling district, 1000-3000 ft., v-vi-igi2. A number of specimeiiis. 

(CarmicJiael Collection). 
Darjiling, ca. 6000 ft., iv-1914. Several specimens (Same Collection). 
Singla, Darjiling district, 1500 ft., v-igi4. Tfiree specimens. {Same 

Collection). 
Darjiling, ca. 7000 ft., i2-vi-i9i4 (F. H. Gravely). A single specimen 
Soom, Darjiling district, 400t)-500o ft., i6-vi-i9i4 (F. H. Gravely). 

Three specimens. 
Kurseong, 4700 ft., E. Himalayas, 25-iii-i9io (F. H. Gravely). A 

single specimen. 
Same place, 14^ 17-iv- 191 1 {X . Annandale). Two specimens. 

Pheretima hawayana (Rosa) f. typica. 

Kurseong, 4500 ft., R. Himalayas, 26-iii-i9io {F. H. Gravely). Two 
specimens. 

Pheretima houlleti (E. Perr.). 

Rawal Pindi, N. Punjab, \ii-1915 {L. Raghunath Saliai). Two speci- 
mens. 



1916.] J. Stephenson : Indian Oligochaeta. 335 

Phcrctima bicincta (E. Perr.). 

Trivandruin, i-vii-1911. A sing-le specimen. 

Pheretima fcae (Rosa). 

Kawkareik, .Xmhersl District, Lower Burma, 19 — 20-xi-iyii (f. H. 
Gravely). A single specimen. 

A glandular collar has previously been described round the 
oesophagus in segment x. This was seen to be a flange-like struc- 
ture behind the gizzard, against which it rests ; since the flange 
is set rather obliquely, the appearance is not unlike that of a cup 
and saucer. Microscopically the collar was found to be composed 
of follicles of blood-glands like those described by Beddard (i) 
behind the pharynx in certain species of Pheretima and other 
genera. 

Pheretima lignicola, Stephenson. 

Thingannyinaung to Myawadi, Lower Burma, ca. 900 ft., 24 — 26-xi-i9ii 
{F. H. Gravely). A single specimen. 

Here also in segment x, behind the pharynx, there was found 
a ring-like or collar-like thickening of the oesophageal wall, soft and 
of an opaque yellow colour. On teasing a small portion and 
examining it microscopically this was, as in P. jeae, found to consist 
of follicles of blood-glands, 

Pheretima trivandrana, sp. nov. 
(Plate xxxii, fig. 27; pi. xxxiii, figs. 28, 29). 

Trivandrum, 2.^-vi-i9ii. .\ single specimen. 

External Characters. — Length 70 mm., maximum diameter 3 
mm. Colour an equable grey. Segments 100. 

Prostomium epilobous ^, tongue broad, not delimited behind. 

The first dorsal pore is in furrow 8/9. 

In the first ten segments there is no dorsal break in the con- 
tinuity of the setal rings, but behind this there is a small interrup- 
tion {z^=2yz). The ventral break is oXso smoXX {aa = ca. i^ah), 
and in some of the anterior segments, v to vii, is altogether absent. 
The setae of segments ii-ix are rather enlarged, those on x rather 
small. The following numbers were counted : — 28/v, 46 ix, 52/xii. 
52/xix, and 54 in the middle of the body. 

The clitellum was not distinguishable, except perhaps by the 
smaller size of the setae of segments xiv-xvi. 

The male apertures, on segment xviii, are fairly conspicuous 
pores in line with setae g. They are situated towards the mner 
side of, but well within, a pair of circular thickened areas, some- 
what raised in their centres. The pores are slightly more than a 
quarter of the circumference apart, and four ^ right side) or five 
setae (left side) intervene between the pore and the midventral 
line. 



336 Records of the Indian Museum. [Vol. XII, 

The female apertures were just indicated, situated in a pair 
of slight whitish thickenings immediately internal to setae a of 
segment xiv. 

The spermathecal apertures are three pairs, in furrows 6/7, 
7/8, and 8/9, situated well to the sides, about two-fifths of the 
circumference apart. The last is about opposite seta i or k of ix, 
the first opposite seta e of vi. 

Internal Anatomy. — Segment x is remarkably smooth on the 
inside; the body wall is thinner here, and without nephridia. 

Septum 4/5 is thin, 5/6 somewhat thickened, 6/7 and yjS 
moderately so ; 8/9 and 9/10 are absent; lo/ii, 11/12 and 12/13 
are moderately thickened, 13/14 and 14/15 slightly so. 

The blood-glands in segment vi are very conspicuous. The 
gizzard, ovoid and well developed, is in the middle of the space 
between septa y/8 and lo/ii. The oesophagus is bulged laterally 
behind the gizzard in the portion corresponding to segment x, and 
also in segments xi, xii and xiii. The intestine begins in xv. 
Intestinal diverticula, originating in xxvii, extend forwards through 
XX vi and xxv. 

The last heart is in segment xiii. 

The excretory system is micronephridial ; there are the usual 
large tufts by the side of and behind the pharynx in segments v 
and vi. 

The testes and funnels are contained in testis-sacs in segments 
X and xi, which probably communicate with their fellows across 
the middle line. 

The seminal \'esicles are attached to the anterior walls of seg- 
ments xi and xii respectively; they are lobed masses which do not 
meet dorsally over the intestine. 

The prostates (fig. 27), small glands in xvii and xviii, are cut 
up into numerous small lobules. The duct begins as a small soft 
tube which immediately swells and becomes firm and shining ; it 
takes a much curved course, describing almost a complete circle, 
and increasing in diameter as it does so ; at its broad ectal end it 
joins the outer margin of a soft white cushion on which it lies. 

The female organs have the usual situation. 

The laterally situated spermathecae (fig. 28) have a .charac- 
teristic form. The ampulla is relativeh' small, ovoid or pear- 
shaped. The duct is extremely stout, much longer than the am- 
pulla and almost straight. The diverticula are of two kinds. 
One is thin and finger-like, originating from the extreme base, or 
perhaps more properly from the bodywall close to the base of the 
duct, and approximately half the length of the duct. The second 
kind arises from the middle of the length of the duct ; it consists 
of an irregular pear-shaped chamber presenting about five lobules, 
and a stalk which is half as stout as the main duct ; the whole, 
stalk and chamber together, are nearly as long as the main am- 
pulla and duct above the point where the stalk of the diverticulum 
is attached. Lastly, in one out of the six spermathecae another 
diverticulum, of the second kind, but much smaller than the one 



1916. J J. Stephenson : Indian Oligochaeta. 337 

just described, was present; its termination presented only two 
lobules and it was inserted into the main duct just below the 
ampulla. Microscopically, after clearing, the first kind of diverti- 
culum was found to be a simple tube, with the cavity wider at 
the free end. The second kind consists of several (three or four) 
elongated and irregular chambers, tightly bound together by con- 
nective tissue (fig. 29). 

Pheretima kuchingensis, sp, nov. 
(Plate xxxiii, fig. 30). 

Kuching, Sarawak, 29-vii-it)io (C IV. Beebe). Two specimens, in bad 
condition. 

External Characters. — Ivcngth 136 mm., diameter 4"5 mm. It 
is impossible to say what the original colour may have been ; 
the clitellum is a medium brown. It would be impossible to esti- 
mate the segments without stripping off the whole of the cuticle 
and counting the setal rings. 

Prostomium ? 

Dorsal pores begin from furrow 12/13. 

The dorsal break in the setal rings is equal to about 2yz an- 
teriorly and i^yz behind the clitellum. The ventral break is 
practically absent, — not more than i\ab. The setae of segments 
iv to ix are enlarged, especially those of v, vi and vii. V^entrally 
the setae are closer set than laterally and dorsally. The numbers 
counted were: — 35/v, 42/ix, 40/xii, 46/xix, 46/xxvi. 

The clitellum extends over segments xiv — xvi=3. It is 
smooth, without visible setae or dorsal pores. 

The male apertures are situated in the setal ring of segment 
xviii, on moderately large round dark- coloured papillae. They 
are in line with setae h of the adjoining segments, and ten setae 
intervene between the pores. 

There appears to be a single female pore in the setal ring of 
xiv. 

The spermathecal apertures are four pairs, small, in grooves 
5/6 — 8/9 ; they are about the same distance apart as the male 
pores, and are in line with the setal interval fg. 

Internal Anatomy. — Septum 4/5 is somewhat thickened, 5/6, 
6/7 and 7/8 apparently considerably strengthened, 8/9 is thin and 
9/10 absent; lo/ir — 13/14 are all somewhat thickened. 

The gizzard, large and barrel-shaped, is in segment viii. The 
intestine begins in xv. Elongated diverticula originate in xxvii; 
tapering and showing a few constrictions, they reach forwards to 
xxiv. 

The last heart is in xiii. 

The micronephridia were mostly indistinguishable, but a 
dense fur was present on the inner side of the bodywall in seg- 
ments XV, xvi and part of xiv. 

Ovoid testis-sacs are present in segments x and xi, smaller in 
the former, larger in the latter. Those of the same segment appear 



338 Records of the Indian Musenin. [Vol, XII, 

to be separate from each other, — at least the opaque masses within 
them are separate, but the walls of the sacs are too delicate and 
transparent to be followed in the present specimen. 

The seminal vesicles, three pairs in segments xi, xii and xiii, 
are attached to the anterior walls of the segments. Those in xi 
are deeply incised, and have an appendage, separate from the rest 
of the sac, which extends nearly to the middorsal line; those in 
xii, also incised, extend nearly to the middorsal line by a narrow 
and tapering dorsal lobe; those in xiii are quite small. 

The prostates are rather small, occupying segment xviii only 
(right side) or xviii and xvii (left side). They are made up of 
small and closely adpressed lobules. The duct is short and almost 
straight; there is no copulatory pouch, — ^at least none is distin- 
guishable in the present specimen, though it is possible that one 
might have been visible in a fresh or a well-preserved specimen. 

The spermathecal ampulla is pear-shaped, and becomes con- 
tinuous with the duct at its broader end. The duct is half the 
length of the ampulla, and is half as broad also, — rather narrower 
where it pierces the body wall ; it appears broader than it is how- 
ever, since it is covered with a considerable fur of micronephridia. 
The single diverticulum is tubular with a spherical or ovoid dilata- 
tion at its free extremity; it is half the length of the ampulla, 
and is attached to the upper end of the duct near the base of the 
ampulla ; in one case there was presen): a small excrescence at the 
base of the terminal dilatation, where the latter passes into the 
stalk (fig, 30). 

Gen. Octochaetus. 
Octochaetus fcrmori, Mchlsn. 

KaraH<ulam, 17-X-1911. A number of specimens. 

In a previous paper I recorded the presence of a second pair 
of ovaries in this species (24) ; I even went so far as to state that 
microscopic examination confirmed the ovarian nature of the struc- 
tures. After an examination of a specimen of the present batch of 
material, however, I believe the structures to be ovisacs : no doubt, 
in my previous examples, they contained ova, and not being on the 
look-out for ovisacs in a species belonging to the present genus, I 
interpreted the mass of ova wrongly. 

Octochaetus surensi, Mchlsn. 
(Plate xxxiii, fig. 31). 

Barkul, o- 1000 ft., Orissa, 1— ^-viii-igi^. {F.H. Gi-nvcly). Two speci- 
mens, one injured anteriorly. 

I give a description of some of the features of the present speci- 
mens, in order to supplement Michaelsen's account (14). 

External Characters. — Length 90 mm., diameter 3-5 mm. Col- 
our dark purplish brown along a middorsal strip, rapidly fading off 
laterally, so that the sides as well as the ventral surface are unpig- 



1916.] J. Stephenson : Indian Oligochada. 339 

meiited, — over the greater part of the body at least; the cHtellum 
is brown all round ; and in front of the clitelliim also the pigmen- 
tation extends on to the lateral aspects of the body. A slightly 
lighter band, very narrow, at the middle of each segment, corres- 
ponds to the zone of the setae. 

Segments 171 ; vii to x more or less distinctly triannular, xi and 
xii quadriannular dorsally. 

Prostomium epilobous J, the sides of the tongue parallel, the 
tongue not cut ol¥ behind. 

No dorsal pores are to be seen in front of the anterior border 
of the clitellum ; the first one seems to be in this situation, i.e. in 
12/13, t>ut all are small. 

The ventral setae are paired, the dorsal less closely so. The 
ratios between the various intervals may be expressed as follows : — 
in front of the clitellum ah = ^aa = ^ to ^bc = approximately 
icd; behind the clitellum ab==^aa approximately, =f 6c =^c^; 
in the middle of the body ab = ^aa = rather more than ^bc == 
nearly ^cd. The interval dd is about f- of the circumference. 

The cHtellum extends over xiii— Jxvii= 4I above, but appa- 
rently only to-|xvi= 3 J below. 

A male area is distinguishable, constituted by the flattened 
ventral surface of segments xvii — xx, quadrilateral in shape with 
rounded corners. The prostatic pores, on xvii and xix, are small, 
with slightly tumid margins ; they are united on each side by 
straight, very narrow, — indeed linear grooves, and across the 
middle line by broad grooves with shelving anterior and posterior 
walls ; these transverse grooves are continued outwards in a more 
or less definite manner beyond the situation of the prostatic pores 
for a short distance. In the second specimen the longitudinal semi- 
nal grooves are rather bowed outwards. The male pores are not 
visible. The situation of the grooves and prostatic pores is be- 
tween a and b. 

The female apertures, on the anterior part of segment xiv, are 
paired, and contained in a small transverse groove surrounded by 
a whiter area. The pores themselves are slightly internal to the 
line a. 

The ventral surface of segments viii and ix is rather irregular- 
ly thickened and glandular in appearance. No setae are visible, 
but corresponding to the position of setae a or between a and 6 there 
are small white and slightly elevated points, the spermathecal 
apertures. 

Internal Anatomy. — Only a few points need be noticed. The 
first septum is 5/6, which is moderately thickened ; the next is 8/9, 
thin and displaced backwards to about the position of furrow 9/10, 
septum 9/10 itself, moderately thickened, is midway between fur- 
rows 9/10 and 10/ 1 1 ; the remaining septa are in the normal posi- 
tions, lo/ri being moderately thickened, 11/12 considerably thick- 
ened and 12/3 slightly so ; the rest are thin. 

The gizzard is large, between septa 5/6 and 8/9; morpho- 
logically it is in segment vii, since the two vascular commissures close 



340 Records of the Indian Museum. [Vol, XII, 

together behind it are those corresponding to vii and viii, and the 
one at its anterior end belongs to segment vi. Its walls show a 
curious condition; the whole of its anterior end is thick and very 
firm, and so is its ventral wall, but the rest of its dorsal and lateral 
walls and its posterior end are thin, soft and slightly baggy ; the 
same condition was found to be present in a second specimen also. 

The spermathecae (fig. 31) are mushroom-like, or somewhat 
pyramidal with much rounded angles. The duct is very broad at 
its origin, — about one- third as broad as the ampulla, — but becomes 
much narrower at its ectal opening ; it is rather shorter than the 
ampulla. The diverticulum arises from the uppermost portion of 
the duct by a short and narrow stalk, which bears a rounded cauli- 
flower-like mass, composed of a large number of indistinct cham- 
bers; the breadth of the mass is about equal to that of the upper 
end of the duct. 

Testis-sacs are present, as Michaelsen (14) suspected, but they 
are of peculiar form ; they are constituted by an extremely delicate 
membrane, which covers in the whole of the contents of the respec- 
tive segments, — stretching from one septum to the next and inclu- 
ding dorsal vessel and alimentary canal as well as sperm masses 
and the male organs. I did not see the testes in segment xi, and 
the funnels of xi appeared to be distinctly smaller than those of x. 

Octochaetus barkudcnsis, sp. nov. 
(Plate xxxiii, figs. 32, 33). 

Barkuda [sland, Chilka Lake, Ganjam Dislrict, Madras Pres.. 17-vii- 
1914. {Clulka Survey). Two specimens, one not fully mature. 

External Characters. — Length 43 mm., diameter i'5 mm. 
Colour brown. Segments 140, the last few very short. 

In one specimen the prostomium was tanylobous ; in the other 
epilobousl^, pointed behind, the angle being continued as a median 
groove back to the first furrow (1/2). 

I could not see any dorsal pores in front of the clitellum. 

The setae are paired ; their relations may be expressed as 
follows: — behind the clitellum ah = ^aa, = \hc, =\cd or nearly ; 
near the posterior end ab^=\aa, =lbc, and is somewhat less 
than cd. In front of the clitellum the setae are difficult to see, 
but the relations appear to be much as they are near the posterior 
end. The seta d is a little below the lateral line of the body. 

The clitellum includes two-thirds of xiii and two- thirds of 
xvii, = 4i; it is smoother than the neighbouring segments, but 
there is little difference of tint. 

On segment xviii are two approximately rectangular cushions 
which take up the whole length of the segment, and meet in the 
middle line where they are separated by a slight groove. The 
seminal grooves cross the somewhat indefinitely limited outer ends 
of the cushions, passing between the prostatic apertures on xvii 
and xix, in line with setae b. 



1916.J J. vStephenson : Indian Oligochaeta. 341 

The female apertures appear to be indicated by a transverse 
depression on the anterior part of segment xiv, which is bounded 
along its anterior margin by furrow 13/14. 

The spermathecal apertures are apparently indicated by slight 
whitish marks on segments viii and ix, in front of and between a 
and h. 

Internal Anatomy. — The first septum appears to be 4/5, which 
is somewhat thickened : no more are visible till 8/9, which is slightly 
thickened; 9/10, lo/ii and 11/12 are considerably, 12/13 somewhat 
and 13/14 slightly thickened. 

The gizzard, in front of septum 8/9, is subspherical, firm and 
well-developed. A single pair of calcareous glands is present, tak- 
ing up segments xv and xvi ; they are thus of considerable size 
The intestine begins in xvii. 

The last heart is in xii. 

The excretory system is micronephridial. 

Testes and funnels are free, embedded in sperm masses in 
segments x and xi ; the funnels appear to be of relatively large 
size. 

The vesiculae seminales are two pairs. Those in segment ix, 
attached to septum 9/10, are flattened, with their edges cut up 
into lobes; those in xii, depending from septum 11/12, are of 
considerable size. 

The prostates, in xvii and xix, are tubular, the tube forming 
only a few coils and maintaining the same appearance and diame- 
ter throughout. 

The ovaries are situated in segment xiii ; there is a pair of 
ovisacs in xiv. 

The spermathecae are two pairs, one opening at the level of 
septum 8/9, the other opposite the middle of the gizzard, and so 
probably at the level of the absent septum yjS. The ampulla is 
of moderate size, and very irregular, more or less ovoid in shape ; 
a prolongation of one end forms a short and narrow stalk. A small 
stalked rounded diverticulum arises (in three out of the four) from 
the middle part or from the lower end of the duct ; in one case it 
seemed to be a mere bulging of one side of the duct. 

The penial setae are in length "58 mm., in breadth iom at the 
middle, 12/' nearer the base. The shaft is slightly curved, the 
distal end has a somewhat sinuous outline, and the tip is pointed. 
The ornamentation consists of a number of relatively large spines 
near but not extending quite to the tip (fig. 32). 

The copulatory setae (fig. 33) in segment viii (no sacs or 
setae were seen in segment ix) are "52 mm. long and 17/^ broad. 
They are not much modified ; the shaft is slightly curved along most 
of its extent, more so at its proximal end than elsewhere. The 
distal end is pointed , and slightly bulbous close to the tip ; above 
(proximal to) the bulbous portion the lateral aspects of the seta 
are marked by a number, — more than a dozen, — of serrations; 
the appearance is that of a lateral flange or seam cut up into 
teeth. 



342 Records of the Indian Museum,. [Vol. XII, 

Gen. Eutyphocus. 
Eutyphocus nicholsoni (Bedd.). 

Mowaie, Bara Banki, I'nited Provinces, ii-iv-igio {Mohd . Mohsin Kliaii). 

Four specimens. 
Same place and collector, il — 12-X-1910. A number of specimens. 

Eutyphocus bastianus, Mchlsn. 

Mowaie, Bara Banki, United Provinces, is-iv-Kjio (Molid, Molisin 

Khan I. A number of specimens. 
Same place and collector, 11 — 12-X-1910. .\ number of specimens. 
Dehra Dun, in a tank, under water, no date (.V. Mattlik). A single 

specimen. 

Eutyphocus waltoni, Mchlsn. 

Tollygunge, nr. Calcutta, 3()-vii-i9i2 (A'. Ain/ninfrrle and F. H. Gnivelv). 

Two specimens. 
Siripur, Saran, Bihar, jy-w-igin (^R. Hodtrm-f'). Three specimens. 

Eutyphocus incommodus, (Bedd.) 

Rawal Pindi, N. Punjab, Dec. 1915 { L. Raghuiiatli Sahai). Four 
specimens. 

Eutyphocus annandalci, Mchlsn. var. fulgidus, var. nov. 
(Plate xxxiii, fig. 34). 

Anwarganj, Cawnpore District, i — 13-X-1911 ('7- H". Camifer). Nine 
specimens, one being immature. 

External Characters. — Length 56 mm., maximum diameter 4 
mm. Unpigmented, clitellum a light brownish grey. Segments 
164 ; a number of preclitellar segments multiannulate. 

Prostomium tanylobous, the tongue narrow with parallel sides. 
There is also a transverse groove which cuts off the main portion 
of the prostomium from the tongue. 

The first dorsal pore is in groove 11/12. 

The setae are paired. In front of the clitellum ah is equal to 
cd, and is equal to faa and to ^ or f6c; behind the clitellum ah is 
rather less than cd, and equal to f aa and nearly ^hc. 

The clitellum is saddle-shaped , or at least much less marked 
over a longitudinal midventral strip. It includes two-thirds of seg- 
ment xiii and one third of xviii, or five segments in all. 

The male apertures are situated on conical and extremely 
prominent porophores ; these almost penis-like projections take up 
the length of segment xvii. The orifice forms a transverse slit on 
the summit, with its centre in the line h or opposite the interval ah. 

The female apertures are small, each situated in front of one 
of the setae a of segment xiv; they are thus separated from each 
other by a moderate interval. 

The spermathecal apertures are one pair, in furrow 7/8, be- 
tween h and c though rather nearer to h. 



1916.] J. Stephenson : Indian Oligochaeta. 343 

Genital markings are present in or rather just in front of fur- 
rows 13/14, 14/15. and 15/16; in some cases there was an addi- 
tional pair in relation to furrow 16/17. These are small, oval or 
almost circular slightly raised areas, with a somewhat darker cen- 
tre. They take up approximately a space corresponding to the 
interval ah, but may sHghtly overstep these Hmits on one or other 
side. 

Internal Anatomy .—SQ-^inm 4/5 is thin, 5/6 is moderately 
thickened; then two septa are missing; 8/9 is thin, q/io and lo/ii 
considerably thickened, and the following ones thin. vSepta 9/10— 
ri/i2 are crowded together. 

The gizzard, subspherical and moderately firm, is in the inter- 
val between septa 5/6 and 8/9. Calcareous glands, in segment xii, 
are not separated off, and are only discovered on opening the oeso- 
phagus; the oesophagus is also slightly swollen in segment xiv. 
The intestine begins in xv. 

The last heart is in xiii. The dorsal vessel is continued for- 
wards over the gizzard to the pharynx ; the hearts of segments vii 
and viii are close together behind the gizzard and in front of sep 
tum 8/9 ; the next commissure is at the anterior end of the gizzard, 
and the next after that in front of 5/6. The missing septa and the 
exact morphological position of the gizzard can thus be established. 
The excretory system is micronephridial. Behind and on the 
clitellum there is a single row of relatively large tufts, about seven 
in number on each side, transversely disposed in each segment; 
these are set closer together ventrally than on the other regions of 
the body wall. On some of the anteclitellar segments the tufts are 
more numerous; and in segment iii the body wall is densely covered 
with micronephridial tubules; there are however no large tufts 
such as are commonly met with by the side of the pharynx and 
gizzard. 

Testes and funnels are -present in segments x and xi ; there 
appears to be no marked difference in size between those of the 
two segments; those in x are not rudimentary, as they were in 
Michaelsen's specimens of the type form and would have been 
passed without comment if met with elsewhere. 

Vesiculae seminales are present in segments ix and xii; those 
of ix are soft lobulated masses of moderate size, those of xii are 
large, and on one side extend back through segments xiii and xiv, 
though on the other they merely cause a considerable bulging back 
of septum 12/13. The conditions in this region are primitive as 
compared with most species of the genus; septum 11/ 12 is not 
absent, and the corresponding heart is not bound down to the 
alimentary canal by dense connective tissue. 

The prostates and their ducts form a continuous tube on each 
side, beginning behind in segment xix ; each tube is of the same 
diameter throughout, the glandular part being soft and white, 
the terminal portion more glistening. The vas deferens passes 
back on the outer side of the termination of the prostatic duct, 
and then swells into a pouch behind it. 



^44 Records of the Indian Museum. [Vol. XII, 

The spermathecae are one pair. The ampulla is large, globu- 
lar, and sessile on the body wall, without duct. A complete 
circle of relatively large, round, oval, or somewhat irregular diver- 
ticula surround the base of the ampulla ; in one specimen these 
were eight in number on either side and each was attached by a 
stalk to the base of the ampulla ; in another the diverticula, fif- 
teen in number, were not separable, being bound together by 
fibrous tissue at their contiguous margins, and so appearing as a 
continuous ring lobed peripherally. 

The penial setae (fig. 34) are 9 mm. long and ijfx broad at 
the middle of the shaft. The shaft shows a slight curvature, 
rather more marked towards the free end ; the tip is bluntly poin- 
ted. The ornamentation consists of a number of extremely fine 
sculpturings, — short transverse rows of fine points, near the tip 
and over the distal part of the shaft. 

Remarks. — The variety may be distinguished from the typical 
form by the greater number of the genital markings, the much 
shorter prostates, and especially the complete ring of diverticula 
at the base of the spermathecal ampulla. The penial setae are 
not known in the typical form. 

Gen, Eudichogastcr. 

Eudichogaster bengalensis, Mchlsn. 

Bed of the Chitartala (branch of the Mahanadi), near Kenduapatna, 
Cuttack, 25-111-1910 {B. L. Chatiillinri). A number of specimens. 

I subjoin a few notes in order to supplement the original des- 
cription by Michaelsen (14). 

The first dorsal pore I found to be in furrow 11/12. 

The penial setae, in length 7 to '8 mm., and in diameter 
16;;, have a slightly bowed shaft atid a tapering, rather more 
strongly curved blunt tip; the extremity is blunt. Near the distal 
end are a number of fine spines, rather irregularly arranged in 
about half a dozen transverse rows, and scattered spines are con- 
tinued for some little distance along the shaft. The end could not 
be described as claw-like; all the spines are very small, and there 
was no circle of larger spines round the tip, as is described and 
figured by Michaelsen. 

The spermathecal duct was not sharply set off from the 
ampulla, and the ducts of the two diverticula did not, in the 
specimen examined, join together before entering the main duct. 

The calcareous glands are of interest in connection with the 
definition and position of the genus. The bulgings of the oeso- 
phagus in segments x — xiii are thin-walled and not at all set off 
from the latergfl walls of the oesophagus; they are not calcareous 
glands any more than the similar part of the tube in, for example. 
Pheretima posthuma is a series of calcareous glands. On opening 
this part of the tube through its whole length all four segments 



19 16.] J. Stephenson : Indiaji Oligochaeta. 345 

were seen to present low lamellar transverse folds projecting into 
the lumen from the ventral wall, the dorsal half of the wall being 
almost or quite smooth, and in the two hinder segments (xii and 
xiii) slightly constricted off from the ventral by a lateral fold. 
Along all four segments there is a large and very conspicuous 
longitudinal midventral projection into the lumen ; in a transverse 
section this would appear bilobed, spreading out on each side of a 
narrow median attachment, as if it were a ventrally situated 
typhlosole. The annular intersegmental constrictions of the oeso- 
phagus are thickened, as seen from the inside, and present a num- 
ber of nodular projections. 

The nephridia have a similar interest. In the anterior seg- 
ments these are present as villous tufts, or as an aggregate of three 
or four coils, within the cone-like septa. On passing back, larger 
nephridia soon make their appearance, more laterally placed in 
the segment ; the first of these occurs in segment xiii, and is not 
of any considerable size. From here onwards the more ventral 
nephridia, covered by the intestine in the normal condition, appear 
as two compact coils; the dorsal nephridia, of considerable size 
behind the prostate, are thin and fiat, and occupy the lateral third 
of the body wall on each side ; there are also a few smaller coils 
near the middorsal line (? normally one per segment). 

In the posterior third of the body, about 30 to 40 segments 
from the hinder end, there are two considerable nephridia on each 
side per segment ; the dorsal of the two seems to be usually the 
longer, the ventral the more bushy ; there is also on the bodywall 
a fur of very minute micronephridia. Between the thirtieth and 
twentieth segment from the end these minute nephridia become 
fewer, and after the twentieth they have almost gone. The dorsal 
nephridium has become relatively smaller, and the ventral larger ; 
the latter is now a stoutish tube which forms only one or a 
few twisted loops ; its calibre is much greater than that of the 
dorsal nephridium. The smaller nephridia could not be distin- 
guished. 

I succeeded in finding a funnel on one of these stout ventral 
nephridia (from the twenty-second segment, counting from the 
posterior end); it was formed of a rosette of cells, all the same 
size, evenly surrounding a small circular aperture ; a narrow but 
quite short portion of the tube succeeds, which soon widens to form 
the stout tube of which nearly the whole nephridium consists. I 
did not find funnels in the nephridia from the region behind the 
clitellum. 

Eudichogaster sp. 

From base of leaves of tall palm tree, Museum compound, Calcutta, 
2S-vii-i909. A single specimen. 

The condition of the worm did not permit of a satisfactory 
examination, and mention is made of it only because of its peculiar 
habitat. 



346 Records of the Indian Musemn. [Vol. XII, 

Gen. Dichogaster. 

Dichogastcr malayana (Horst). 

(Plate xxxiii, figs. 35, 36). 

Neyyatinkara, Travancore, 28-vi-i9ii. Two specimens. 

Since the original description (7) of this species is short, and 
indeed omits mention of some organs or systems altogether, I give 
an account of the specimens in the present collection. 

External Characters. — Length 30 mm., maximum diameter r'5 
mm. Colour grey with dark clitellum. Segments 92. 

Prostomium proepilobous, hinder margin projecting back- 
wards as an angular process into segment I ; segment I partly 
divided in the midventral line by a median fissure leading back- 
wards from the margin of the mouth. 

The dorsal pores begin from furrow 5/6. 

The setae are closely paired and all ventrally situated. The 
relations may be expressed thus : — aa = he = ^ab == yd. 

The clitellum extends from segments xiii to xx inclusive. It is 
brown in colour, lighter along a midventral strip, and sharply 
marked off by a constriction at both ends. 

The prostatic apertures, on segments xvii and xix. are minute 
dots between the lines of setae a and 6 (? in line with a). The 
seminal grooves are straight, with only a slightly wavy course. 
The male pores were not visible. There are indications of slight 
transverse grooves between the prostatic pores of the same seg- 
ment, and thus a rectangular figure is outlined on the male area. 

The female aperture is perhaps in line with the setae of seg- 
ment xiv, single and midventral (?). 

The spermathecal apertures are in furrows 7/8 and 8/9, oppo- 
site the interval ab. 

Internal Anatomy. — One specimen was dissected and the other 
sectioned. 

The first septum probably represents 4/5 ; it is attached at 
the level of groove 4/5 below, but at that of 3/4 above. The next 
is septum 7/8, which envelopes the gizzard. Septa 10/ 11 to 12/13 
are slightly thickened. 

The oesophagus is bulged in an annular fashion in front of the 
gizzards. The gizzards, in segments vi and vii, are not well divid- 
ed from each other; no septum is attached between them, and 
the separation is evidenced (apart from the examination of longi- 
tudinal sections) only by the wall of the thickened tube yielding 
under manipulation at a level corresponding to the line between 
the two. In sections however the muscular coat is easily seen to 
be interrupted for a narrow space. The oesophagus is continued, 
straight and fairly narrow, scarcely bulging at all, as far as seg- 
ment XV, where it dilates somewhat. Calcareous glands, all of 
about the same size, are present in xv, xvi and xvii. 



1916.] J. Stephenson : Indian Oligochaeta. 347 

The micronephridia are present behind the clitellum in four 
rows on each side ; each is a flat plate like organ, subcircular in 
shape or rectangular with rounded corners. The rows nearly touch 
each other, and each organ being in longitudinal extent equal to 
about the length of a segment, the body wall is pretty completely 
lined by them, — probably entirely so in the natural condition of 
the parts. The lowest row on each side is smaller than the others, 
and there is occasionally a fifth, still more ventral ; if so it is also 
small. 

In the clitellar region the nephridia have more the ordinary 
form of twisted tubes. More anteriorly some are seen in the 
neighbourhood of the spermathecae, but none are visible, in the 
dissection, on the bodywall; they may be seen in sections in the 
male genital segments. 

Testes and funnels are free in segments x and xi. 

The seminal vesicles are in segments x and xi ; in the dissec- 
ted specimen none were present in xii. In the sectioned specimen 
a visicle was present on the right side in xii ; it was of racemose 
form, composed of small rounded masses, each stalked and 
attached to a stem which in turn was implanted on septum 11/12 ; 
the whole, though not of large size (smaller than those in the seg- 
ments in front), was still a conspicuous feature in the anatomy. 

The prostates are tubular, in segments xvii and xix. That in 
xvii lies behind the calcareous gland, that in xix behind the bulg- 
ing of the intestine, in the respective segments. They are verti- 
cally placed by the side of the alimentary tube, and the muscular 
duct is directed inwards from the lower end of the gland. 

The spermathecae (fig. 35) are contained in segments vii and 
viii. The ampulla is rather small, ovoid in shape, and divided 
from the duct by a marked constriction. The duct is at least of 
the same size as the ampulla, pear-shaped and narrowing gradually 
to the aperture ; the interior of the duct is occupied by a gelatin- 
ous-looking non-staining mass. A minute tag-like diverticulum is 
present in some, but not, apparently, in all; it arises from the 
duct on its anterior face at about the middle of its length. 

The penial setae (fig. 36) are of several types, (i) A slender 
form 3'5m in thickness, with straight shaft and thin flattened oar- 
like extremity ; the width of the flattened end is 6," . (2) A form 
which also presents a narrow shaft and expanded tip ; but the 
expanded portion is one-sided only; length "28 mm., thickness 
at middle of shaft 4/'. (3) A stout variety, breadth jii, shaft 
straight in its proximal, gently curved in its distal portion; the 
distal end presents a few blunt projections on its sides and on 
the concavity of the curve. (4) A mixed type combining the tip 
of the second and the stout shaft of the third variety ; the shaft 
shows a gentle, almost even curve, and tapers towards its free end ; 
the extreme point is furnished with a wing-like expansion on one 
side onl}-; length across the bend '3 mm., thickness at middle 6/x, 
at proximal end yr . 



348 Records of the Indian Museum. [Vol,. XII, 

Dichogastar affinis (Mchlsn.) 

Trivandrum, 20-vi-igii. Several specimens. 

The species has previously been recorded by me from Ceylon 
(22). I stated that in the single specimen available for examina- 
tion the organs of the anterior part of the body were displaced 
one segment forwards as compared with the normal condition. It 
is possible however that this may have been apparent only, and 
due to the small size and retraction of the first segment. 

Dichogaster bolaui (Mchlsn.) subsp palmicola (Eisen). 

Datar Hill, nr. Junagadh, Kathiawar, i-xii-1912 [S. P. Agharkar). A 

single specimen. 
From base of leaves of tall palm tree, Museum compound, Calcutta, 28- 
rvii-iQo8. Two specimens. 

From crown of palm tree, same place, 4-1-iyii. Two specimens. 
From base of leaf found on so-called Sago palm. Museum compound, 

Calcutta, 9-vii-i9i4. Several specimens. 

It is interesting to find this Pacific subspecies in Calcutta, 
where it is also " palmicolous." The specimens show a few depar- 
tures from the condition as originally described. 

The size is one of the most marked of these differences, Eisen 
(6) attributing to this form a length of 55 — 60 mm. , while the present 
specimens varied only between 16 and 21 mm. 

The dorsal pores began in all in furrow 5/6. 

The two gizzards are in segments vii and viii ; but as in D. 
malayana septum 7/8 is absent. 

The nephridia are in four rows. 

The penial setae are of two types :— (i) lycngth "34 mm., 

diameter 7/^ ; the shaft has a very slight /-shaped curve, and the 

tip is tapering, sharp and hooked. A few spines, not always con- 
fined to the concave side, stand off from the surface near the tip; 
these spines were about eight in number in one of the Kathiawar 
specimens, but were few (only about four) or entirely absent in 
one from Calcutta. (2) Length -32 mm., thickness near base 6/x, 

near tip only about 2'5/x ; the shaft shows a slight /"-shaped curve ; 

the tip is expanded to form a flat oval spatula- or oar-like blade 
about 4-5/1;. wide. There was no hint of a forking such as stated 
by Eisen for his specimens. 

Gen. Ocncrodrilus. 
Ocnerodrilus (Ocnerodrilus) occidentalism Eisen. 

Under flower-pots, Ross I., Andaman.s, 26-iii-i9n (C. Paiva). A 
number of specinsens. 



1916.] J. vStephenson : Indian Oligochaeta. 349 

Fam. GLOSSOSCOIvECIDAE. 

Gen. Pontoscolex. 

Pontoscolex corethrurus (Fr. Miill.) 

Trivandrum. Several occasions in 1911. Numerous specimens. 

Vellany, 8-vi-iQii. Numerous specimens. 

Neyyatinkara, Travancore, y-vii-igii {Sliunkev Navayan). A number 

of specimens. 
In mud in flower-pots, Ross I., Andamans, 26-iii-l9ii (C Paiva). 

Several specimens. 

Gen. Glyphidrilus* 
Glyphidrilus annandalei, Mchlsn. 

Trivandrum, 23-ix-i9oi. Numerous specimens. 
Jaithy Field, Trivandrum, 5-i\-igo6. Numerous specimens. 
Trivandrum, 6-iii-i9ii. Numerous specimens. 
Vellany, 29-ii-i9ii. Numerous specimens, but only one mature. 
Neyyatinkara, Travancore, y-vii-igii (Sliuiiker Narayaii). Numerous 
specimens. 

The limits of the clitellum are indefinite; taking it as marked 
out by the brick-red colour, it extends from xiii to xxxix in one 
specimen of which a complete examination was made. 

There appeared to be an ovisac in segment xiv. 

The setae are widely paired; the relations are simple: — ab^ 
cd = ^aa; be is rather greater than aa; dd = aa, and both c and d 
are on the dorsal surface. Towards the posterior end the setae of 
a pair are closer together : — ab = cd = ^aa == ^bc ; dd = ^cd and so 
is considerably greater than aa. 

Glyphidrilus tuberosus, sp. nov. 
(Plate xxxiii, fig. 37). 

Kenduapatna Canal, Cuttack, 24-iii-i9io (B. L. Cliaudhuyi). Two 

specimens. 
Ponds at Pubhans, Cuttack, 28-iii-i9io {B. L. Chaiidliuri). Several 

specimens. 
Mud at edge of River Tista, Jalpaiguri, 3-vi-i9ii (.V. Annandale and 

.S". W. Kemp). Two specimens, immature. 

External Characters. — Length estimated at 60 mm. ; the speci- 
men, which was considerably curled, broke on the first slight 
effort at straightening it. Breadth 2*5 mm. average, 3 mm. maxi- 
mum. Colour a light brown, rather blotchy. Segments 221, all 
very short behind the clitellum. Behind the clitellum the dorsal 
surface is concave, and the ventral surface also flat or concave ; 
hence a transverse section would be four-sided, — more especially 
towards the hinder end of the body, where all four surfaces are 
flat or concave. At the posterior end the dorsal surface is the 
most extensive, and is considerably broader than the ventral, so 
that the sides converge downwards. The anus is dorso-terminal. 



350 Records of the Indian Museum. [Vol. XII, 

The prostomium is prolobous or ? zygolobous. The demarca- 
tion between the prostomium and the first segment is a shallow 
transverse valley rather than a definite fissure or groove. 

In front of the clitellum the setae are widely paired and rather 
irregular; ah is approximately equal to cd, and is half aa or less; 
aa is rather less than he; d is dorsally situated, and dd is greater 
than either aa or he. Behind the clitellum the setae are more 
regular, and are set at the angles of the transverse section ; aa = 
bc = 2ab= 2cd; dd is the greatest interval, and is equal to ^cd or 
nearly so. 

The clitellum extends from segment xiv, xv or xvi to xxviii or 
xxix (or xxx dorsally). 

The genital markings are of two kinds, a series of small papil- 
lae, and certain cauliflower-like excrescences. 

The papillae occur in three sets, — an anterior, on segments x 
to xii, a middle, on segments xvii to xix or on xviii and xix, and a 
posterior, on xxivto xxviii. They are small, white, rounded eleva- 
tions on the hinder parts of the segments to which they belong ; 
sometimes, where the segments are short and swollen, they appear 
on the anterior wall of the intersegmental groove, — they may in- 
deed be almost hidden in the groove. 

In the anterior set, there is a single midventral papilla on 
segment x, a midventral and others more laterally placed on xi 
and xii. The full number of the lateral papillae here appears to 
be two on each side, symmetrically placed, one between a and h, 
the other outside 6; some may be less definite than others, or one 
may be missing. 

The middle series of papillae (fig. 37) consists of a pair on seg- 
ment xvii, — one on each side near the middle line, internal to a ; 
a similar pair, with or without one more laterally placed (outside 
h), on xviii; and six on xix, viz., a pair near the middle line, as 
above, one on each side between a and 6, and one on each side 
outside b. There may be no papillae on xvii. 

In the posterior group also six, in the positions just described, 
appears to be the full number ; but any one or more may be 
absent in one or other segment, so that the number may dwindle 
to one only {e.g. in segment xxviii in fig. 37, where the single 
papilla is one of the median pair). 

The cauliflower-like outgrowths (fig. 37) are also variable; they 
may be described in a specimen in which they were well-marked. 
Extending ventro-laterally on the left side over segments xx to 
xxiii and partly on to xxiv also is a longitudinal crest or ridge, 
nairow from side to side, uneven, folded and notched; this ridge 
is well-marked only in the extent indicated, but it is continued for- 
wards very faintly, inclining slightl}^ dorsalwards, as far as xv or 
xiv. On the right side the ridge in segments xx to xxiii has grown 
out into a foliating tumour-Hke mass of numerous soft irregular 
closely apposed papillae ; the ventral surface of the mass is flat and 
of triangular shape, the apex of the triangle extending inwards to 
the line a ; as seen from the dorsal surface the mass is also triangu- 



1916,] J. Stephenson : Indian Oligochaeta. 351 

lar and similar in appearance to what has just been described, but 
the separate papillae are not so well marked. Another papillose 
excrescence occurs dorsally on the left side on segment xxiv , this 
is a similar patch of soft closely set papillae, taking up the length 
of the segment, but much broader in a transverse direction, ex- 
tending indeed from the middorsal line nearly to the lateral line 
of the body. Some of the specimens, perhaps not fully mature, 
showed the lateral ridges but no cauliflower-like excrescences. 

Internal Anatomy. — Septum 4/5 is thin, 5/6 slightly and 6/7 
somewhat thickened; 7/8 is moderately thickened, and is the 
strongest of the series; 8/9 to 11/12 are less thickened again, and 
12/13 only slightly so. 

The degree of development of the gizzard varies in the two or 
three specimens dissected. In the first, though of moderate size, 
it was soft, thin-walled and vertically flattened, — i.e. in consider- 
able degree rudimentary ; in a second the wall was of moderate 
thickness, though the organ was still flattened dorso-ventrally ; in 
a third the gizzard was well developed and fairly firm, and cylin- 
drical in shape. The last-mentioned specimen would have been 
passed without comment in an ordinary way ; but the firmness of 
the gizzard was in part deceptive, as on opening it it was found to 
be full of earth. The gizzard is contained in segment vii ; in the 
last instance it extended also into the hinder part of vi. 

There are no calcareous glands. The intestine begins in seg- 
ment XV. 

The last heart is in xi. 

Testes and funnels are present in segments x and xi (testes 
not identified in xi). 

The vesiculae seminales are four pairs, in segments ix to xii. 
Those in ix, on the anterior face of septum 9/10, are large and 
smooth ; those in x, on the anterior face of lo/ii are smaller, and 
only slightly cut up into lobes; those in xi, on the posterior face 
of lo/ii, are of the same size as the last, regularly ovoid and not 
lobed; the last pair, attached to the posterior surface of 11/12, are 
large, lobed and meet each other dorsally above the alimentary 
canal. 

The ovaries occupy their usual position. Ovisacs are present 
in segment xiv; they were much flattened against the posterior 
face of septum 13/14 (being empty), but were of considerable ver- 
tical and transverse extent. 

The spermathecae are situated in segments xiv and xv. They 
are small subspherical or somewhat irregular sacs, each with a 
short thin duct as a stalk, and without diverticula. The duct runs 
forwards towards the anterior boundary of the segment, and there- 
fore debouches into the groove 13/14 or 14/15 as the case may be; 
at least the attachment to the parietes is nearer the anterior than 
the posterior septum of the segment. In number there are either 
three or four on each side in each segment, — three in both seg- 
ments on the right side, four in the anterior and three in the pos- 
terior on the left side. The two externally placed sacs are in line 



352 Records of the Indian Museum. [Vol. XII, 

with setae a and b, the third is between b and c, and the fourth in 
line with c. Each spermatheca is about large enough to fill out 
the longitudinal extent of a segment. 

* 

Fam. IvUMBRICIDAE. 

Gen. Helodrilus. 

Hclodrilus (Bimastus) parvus (Eisen). 

Edge of small stream, Barogh, Simla Hills, 5000 ft., lo-v-igio (A''. 

Ainiandale). Two specimens 
Kasauli, Simla Hills, 6000 ft., Aug. and Sept., 1915 {Bai>n Prashad). 

Numerous specimens. 

Helodrilus (Bimastus) constrictus (Rosa). 

Darjiling, ca. 6000 ft., April 1914 (CarmicJioel collection). Three speci- 
mens, one immature. 

The clitellum begins on segment xxvi, but it extends behind 
so as to include xxxii, — the whole of it dorsally, and a half and 
two-thirds of it ventrally. 

Pigmentation is wanting ; and there are no papillae in the re- 
gions of setae ab of xvi. 

The agreement is therefore not very close, but it hardly seems 
worth while making a new species or variety for these specimens. 

Helodrilus (Bimastus) eiseni (Levins.) 

Painsur, above Lohba, 8000 ft., 23-iv-i9i4 (Col. Tytler). A single speci- 
men, not fully mature. 

The identification is not absolutely certain ; the species has 
been recorded from Kumaon district. 

HcIodrilus(Eisenia) foctida (Sav.) 

Simla, \V. Himalayas, 7000 ft., 9-V-1910 (A^. Aiinandale). Four speci- 
mens. 
Same place and collector. 12 — 13-V-1913. A single specimen. 



REFERENCES TO LITERATURE. 

Beddard, F. E. .. Contributions to the Anatomy of 
Earthworms, with descriptions of some new 
species. Quart. Journ Micr. Sci., n. s., vol. XXX, 
1890. 

Bourne, A. G. .. On Indian Earthworms, Pt. i. Pre- 
liminary Notice of Earthworms from the Nilgiris 
and Shevaroys. Proc. Zool. Sac, 1886. 
Ih. . . Notes on the Naidiform Oligochaeta. . . 

Quart. Journ. Micr. Sci., n. s., vol. XXXII, 1891. 



1916.J J. Stephenson : Indian Oligochaeta. 353 

4. Bourne, A. G. . . On Moniligaster grandis A. G. B. from 

the Nilgeris, S. India ; together with descriptions 
of other species of the genus Moniligaster. Ih., 
vol. XXXVI, 1894. 

5. Cognetti de Martiis, 

L. . . A contribution to our knowldge of the 

OHgochaeta of Travancore. Ann. Mag. Nat. 
Hist., ser. 8, vol. VII, 191 1. 

6. Eisen, G. . . Pacific Coast Oligochaeta, II. Mem. 

Calif. Acad. Sci., vol. II, no. 5, 1896. 

7. Horst, R. . . Zool. Ergebn. Reise in Niederlandisch 

Ost-Indien. Hrsg. M. Weber, vol. III. Leiden, 
1890-97. 

8. Martin, C. H. . . Notes on some Oligochaets found on 

the Scottish Loch Survey. Proc. Roy. Soc. Edin., 
vol. XXXVIII, 1907. 

9. Michaelsen, W. .. Oligochaeta in : Das Tierreich. Berlin, 

1900. 

10. lb. . . Oligochaeten von Peradeniya auf Cey- 

lon, ein Beitrag zur Kenntnis des Einflusses 
botanischer Garten auf die Einschleppung pere- 
griner Thiere, SB. Bohm. Ges., vol. XL, 1903. 

11. lb. . . Die Oligochaten Deutsch-Ostafrikas. 

Zeit. /. wiss. Zool., vol. LXXXII, 1905. 

12. lb. . . The Oligochaeta of India, Nepal, 

Ceylon, Burma and the Andaman Is. Mem.Ind. 
Mus., vol. I, no. 3, 1909. 

13. lb. .. Oligochaeta und Hirudinea, in: Die 

Siisswasser fauna Deutschlands , Heft 13, 1909. 

14. lb. . . Die Oligochatenfauna der vorderin- 

dischceylonischen Region. Abh. aus dem Geb. 
der Naturw. Nat. Verein Hamburg, Bd. XIX, 
Heft V, 19 10. 

15. lb. . . Uber einige zentralamerikanische Oligo- 

chaten. Arch. f. Naturgesch., 78 Jahrg. Abt. 
A. 1912. 

16. lb. . . Oligochaten von Travancore und 

Borneo. Mitt, aus dem Naturh. Mus. in Ham- 
burg, vol. XXX, 1913. 

17. Piguet, E. . . Observations sur les Naididees et revi- 

sion systematique de quelques especes de cette 
famille. Rev. Suisse Zool., vol. XIV, 1906. 

18. lb. . . Nouvelles observations sur les Naidi- 

dees. lb., vol. XVII, 1909. 

19. Piguet, E. and 

Bretscher, K. .. Oligochetes, in: Cat. des Invertebres de 
la Suisse, Fasc. 7. Geneva, 1913. 

20. Stephenson, J. . . The Anatomy of some aquatic Oligo- 

chaeta from the Punjab. Mem. Ind. Mus., vol. 
I, no. 3, 1909. 



354 Records of the Indian Museum. [Voi.. XII, 19 16.] 

21. Stephenson, J. .. Studies on the aquatic Oligochaeta of 

the Punjab, Rec. Ind. Mus., vol. V, 1910. 

22. lb. . . On a collection of Oligochaeta mainly 

from Ceylon Spolia Zeylanica, vol. VIII, 1912. 

23. Ih. .. Oligochaeta, in: Zoological Results of 

the Abor Expedition, xxix. Rec. Ind. Mus., 
vol. VIII, 1914. 

24. lb. . . On a collection of Oligochaeta mainly 

from Northern India. lb., vol. X, 1914. 

25. lb. . . On some Indian Oligochaeta mainly 

from vSouthern India and Ceylon. Mem. Ind. 
Mus.^ vol. VI, 1915. 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE XXX. 

Fig. I. — Ventral seta of Slavina sp. X 500. 
,, 2. — Ventral seta from second segment of Stylaria kempi; 

X 540. 

,, 3. — Hinder end of Aulophorus furcatus (specimen from 

Khed). 
,, 4. — Drawida jalpaigurensis; prostate of left side. 

y, 5. — The same; diagrammatic sketch to show relation of 
parts near spermathecal aperture; a., atrium; at. s., 
atrial sac; d., spermathecal duct; s., septum 7/8. 

,, 6. — Megascolides tenmalai var. karakulamensis ; male area. 

,, 7- — The same; spermatheca. 

,, 8. — Megascolides oneilli f.ty pica-, prostate. 



Rec. Ind. Mug., Vol. XI!, 1916 



Plate XXX. 



^ 





OL: 




\. 



XVIII 




6. 





J.S. del. 



INDIAN OLIGOCHAETA. 



A . Chowdha-ryilith. 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE XXXI. 

Fig. 9. — Lampito duhius ; meganephridium from middle of body, 
to show the general relations of the parts, the fun- 
nels, stout and slender loops; a., stout loop; &., 
slender loop; /., funnels. 

10. — Perionyx pulvinatus ; region of male pores. 

II. — The same; spermatheca. 

12. — Perionyx pincerna ; region of male pores. 

13. — The same; penial seta. 

14. — Perionyx inornatus ; penial seta. 

15. — Perionyx parvulus; penial seta. 

16. — Perionyx fulvus ; penial seta. 

17. — Perionyx sp. ; male genital area. 

18. — The same ; penial seta. 

19. — Notoscolex gravely i ; spermatheca. 



Rec. Ind. Mus, Vol. XII, 1916. 



Plate XXXJ. 




XVIllif. 





11. 



XVI 




/<^. 




13. 



/5. 



16. 



XV!1! 




J.S. del. 



18. 



INDIAN OLIGOCHAETA 




EXPLANATION OF PLATE XXXII. 

Fig, 20. — Notoscolex gravely i ; penial seta, a, slightly magnified, 
to show the general form; h, highly magnified, the 
distal end only. 
21. — Megascolex cingulatus ; spermatheca. a, the whole 
spermatheca, the dotted lines showing the course of 
the duct behind the ampulla; &, diverticulum only, 
from another organ, showing a different condition of 
the secondary diverticula, rather more highly magni- 
fied. 

,, 22. — Megascolex insignis; spermatheca. 

,, 23. — Megascolex pentagonalis; male genital area, c^ points 
to position of male aperture. 

,, 24. — The same; spermatheca. 

,, 25. — Megascolex trivandr anus ) male genital area. 

,, 26. — The same; spermatheca. 

,, 27. — Pheretima trivandr ana; prostate. 



Rec. lTid.Mus.,Vo].Xlf,]916. 



Plate XXXIL 





Z1. 




zo. 




XVIII. 




Z3. 



.^ 




^4. 



ZZ. 



XVIII 




Z5. 



J.S.del. 





INDIAN OLIGOCHAETA. 



Z7. 

A.ChowdharyJith. 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE XXXIII. 

Fig. 28. — Pheretima trivandrana; spermatheca . 

,j 29. — The same; spermatheca viewed under the low power 
after clearing, to show the chambers in the diverti- 
culum. 

,, 30. — Pheretima kuchingensis ; spermatheca. a, the whole 
organ, showing the micronephridia covering the duct; 
h, diverticulum of another organ, showing a small 
secondary diverticulum. 

,, 31. — Octochaetus surensis; spermatheca. 

J, 32. — Octochaetus harkudensis \ penial seta. 

,, 33, — The same ; copulatory seta, 

,, 34. — Euty phoeus annandalei var. fulgidus; penial seta. 

,, 35. — Dichogaster malayana; spermatheca seen by transpa- 
rency after clearing. 

J, 36. — The same; penial setae, a, b, the two types numbered 
I and 3 in the text ; c (2 in text) resembles a except 
that the thin expansion is one-sided only. 

,, 37. Glyphidrilus tuberosus ; segments xviii to xxviii from 
the ventral surface, showing the papillae in this re- 
gion, with the ventro-lateral ridge on one side and 
the cauliflower-like excrescence on the other. 



Rec. Ind. Mus.,Vol.XII, 1916. 



Plate XXxlH. 






^9. 






3Z. 



33 




37. 




J.S.del. 



INDIAN OLIGOCHAETA 



A. Chowdhai_y, lith. 



XX. NOTES ON CRUSTACEA DECAPOD A 
IN THE INDIAN MUSEUM. 

VI. Indian Crangonidae. 

By Stanley Kemp, B.A., Superintendent, Zoological Survey 

of India. 

(Plate VIII.) 

The number of Crangonidae known from Indian seas has been 
considerably increased by recent work in shallow water on various 
parts of the coast. In dealing with the additional material that 
has come to hand I have thought it useful to include references to 
all the known Indian forms and to construct keys to facilitate the 
identification of the species of Pontophihcs and Aegeon. 

Six species hitherto unknown are described, all belonging to 
the genus Pontopliilus, while, thanks to the assistance of Dr. W. T. 
Caiman, I have been able to rectify certain errors in the nomen- 
clature of two species of Aegeon. 

In a previous paper in this series ^ I expressed the view that 
Philocheras, St^bhmg{^= Ch era philiis, Kinahan, partim) could not 
be sustained as a distinct genus, but must be merged in Pontophilus. 
In examining the new forms of this genus a point hitherto over- 
looked has come to light, namely, that in certain species there 
are considerable differences between the sexes in the form of the 
pleopods. The modifications of these appendages are not only of 
interest as evidence of the affinities of the different species, they 
also, as it appears to me, afford a valuable clue to the origin of 
the various genera of the famil}?- and point to lines of descent 
very different from those suggested by Ortmann in 1890. I have 
thought it best to discuss the structure of these appendages and the 
phylogenetic conclusions which may be derived from them under a 
separate heading at the end of the paper. 

In all eighteen species of Crangonidae are now known from 
Indian waters, ten belonging to the genus Pontophilus, six to Aegeon 
and one each to Prionocrangon and Crangon. 

Genus Pontophilus, Leach. 

The six undescribed Indian species of this genus were obtained, 
two from Kilakarai at the northern end of the Gulf of Mannar 



1 Rec. Ind. Mms., VI, p. 5 (1911) 



356 Records 0/ the Indian Museum. [Vol. XII, 

and four from Port Blair in the Andamans. One of the new forms, 
P. incisus, is a very close ally of the Atlantic and Mediterranean 
P. sculptus, the remainder are sharply distinguished from all species 
previously described by well-marked characters found in the sculp- 
ture of the carapace and abdomen and in the form of the rostrum, 
lateral process of the antennule, antennal scale and first two pairs 
of legs. 

In some of the species there are considerable differences be- 
tween the sexes in the form of the last four pairs of pleopods, a 
feature discussed in detail on p. 381, and other sexual distinctions of 
an unusual nature are met with in P. lowisi and P. Candidas. In the 
former the antennal scale, which is remarkable for the possession 
in both male and female of a series of spinules on its outer margin, 
shows wide differences in form in the two sexes. In the latter a 
conspicuous spine in the mid-dorsal line of the carapace is present 
in the male and absent in the female, a remarkable distinction when 
the great constancy of the armature of the carapace in other spe- 
cies is remembered. 

The ten Indian species of Pontophilus may be distinguished 
thus : — 

I. — P'irst peraeopods with rudimentary exopod ; second pe- 
raeopods very short, not reaching distal end of merus 
of first pair, their chela well formed with curved 
fingers ; lateral process of antennular peduncle styli- 
form, much longer than broad. 

A. Median carina of carapace with two spines ... gracilis, Smith. 

B. Median carina of carapace with three spines ... «6_V55?', Smith. 
'!• — First peraeopods without exopod; second peraeopods 

longer, reaching beyond carpus of first pair, their chela 
ill-formed with parallel fingers; lateral process of an- 
tennular peduncle not styliform, usually subquadrate 
and broader than long. 

A. A median longitudinal carina on carapace and 

on 3rd, 4th and 5th abdominal somites [ros- 
trum bread distally, anterior margin squarely 
truncate or concave]. 

1. Outer margin of antennal scale armed with a 

spine or a series of spinules in addition to 
a terminal spine. 

a. Carapace with five carinae bearing spines; a 

single additional spine on outer margin of 
antennal scale, placed near base ; merus of 
first peraeopods with a single spine at distal 
end of outer margin ; first four abdominal 
somites with strong lateral sculpture ... incisus, sp. nov. 

b. Carapace without spines and without lateral 

carinae ; a series of spinules on outer margin 
of antennal scale ; merus of first peraeopods 
with three spines at distal end of outer mar- 
gin ; lateral sculpture of first four abdomi- 
nal somites feeble ... ... lo-ivisi, sp. no\-. 

2. Antennal scale without additional spines on 

outer margin ; [carapace with spines and 
lateral carinae ; first four abdominal somites 
with strong lateral sculpture.] ... ... snbsechotn, Kemp. 

B. No median longitudinal carinae on carapace or 

abdomen. 



1916.] vS. Kemp : Notes on Crustacea Decapoda. 357 

1 . Lateral margins of rostrum anteriorly divergent, 

apex broad, squarely truncate [carapace with 
one mid-dorsal spine in male only ; two pairs 
of lateral spines in both sexes] ... ... candidiis, sp. nov. 

2. Lateral margins of rostrum anteriorly conver- 

gent, apex narrow, rounded or pointed, 
a. Rostrum of good size, separating the eyes ; 
carapace with one or more teeth in median 
line ; dactylus of second peraeopods not 
narrower than fixed finger, 
i. Carapace pubescent with three teeth in mid- 
dorsal line [four pairs of lateral teeth on 
carapace ; lateral process of antennular 
peduncle anteriorly spinose] .. ... pilosus, s^. noy. 

ii. Carapace not pubescent with only a single 
tooth in mid-dorsal line. 
o. Three pairs of lateral teeth on carapace ; 
lateral process of antennular peduncle 
anteriorly pointed; "thumb" of sub- 
chela formed of a single articulated 
tooth ... .. ... plebs, sp. nov. 

B. No lateral teeth on carapace ; lateral pro- 
cess of antennular peduncle anteriorly 
truncate; "thumb " of subchela formed 
of two teeth, closely juxtaposed and not 
articulated ... ... ... Jienclersoi?i, Kemp. 

h. Rostrum exceedingly small, eyes contiguous ; 
carapace without teeth in median line ; 
dactylus of second peraeopods \'er)' slender, 
less than half the breadth of fixed finger ... parvirostris,^-^. now 

Pontophilus gracilis, Smith. 

1901. Pontophilus gracilis, Alcock, Cat. Indian deep-sea Crust. Macrura 

and Anomala, p. 115. 
1905. Pontophilus gracilis. Stabbing, Afarine Invest. S. Africa, IV, p. 49, 

pi. XXV. 

Pontophilus abyssi, Smith. 

[<)oi. Pontophilus abyssi, Alcock, Cat. Indian deep-sea Crust. Macnira and 
A)W7nala, p. 1 16. 

Pontophilus incisus, sp. nov. 
(Plate viii, fig. i.) 

The rostrum is longitudinally channelled; its sides are almost 
parallel and its distal border, in dorsal view, is strongly concave. 
The actual apex is rounded, but is abruptly deflexed at a right 
angle and can therefore be seen only from in front. The sides of 
the rostrum and the orbital margins are clothed with long hairs 
which partially conceal the eyes. 

On the carapace a shallow groove extends transversely across the 
base of the rostrum. In the mid-dorsal line there is a rather obscure 
interrupted carina composed of four short ridges. The first of these 
ridges ends anteriorly in a conspicuous tooth just behind the trans- 
verse groove mentioned above; the second, which is very feebly 
developed, usually terminates in a minute denticle; the third is 



358 



Records of the Indian Museum. 



[Vol. XII, 



well elevated and its margin in lateral view is a little uneven ; the 
fourth is distinct and ends abruptly. The first lateral carinae are 
not parallel, but converge anteriorly. Each is composed of a num- 
ber of short ridges ending anteriorly in denticles. The foremost 
ridge is short and terminates in a comparatively large tooth placed 
a little behind the first of those in the median line. The small 
teeth or denticles on the two ridges posterior to it are also well 
formed, while the remainder are minute and can only be seen with 
difficult3^ At the posterior end of the carapace there are a few 
additional short ridges, some bearing denticles, between the median 
and the first lateral carinae. The second lateral carina is also 





Fig. I. — Pontophiliis {iicisiis, sp. nov. 
Antennule. c. First peraeopod. 



b. Antennal scale. 



d. Second peraeopod. 



composed of interrupted ridges, the foremost ending in a stout 
hepatic tooth situated in advance of the primary median tooth. 
The ridge flanking the hepatic tooth is comparatively long and is 
succeeded by another, also of considerable length, which ends in a 
conspicuous tooth; the remaining ridges, three or four in number, 
are short and each may or may not bear a small denticle. There 
are sharp orbital and branchiostegal spines, the latter being the 
longer and extending beyond the level of the rostral apex. Except 
for the ridges, the entire carapace is covered with a fine pubescence 
and also, in many cases, bears several upstanding tufts of long 
setae. 



1916,] S. Kemp : Notes on Crustacea Decapoda. 359 

The corneal portion of the eye is reniform in outline. The 
basal segment of the antennular peduncle (text-fig. la) is longitud- 
inally keeled below and usually bears a small tooth near its prox- 
imal end. Its lateral process is transversely oblong with the outer 
distal angle somewhat drawn out and projecting forwards. The 
second and third segments of the peduncle are extremely short, 
the two combined being scarcely half the length of the first. 

The antennal scale (text-fig. ih) is broadest near the base 
and is narrowed strongly towards the apex. It is about three times 
as long as broad and the short spine which terminates its outer 
margin extends by almost its whole length beyond the apex of 
the lamella. On the outer margin, at the end of the proximal 
quarter is a single stout tooth, recalling that found in P. sculptus ^ 
but placed much nearer the base. The margin behind this tooth 
is strongly convex and that in front of it slightly concave. 

The outer maxillipedes reach beyond the tip of the antennal 
scale by almost the entire length of the ultimate segment. 

The first peraeopods (text-fig. ic) are a little shorter than 
the outer maxillipedes and do not possess exopods. The spine 
on the outer margin of the merus is strong and, as in P. sculptus, 
is terminal in position. On the distal margin of the carpus there 
are two external spines. The propodus is nearly three and a half 
times as long as wide and the "thumb" of the subchela is ex- 
ceptionally large and strong. At their base the first peraeopods 
are separated, in both sexes, by a sharp forwardly directed sternal 
tooth. 

The second peraeopods (text fig. i^) are clothed with long 
hairs and reach beyond the end of the carpus of the first pair by 
almost the entire length of the chela. The carpus is about one 
fifth shorter than the merus and nearly one fifth longer than the 
chela. The chela, as in allied species, is weakly constructed, without 
incurved claws at the apex. The fingers are of equal breadth and 
length and the palm is exceptionally short, occupying only about 
one fifth the length of the chela. 

The slender third peraeopods reach beyond the tip of the 
antennal scale by the two terminal segments and by one third the 
length of the carpus. The latter segment is nearly one and a half 
times the length of the merus, twice the length of the ischium and 
one and a half times the length of the propodus and dactylus 
combined. The propodus is equal in length with the ischium and 
is two and a half times as long as the dactylus. 

In the last two peraeopods, which are similar, the four distal 
segments are practically glabrous ; those of the fourth pair reach 
beyond the antennal scale by the length of the dactylus. The merus 
in this pair is a trifle longer than the dactylus, four fifths the 
length of the propodus and nearly twice as long as the carpus. 
The dactylus is almost three quarters the length of the propodus. 

The abdominal segments are deeply grooved and incised, much 
as in P. sculptus, the depressed portions being pubescent and the 
raised portions glabrous. On the first five somites the sculpture is 



360 Records; of the Indian M iiseuni. [Vol, XII, 

transverse for the most part ; but there is a sharp longitudinal mid- 
dorsal carina in the posterior three quarters of the third somite, 
a pair of juxtaposed carinae, fused posteriorly, in the same position 
on the fourth somite and a similar pair of carinae, slightly diver- 
gent posteriorly, on the fifth. On the sixth somite the only sculp- 
ture consists of a pair of longitudinal carinae separated b3^ a broad 
flat interspace. The pleura of the first four somites are pointed 
below, bluntly in the female, rather more sharply in the male. 

The pleopods show marked sexual differences. In the male 
the endopod of the last four pairs is comparatively well developed 
and possesses an appendix interna. In the female the endopod is 
reduced in size and is extremely small in the case of the last pleo- 
pod : the appendix interna is present in the second pair, but is 
much smaller than in the male ; in the third and fourth pairs it is 
quite rudimentary and from the fifth it is entirely absent. 

The outer uropod is shorter than the inner and is very slender, 
nearly four times as long as broad. The telson is scarcely longer 
than the inner uropod and is also very slender, It is sulcate 
above and bears two pairs of small dorso-lateral spinules. The 
lower edges are fringed with long setae and distally it terminates 
in a sharp point, flanked by a pair of short spinules and bearing 
two pairs of long finely plumose setae. 

Large females reach a length of 18 mm.; the males are smaller, 
not exceeding 15 mm., and are apparently much less abundant. 
The eggs are about 0'4X0'3 mm. in longer and shorter diameter. 

Pontophilus incisus is a remarkably close ally of P. sculptus, 
Bell, a species known from the Mediterranean and from the French 
and British coasts.' In all conspicuous characters there is a very 
close similarity between the two forms, but differences in detail are 
sufficiently^ numerous to justify their specific separation. In P. 
incisus there is only one strong tooth in the mid-dorsal line of the 
carapace, whereas in P. sculptus there are almost invariably two. 
In P. incisus, also, the antennal scale is narrower and the tooth 
on its outer margin is placed near the base instead of in the mid- 
dle. In both species the spine on the outer margin of the merus 
of the first peraeopods is terminal and not sub-terminal as in some 
other species of the genus ; in P. incisus^ however, the anterior 
edge of the merus between this spine and the articulation of the 
carpus is entire, bearing only a few hairs, whereas in P. sculptus 
two or three additional spines are found in this position. In 
P. incisus, moreover, the lateral process of the antennular peduncle 
is more pointed distally, the subchela is more slender, the palm 
of the second peraeopods shorter and the dactyli of the last two 
peraeopods comparatively longer. 

In a previous paper * I have remarked on the presence of the 
appendix interna in P. sculptus ; but I failed to notice that in the 

' I have compared the Indian species with specimens of P. sculptus from the 
Irisli Sea. 

2 Kemp, Rec. Ind. Mus., VI, p. 10 (iqii i. 



1916.J vS. Kemp : Notes on Crustacea Decapoda. 361 

development of this appendage there were marked sexual differ- 
ences. The condition in P. sculptus is, in fact, precisely the same 
as has been described above in the case of the related Indian form. 

As regards the characteristic tooth on the outer edge of the 
antennal scale, I noted, in the paper cited above, that it was 
apparentl}^ absent in a single Mediterranean example of P. sculp- 
tus preserved in the Indian Museum. Further examination of 
this individual shows that the tooth is indeed present, but situated 
at the proximal end of the scale. The specimen is, in fact, in all 
points identical with the types of P. incisus and differs from P. 
scm//)^ws in the characters noted above. It is labelled "Mediter- 
ranean" without more precise locality and is said to have been 
received from E. Cornalia, from whom Wood-Mason obtained a 
large number of Mediterranean Decapoda. From Heller's descrip- 
tion/ however, it seems clear that the true P. sculptus occurs in 
the Mediterranean, for in his description of the antennal scale he 
says " am Seitenrande ausser dem endstandigen stachel mit einem 
zweiten beilaufig in der Mitte." It is probable therefore that 
some mistake has arisen and that the specimen, said to have been 
found in the Mediterranean, was in realit}' obtained in Indian 
waters. 

In life Pontophiiiis incisus is closely mottled with dark grey 
and brown, the colouration being apparently protective. 

All the specimens in the collection are from the Andaman Is. — 

ss>3.i Andamans, 20 fms. 'Investigator.' i, 10 mm. 

ssiLOz.?: Port Blair, Andamans, S. Kemp. 41, 7-18 mm. 

2-12 fms. 

The specimens from Port Blair, among which the types of the 
species (9070/10) are included, were obtained in the channel off 
Ross I. on a rough bottom composed of sand, stones, shells and 
coral. 

Pontophilus lowisi, sp. nov. 

(Plate viii, fig. 2.) 

The rostrum is longitudinally channelled above ; its lateral 
margins are curved and strongly divergent distally. The anterior 
margin is very broad and, in dorsal view, a little concave. The 
true apex is sharply deflexed ; it has a rounded margin and is 
visible only from in front. 

On the carapace there is no trace of the transverse groove be- 
hind the rostrum which occurs in most species. In the mid- dorsal 
line there is a longitudinal carina which extends close up to the 
base of the rostrum. Throughout the greater part of its length 
this carina is obscure; but for a short distance just behind the 
middle of the carapace it is sharp and well defined and owing to 
its greater elevation is distinct in lateral view. A feeble groove 
runs obliquely forwards and downwards on either side of the cara- 

' Heller, Crust. si'idlicJi. Etiropn. p. 228/1863). 



362 



Records of the Indian Museum. 



[Vol. XII, 



pace terminating just above the sharp branchiostegal spine. This 
spine reaches to the level of the rostral apex and extends far in 
advance of that which defines the outer orbital angle. Except for 
those on its frontal margin the carapace is entirel^^ devoid of 
spines and, except for that in the mid-dorsal line, it is without 
carinae. The carapace does not appear to be pubescent. 

The basal segment of the antennular peduncle is about one 
and a half times the length of the second and third combined; its 
lateral process is oval (text-fig. 2a). 

The antennal scale differs notably in the two sexes In the 
female (text-fig. 26') it is scarcely more than twice as long as broad 




Fig. 2. — Poiitophihis loivisi, sp. nov. 

a. Antennule. b'. Antennal scale of female. 

b. Antennal scale of male. c. First peraeopod. 

d. Second peraeopod. 



and the lamella, though narrowed, is of considerable breadth at 
its distal end. In the male (text fig. 26), it is almost three times 
as long as broad and the lamella slopes sharply away from the 
base of the distal tooth. The outer margin in both sexes bears 
numerous spines, in this respect differing from all known species 
of the genus. In the female the margin is straight or very shghtly 
concave and bears some 12 or 13 spines which increase in size from 
behind forwards. In the male the margin is strongly sinuous, 
convex in the middle and concave towards the distal end. It 
bears from 9 to 11 spines, similar to those of the female, but they 
are restricted to the basal convex portion of the margin and do 
not extend on to the concave part nearer the apex. 



1916.] S. Kemp : Notes on Crustacea Decapoda. 363 

The third maxillipecles reach ahnost or quite to the end of the 
antennal scale. The combined length of the two subequal distal 
segments is not greater than that of the antepenultimate. The 
latter segment bears a few small spinules at the distal end of its 
lower margin and the exopod, when naturally flexed, reaches but 
little beyond the middle of its length. 

The first peraeopods (text-fig. 2c) reach a little further than 
the third maxillipedes. The merus at its outer distal angle bears 
three stout curved spines and there is a single external spine near 
the distal end of the carpus. The subchela is a little more than 
three times as long as broad ; the " thumb " is large and sharp as 
in P. incisus. The first legs are separated at their base by a large 
forwardly directed sternal tooth. 

The second peraeopods (text-fig. 2d) are clothed with long 
hairs and reach beyond the carpus of the first pair ; the merus is 
as long as the carpus and chela combined, the carpus is one and a 
third times the length of the chela and the fingers are a little less 
than one and a half times as long as the palm. Each finger bears 
a slender spine at its apex, but the spines are not curved and the 
claw is apparently without cutting edges. The fixed finger is a 
little broader than the dact5dus. 

The third peraeopods reach beyond the antennal scale by the 
length of the two ultimate segments. The proportions are much 
the same as in P. incisus, but the propodus and dactylus are com- 
paratively a trifle longer, their combined lengths being almost three 
quarters that of the carpus. 

The fourth and fifth pairs bear scattered setae on the propo- 
dus. The fifth reach beyond the scale by about half the length of 
the dactylus. The propodus in this limb is two and a half times 
the length of the carpus and is a quarter longer than the subequal 
merus and dactylus. Seen under a high power of the microscope 
the anterior margins of the merus and carpus have a roughened 
appearance, as though they were studded with small tubercles. 

The abdomen in a dried specimen shows faint indications of 
sculpture, very shallow transverse grooves and elevations being 
visible on the first four segments. In the posterior half of the 
second somite and over the greater part of the third and fourth 
there are sharp longitudinal mid-dorsal carinae. Those on the 
second and third somites are simple, but that on the fourth is 
longirudinally grooved in the middle and thus has the appearance 
of a double carina fused at either end. There are two short dorsal 
carinae on the fifth somite and a pair of similar widely-separated 
carinae, which are exceedingly obscure, on the sixth. The pleura 
are not pointed inferiorly. 

The pleopods of the male resemble those of P. incisus, the 
endopod of the last four pairs is well developed and carries an 
appendix interna. In the female, as in P. incisus and P. sculptus, 
the endopod is greatly reduced and the appendix interna, found in 
those species in a rudimentary condition on the second, third and 
fourth pairs, is entirely suppressed. 



364 Rcxoyds of the Indian Museum. [Vol. XII, 

The outer uropod is a little shorter than the inner and bears 
long setae on its outer, as well as on its inner margin; it is a little 
more than three times as long as broad. The telson reaches about 
to the apex of the inner uropod ; it is deeply sulcate above with 
two pairs of dorso-lateral spinules and in the form of its apex 
resembles P. incisus. 

This species is, I believe, the smallest known Macruran. It is 
smaller even than P. sabsechota, Kemp, the largest individual in 
the collection, an oviserous female, being slightly less than 75 
mm. in total length. The eggs are comparatively large for such 
a small species; when not eyed and to all appearances freshly 
extruded they are about 034 X 0-27 mm. in longer and shorter 
diameter; when fully eyed and ready to hatch they measure about 
o*48xo'36mm. 

Pontophiltis lowisi is perhaps distantly related to P. bidentatus , 
de Haan ', and P. japonicus, Doflein*^, but from both these species 
it differs conspicuousl}' in the form of the carapace and in the 
presence of a series of spines on the outer edge of the antennal 
scale. 

The colouring of the species differed considerably in specimens 
from different localities. Individuals found on a muddy bottom 
were for the most part densely pigmented with grey and brown, the 
last abdominal somite and tail-fan being colourless except for a dark 
transverse band on the latter. Specimens from sandy ground were 
much lighter in colour, often quite pale and sometimes with one or 
two transverse brown bands. In one example from this t^^^pe of 
bottom the pigmentation is very peculiar, the carapace being deep 
amber brow a, the abdomen white with transverse bars of brown 
on the fifth somite and tail-fan and the antennules bright red. 

-^0-'"'"^ Port Blair, Andamans, 3-12 i'ms. S. Kemp. 69, 4'5-75 mm. 

Specimens were found oft' Ross I. and in various other parts 
of the harbour, but were most abundant at the inner end on a 
muddy bottom. The types of the species are numbered 9074/10 
in the Indian Museum register. 

With this species I have associated the name of Mr. R. F. 
Lowis, Deputy Superintendent of Port Blair, to whom I am much 
indebted for assistance during my visit to the Andamans. 

Pontophilus sabsechota, Kemp. 

1911. Puntop/iiliis sabsechota, Kemp, Kec. liid. Jl/iis.. \'l, p. 0, pi. ii, Hgs. 11-14. 

A male from Port Blair, only 8 mm. in length, agrees in most 
particulars with the type, a female. The distal margin of the 



1 l)e Haan, in Siebold's Fauna Japonlca, p. 183, pi. xlv, fig. 14 (1849J and 
Balss, Abhandl. tnath.-phys. Klasse K. Bayer. Akad . Wiss. Munchen, Suppl. 
Bd. II, p. 68, text-fig. 41 "(1914). 

2 Doflein. Abhaudl. math.-phys. Klasse K. Bayer. Akad. Wiss. Mi'oiclien. 
-XXI. p. r>2i, pi. iii, fig. 6, and text-fig. p. 622 (1902). 



1916.] S. Kemp : Notes on Crustacea Decapoda. 365 

rostrum is, however, more definitely concave in dorsal view and the 
anterior tooth of the second lateral carina of the carapace is less 
acute. The outer margin of the merus of the first legs terminates 
in a small spine and two similar spines exist between it and the 
articulation of the carpus : these spines do not exist in the type. 
The dactylus of the second legs is proportionately shorter than in 
the female, less than twice the length of the palm. The dorsal 
carina of the fourth abdominal somite is feebly channelled longitu- 
dinally ; that of the fifth is similar in its anterior half, but poste- 
riorly it is split into two divergent branches. On either side of the 
median line in the third, fourth and fifth somites are short but 
well defined carinae, which are transverse on the third but take a 
more oblique direction on the two succeeding somites. In the tj^pe 
specimen these lateral carinae are obsolete and the median keel of 
the fourth somite does not appear to be bifurcated posteriorly. In 
the pkopods there is a wide difference between the sexes. The 
endopod of the last four pairs is well developed in the female ; but 
in the male is exceedingly small in the second, third and fourth 
pairs and is entirely absent from the fifth. 

In life the male was almost pure white in colour with a black 
spot in front of the median tooth of the carapace, a pair of similar 
spots on either side between the fiist and second lateral carinae 
and a pair near the posterior margin. There were transverse 
bars of black pigment on the fourth abdominal somite and on the 
tail-fan, a black band near the distal end of the subchela and 
three similar bands on the fourth leg, situated on the ischium 
merus and propodus, 

-■'-j*f~- Port Blair, Andaman^, 6 fms. S. Kemp. i (^ , 8 mm. 

« 

Pontophilus candidus, sp. nov. 
(Plate viii, fig, 3.) 

The rostrum is flat and not channelled longitudinally ; its lat- 
eral margins are curved, convergent from the base to the middle 
and divergent from the middle onwards. The distal end, seen in 
dorsal view, is abruptly and squarely truncate. The true apex of 
the rostrum is sharply deflexed ; it is visible onh^ from in front 
and has a broadly convex margin. 

The carapace is entirel}^ devoid of carinae ; its surface, though 
smooth to the naked eye, is microscopically scabrous. The trans- 
verse depression usually found behind the rostrum is obsolete. 
The spinulation shows a remarkable difference in the two sexes. 
In the male there is a sharp spine in the median line a little behind 
the base of the rostrum, but of this in the female there is no trace. 
In both sexes there is a sharp hepatic spine, situated about on the 
same level as the dorsal spine of the male, and below and in 
advance of it is another conspicuous spine situated behind the 
branchiostegal angle. In the male there is a short longitudinal 
groove above the hepatic spine and another beneath it, shallower 



366 



Records of the Indian Museum. 



[Vol. XII, 



and considerably longer, extending almost to the posterior margin 
of the carapace. The branchiostegal angle is sharp and reaches 
the level of the rostral apex. On the margin immediately beneath 
it is a small spinule. 

The basal segment of the antennular peduncle (text- fig. 3a) is 
broad, its outer distal angle is bluntly produced. The lateral pro- 
cess is transversely oval with a straight posterior margin and a 
sharp point at its antero-external angle. The antennal scale (text- 
fig. 36) is broad, not more than two and a third times as long as 
wide; the outer margin is a trifle sinuous and terminates in a sharp 
spine which does not reach nearly as far forwards as the distal end 
of the lamella. 

The third maxillipedes reach a httle beyond the end of the 




Fig. 3. — Pontophilus candidus, sp. nov. 
a. Antennule. c. First peraeopod. 



h. Antennal scale. 



d. Second peraeopod. 



antennal scale ; the ultimate segment is decidedly longer than the 
antepenultimate. 

The first peraeopods (text-fig. 3c) reach a little beyond the 
third maxillipede and do not possess an exopod. The outer edge 
of the merus terminates in a single stout tooth and the margin 
between this tootn and the carpal articulation is entire. The 
carpus bears two spines on its outer distal margin. The subchela 
is little more than two and a half times as long as wide ; the cut- 
ting margin is strongly oblique and the spine which forms the 
' thumb' is extremely long and slender and is remarkable in that 
it is articulated and movable. The first legs are not separated at 
their base by the forwardly directed sternal tooth found in some 
other species of the genus. 

The second peraeopods (text-fig. 3^) reach beyond the carpus 
of the first pair and are lightly clothed with hair. The merus is 



1916.] S. Kemp : Notes on Crustacea Decapoda. 367 

long, more than twice the length of the carpus ; the chela is a little 
shorter than the carpus. The fingers are a trifle shorter than the 
palm; they are of equal breadth, without definite cutting margins, 
and each bears at its apex a single stout seta serrated on the inner 
side. 

The third peraeopods reach beyond the end of the first by the 
two ultimate segments. The carpus is one third the length of the 
merus and is a little shorter than the propodus and dactylus com- 
bined. In the fourth pair the propodus is the longest segment, 
nearly a quarter longer than the merus, a trifle longer than the 
carpus, and about ry times the length of the dactylus. 

The abdomen is quite smooth, without trace of sculpture; the 
lower margins of the pleura are rounded. The pleopods resemble 
those of P. lowisi. The endopod of the last four pairs in the 
female is greatly reduced and shows no trace of an appendix in- 
terna. In the male the endopod is better developed and in all 
four pairs is provided with a well formed appendix. 

The outer uropod is shorter than the inner and is about three 
times as long as broad; its external margin is without setae, 
except for a few at the distal end. The telson reaches about as 
far as the outer uropod and is not sulcate above. It bears two 
pairs of dorso-lateral spinules and the apex is similar to that of 
P. hicisus. 

Living specimens were as a rule almost pure white with a nar- 
row transverse brown band on the tail-fan. 

— °r#-* Port Blair, Andamans. S. Kemp. 2 ^, ^ $, 7-10 mm. 

The tj'pe specimens bear the number 9082/10. 

Pontophilus pilosus, sp. nov. 
(Plate viii, fig. 4.) 

The rostrum is well developed and reaches almost to the end 
of the eyestalks. It is deeply hollowed longitudinally and tapers 
to a narrow rounded apex. On its ventral side there is a deep 
vertical keel, extending downwards between the eyestalks. The 
keel ends abruptly a little behind the apex where it bears a tuft 
of long setae. 

The carapace is everywhere clothed with a fine pubescence, 
which, over the greater part of the surface, is comparatively short, 
but becom.es more conspicuous laterally and on the antero-lateral 
portions takes the form of long silky hairs. There are three pro- 
curved teeth in the mid-dorsal line, but no carina. The first two 
of these teeth are placed rather close together in the anterior half 
of the carapace, vv'hile the third is in the middle of the posterior 
half. Behind the antennal spine, which reaches almost as far for- 
ward as the rostrum, there are two small teeth placed one behind 
the other in the latitude of the first tooth of the mid-dorsal series. 
Below these there is a stout hepatic tooth which overhangs a deep 
sulcus — the lateral continuation of the transverse post- rostral 



368 



Records of the Indian Museum, 



[Vol. Xir, 



groove, especially well marked in this portion of the carapace. 
The branchiostegal spine is strong and extends forwards beyond 
the level of the eyestalks. Behind it is another small tooth, placed 
further forward than any others of the dorsal series. Exclusive 
of the spines on its frontal margin, there are in all eleven teeth 
on the carapace : none of these teeth form the terminations of 
carinae. 

In the male each of the last three thoracic sterna bears a 
median keel, which ends anteriorly in a small tooth : these keels 
are absent in the female. The first and second pairs of legs 
are adjacent at the base in the male and are not separated by the 
antrorse spine found in P. hendersoni. 




Fig. 4. — Pontophilus pilosiis, sp. nov. 

a. Antennule. c. First peraeopod. 

b. Antennal scale. d. Second peraeopod. 



The eyes are stout and short. In both sexes the distal mar- 
gin of the stalk, on its upper and inner side, is produced beyond 
the cornea to a small but conspicuous papilla. 

The basal segment of the antennular peduncle (text-fig. 4a) 
bears a stout ventral spine and another at the distal end of its 
outer margin. The lateral process is peculiar in form. It is fully 
as long as broad and is furnished anteriorly with two spines, the 
outermost the largest and the inner bearing a small internal spinule. 
The outer flagellura does not appear to be appreciably stouter in the 
male than in the female and is shorter than the peduncle. 

The antennal scale (text-fig. 46) is broad, its breadth in a large 
female being more than half its length. The outer margin is con- 
vex and terminates in a spine which does not reach as far forward 
as Ihe lamella and is separated from it by a broad U-shaped gap. 



1916.J S. Kkmp : Notes on Cnislaceci Decaj^oda. 369 

The outer maxillipedes are clothed with long setae and reach 
beyond the end of the antennal scale by almost the entire length 
of the ultimate segment. 

The first peraeopods (text-fig. 4c) are a little shorter than the 
outer maxillipedes and are not provided with exopods. The spine 
on the outer margin of the merus is terminal and on the anterior 
margin between it and the articulation of the carpus there is another 
smaller spine. The carpus is short ; the inner margin is lobed and 
bears coarse setae, while on the outer margin are two spines. The 
breadth of the hand, measured near its base, is about one third its 
entire length. 

The second peraeopods (text-fig. 4^) reach to the carpus of the 
first pair. The carpus is two thirds the length of the merus and is 
as lona: as the palm and half the length of the fingers. In the chela, 
which as in the preceding species is weakly constructed and with- 
out cutting margins or terminal claws, the palm is about one 
seventh longer than the dactylus. The fixed finger is noticeably 
shorter than the dactylus and both fingers bear long setae. 

The slender third peraeopods reach beyond the antennal scale 
by about the length of the two ultimate segments. The merus is 
a little shorter than the ischium and a little longer than the pro- 
podus. The carpus is one and two thirds the length of the merus 
and is one fifth longer than the propodus and dactylus combined. 
The fourth and fifth legs are rather densely clothed with hairs 
The merus, carpus and propodus are subequal and the dactylus is 
a little more than half their length. 

The abdominal somites are quite smooth and are covered with 
a fine pubescence similar to that on the carapace; the margins of 
the pleura are rounded. The inner ramus of the last four pairs of 
pleopods is comparatively well developed in the male and carries 
an appendix interna ; in the female it is reduced and no trace of 
this appendage is to be found. The outer uropod is shorter than 
the inner and is nearly three times as long as broad. The telson 
is one and a half times the length of the last abdominal somite; it 
is provided with two pairs of dorso lateral spinules and its lower 
margins are ciliated. The apex is similar to that of P. parvirostris. 

Pontophilus pilosus is sometimes conspicuously banded in life 
with dark brown. In examples from very shallow water there is a 
narrow transverse band at the posterior end of the carapace and 
others, rather broader, on the second and fourth abdominal somites 
and across the middle of the telson and uropods. Individuals 
obtained at a depth of two fathoms were marbled with brown pig- 
ment mixed with a certain amount of pure white, the carapace 
being sometimes of a dull reddish-brown. In all the specimens 
there was a dark spot at the distal end of the subchela. 

The specimens were obtained at the northern end of the Gulf 
of Mannar. — 

8^19 Kilakarai, Ramnad S. Kemp. 2 juv., 3 (^, 4 ?, 

dist., S. India. 5'5-i3 m'Ti' Types. 



370 



Records of the Indian Museum. 



[Vol. XII, 



Pontophilus plebs, sp. nov. 
(Plate viii, fig. 5.) 

The rostrum is longitudinally channelled; its lateral margins 
are convergent and meet in a narrowly rounded apex. The cara- 
pace is devoid of pubescence and is not carinated. It bears seven 
teeth, one situated mid-dorsally, close behind the rostrum and 
separated from it by a shallow transverse groove, and three pairs 
on either side. The latter comprise a stout hepatic tooth, on a 
level with that in the middle line, and two small teeth, both in 
advance of the hepatic, placed close together behind the sharp 
spinous branchiostegal angle. In the anterior half of the carapace 
there are obscure longitudinal furrows above and below the hepa- 
tic tooth. 

The basal segment of the antennular peduncle (text-fig 5a) is 
longer than the two following combined, externally the distal 





Fig. 5. — Pontophilus ptebs, sp. nov. 
Antennule. c. First peraeopod. 

Antennal scale. d. Second peraeopod. 



margin is produced to an acute tooth. The lateral process is more 
or less oval in shape, longer than broad, and is anteriorly pointed- 
The second and third segments are broader than long. The an- 
tennal scale (text-fig. 56) is only twice as long as broad ; the outer 
margin is straight and terminates in a tooth which is far exceeded 
by the distal end of the lamella. 

The third maxillipedes reach beyond the scale by about half 
the length of the ultimate segment. The first peraeopods (text- 
fig. 5c) are scarcely shorter. The outer edge of the merus termin- 
ates in a large tooth and the margin between this tooth and the 
articulation of the carpus is unarmed. The carpus bears a stout 
external tooth. The hand is about two and a half times as long 
as wide and the single tooth which forms the ' thumb' of the sub- 



iQi6.] S. Kemp : Notes on Crustacea Decapoda. 371 

chela is articulated, as in P. candidus, and not fixed as in most 
species of the genus. 

The second peraeopods (text-fig. 5<f) reach little beyond the 
end of the merus of the first pair. The merus is one third longer 
than the ischium and more than twice the length of the carpus. 
The dactylus is longer than the palm and conspicuously longer 
than the fixed finger, the fingers are of equal breadth and each 
bears a single stout seta at its apex. The whole limb is rather 
thickly clothed with hairs. 

The slender third peraeopods reach beyond the end of the 
antennal scale. The carpus is a little longer than the merus and 
as long as the propodus and dactylus combined. The fourth and 
fifth peraeopods are shorter than the third. In the fifth pair the 
dact3dus and propodus are subequal ; the carpus is a little longer 
than the propodus and a little shorter than the merus. 

In the male the last three segments of the thoracic sternum 
are carinate, the carina of each ending anteriorly in a small tooth. 
These carinae and teeth do not appear to exist in the female and 
in neither sex is there a sternal spine extending between the bases 
of the third legs. 

The abdominal somites are smooth, without sculpture or 
pubescence ; their pleura are rounded inferiorly. In the male the 
endopod of each of the last four pairs of pleopods is comparatively 
well developed and possesses an appendix interna. In the female 
there is no appendix interna and the endopod is very small in the 
second and third pairs, quite rudimentary on the fourth and absent 
from the fifth. 

The telson, including the terminal spines, reaches a little be- 
yond the end of the inner uropod. It is not sulcate above and 
bears two pairs of lateral spinules between which are two rows of 
exceedingly' minute denticles. These denticles can only be seen if 
the telson is viewed obliquely from the side under a microscope ; 
they extend from the base almost to the distal end and may be as 
many as sixteen in number. The apex is closely similar to that 
of P. incisus. 

The outer uropod is shorter than the inner. It bears setae on 
its external margin and is fully three and a half times as long as 
broad. 

The largest of the nine specimens obtained is only 6 mm. in 
length. No ovigerous females were found and it is possible, there- 
fore, that all are immature. The characters are, however, quite 
distinctive and experience with other species leads me to believe 
that they would not change appreciably with further growth. The 
specimens were pale in life with sparse black dendritic chromato- 
phores, 

"io^- Port Blair, Andamans, 2 fms. S. Kemp. 9, 4J-6 mm. Types. 

The specimens were all found together in Phoenix Bay on a 
bottom of muddy sand. 



372 Records of the Indian Museum. [Vol. XII, 

Pontophilus hcndersoni, Kemp. 

IQIS Pontophilus henderso?n\ Kemp, Mcfn. Ind. Mtis., V, p. 261, pi. xiii, 
fig. 8. 

The characters given in the key on pp. 356 and 357 will suffice 
to distinguish this species from all other Indian representatives of 
the genus. 

P. hendersoni is very closely allied to P. megalocheir (vStebbing) ', 
obtained at depths of 25 and 37 fathoms on the coast of S. Africa. 
The African form agrees in nearly all respects with that from the 
Indian coast ; in particular, there is (as shown in Stebbing's figures) 
an almost complete identity of form in the structure of the subchela, 
the 'thumb ' being composed of two closely juxtaposed spines in- 
stead of the single one found in all other species of the genus. 

There are, however, certain discrepancies between Stebbing's 
account and my own, which, if substantiated, are sufficient to 
justify the separation of the two forms. The apex of the lamella 
of the antennal scale is, for instance, much more acute in P. megalo- 
cheir than in P. hendersoni , extending much further beyond the 
apex of the spine that terminates the outer margin (c/. Stebbing's 
pi. Ixxix, fig. a.i. and my text-fig. 2'^a). Stebbing also has made 
no mention of the small tubercle found in P. hendersoni on the dor- 
sum of the third abdominal somite and the armature of the telson 
is totally different. In P. megalocheir the telson is furnished at 
its apex with a long and slender tooth, flanked by a pair of plu- 
mose setae {v. Stebbing, pi. Ixxix, fig. T). In P. hendersoni the 
apex consists of a triangular plate with a minute spinule on either 
side and with two pairs of plumose setae arising from beneath it 
[v. Kemp, text-figs. 25 g, g')- 

Since the original account of P. hendersoni was published, 
additional specimens have been taken in the open sea on the Orissa 
Coast, a circumstance which tends to confirm the view that the 
occurrence of the species in the outer channel of the Chilka Lake 
was purely accidental and that it is not normally an inhabitant of 
brackish water. 

9|g_fi Puri, Orissa coast, 4-4^ fms. S. Kemp. 3, 6^-9 mm. 

Pontophilus parvirostris, sp nov. 
(Plate viii, fig. 6.) 

The rostrum is extremely small, far less conspicuous than in 
any other species of the genus. It recalls that found in many 
Pagurids and consists merely of a small flat triangular prolonga- 
tion of the median part of the carapace. The apex is acute and 
does not reach further than to one third the length of the eyestalks. 

The antennal spine is sharp and extends far beyond the level 
of the rostral apex ; the branchiostegal spine is long and reaches 

I Philocheras megalocheir, Stebbing, Ann. S. African Mas., XV, p. 71, pi. 
Ixxix (1Q15). This work was not received in Calcutta in sufficient time to enable 
me to refer to it in my account of the Decapods of the Chilka Lake. 



I9i6.] 



S, Kemp : Notes on Crustacea Decapoda. 



373 



almost as far forwards as the ends of the eyestalks. The latter 
spine is flanked by a short carina which runs obliquely downwards 
and backwards and, above its posterior termination, in the anterior 
quarter of the carapace, there is another well marked spine. Ex- 
cept for this spine and for the carina mentioned above the entire 
surface of the carapace is smooth, save for a feeble transverse 
depression behind the frontal margin. On the sides of the carapace, 
most numerous below the branchiostegal carina, are some long 
silky hairs. 

The thoracic sterna of the female are not carinate. 

The eyes are elongate and their inner margins are contiguous ; 
the cornea is well pigmented and its length in dorsal view is about 
equal to that of the stalk. 

The basal segment of the antennular peduncle (text-fig. 6a) 
bears two stout teeth, one situated ventrally and one externally 




Fig. 6. — Ponfophilus parvirostris, sp. nov. 

a. Antennule. c. First peraeopod. 

b. Antennal scale. d. Second peraeopod. 



at its distal end. The lateral process is elongate oval and is fur- 
nished with a minute point anteriorly. The second and third seg- 
ments are about equal in length and the outer flagellum in the 
female is about as long as the peduncle. 

The antennal scale (text-fig. 6&) is about one and two thirds 
as long as broad; the outer margin is very slightly convex and 
terminates in a stout tooth which does not reach nearly as far for- 
wards as the apex of the lamella. 

The outer maxillipedes reach beyond the apex of the scale by 
more than half the length of the ultimate segment. 

The first peraeopods (text-fig. 6c) reach as far forwards as the 
third maxillipedes and do not possess exopods. The merus bears 
a terminal (not sub-terminal) spine at the distal end of its outer 
margin. On the outer and inferior aspect of the carpus there is a 
sharp spine ; the inner angle is produced and is provided with a 



374 Records of the Indian Museum. [Voiv. XII, 

tuft of coarse setae. The basal breadth of the hand is Httle more 
than one third its entire length. The "thumb" of the subchela 
is stout and strongly deflected outwards. On the inner surface 
near the base of the propodus there is the usual tuft of coarse setae. 

The second peraeopods (text-fig. 6^) reach about to the end of 
the merus of the first pair. The chela is a trifle longer than the 
carpus and is remarkable in that the dactylus is extremely slender, 
less than half the thickness of the fixed finger. As in allied forms 
the chela is very weaklj^ constructed and is without terminal claws 
or definite cutting edges. The palm is about two thirds the length 
of the fingers and the propodus on its outer margin is densely 
fringed with long setae. 

The slender third peraeopods reach beyond the scale by the 
whole length of the two ultimate segments. The merus is a little 
longer than the ischium and a little shorter than the propodus and 
dactylus combined. The carpus is twice the length of the ischium. 

The fourth and fifth peraeopods are similar and stouter than 
the third. The merus is a little longer than the subequal carpus 
and propodus and about three times the length of the dactylus. 
The segments are rather densely clothed with hairs. 

The abdominal somites are quite smooth, without carinae or 
grooves, and the margins of the pleura are rounded below. The 
sixth somite is about equal in length with the telson. The inner 
ramus of the last four pairs of pleopods is very short and does not 
possess an appendix interna. The uropods are half as long again 
as the telson and the exopod is nearly four times as long as broad. 

The telson is rather iDroad at the base, but much narrowed at 
the apex. The margins are setose and there are two pairs of dorso- 
lateral spinules. The tip is triangular and sharply acute ; beneath 
it three pairs of spinules arise, the innermost two thirds the length 
of the intermediate pair and two and a half times as long as the 
outer. 

The colour in life of Pontophilus parvirostris was pale, mottled 
and spotted with dark umber, tending to maroon at the sides and 
on the appendages and forming distinct blotches on the pleura of 
the first, fourth and sixth abdominal somites. 

The specimens are registered thus, — 

_s.aso Kilakarai, Ramnad dist., S. India. S. Kemp. 4?, 9-14 mm. 

Types. 

Genus Aegcon, Guerin Meneville. 

1888. Pontocai'is, Bate, Rep. ' Clialleiigei'' Macriira, p. 495. 

1900. Aegean , Stabbing, Marine Invest. S. Africa, I, p. 50. 

1901. Aegean, Alcock, Cat. Indian deep-sea Crust. Macriira and Anomala, 

p. 117 (including subgenus Parapontocaris p. 120). 

All the described forms of this genus are represented in the 
collection of the Indian Museum. Three of them, Aegeon orien- 
talis, Henderson, A. haheren, Doflein.and A, lacazei, Gourret, are 
intermediate in character between the more typical species of the 
genus and those which Alcock referred to the subgenus Parapon- 



T9i6.] 



vS. Kemp : Notes on Crustacea Decapoda. 



375 



tocaris] the latter term should therefore lapse. Aegeon orientalis 
agrees with Parapontocaris in the complete absence of the hepatic 
groove and in the arrangement of the carinae on the first and second 
abdominal somites and resembles typical Aegeon in the ver\'' broad 
antennal scale and in the possession of strong median spines on the 
abdominal sterna. Aegeon hahereri and lacazei are closely allied 
forms; in most respects the}' agree closely with typical species of 
the genus, but they resemble Parapontocaris in the sculpture of the 
first two abdominal somites and in the elongate form of the anten- 
nal scale. 

In all six species of Aegeon are known from Indian waters; 
they may be distinguished by the following key: — 

I. Second lateral carina of carapace interrupted anteri- 
orly by a well defined hepatic groove; lateral parts of 
ist and 2nd abdominal somites irregularly lobed, with- 
out sharp longitudinal keels continuous with those on 
carapace. 

A. Median carina of carapace with 4 taeth ; two or 
three tubercles, forming an oblique transverse 
row, between median and ist lateral carinae 



B. Median carina of carapace with 8 or 9 teeth or 
serrations ; surface between carinae of cara- 
pace smooth, without tubercles. 

1. Marginal carina of carapace smooth; 

two lobules separated by a vertical fur- 
row on either side of median carina of 
2nd abdominal somite 

2. Marginal carina of carapace serrulate; 

a sinuous longitudinal ridge, entire and 
not divided by a furrow, on either side 
of median carina of ?nd abdominal 
somite 

Second lateral carina of carapace not interrupted, hep- 
atic groove absent ; lateral parts of ist and 2nd ab- 
dominal somites with sharp longitudinal keels conti- 
nuous with those on carapace. 

A. 1st and 2nd lateral carinae of carapace with 

7 teeth, marginal with 7 to 9 ; antennal scale 
as broad as long 

B. 1st lateral carina of caiapace with 4 teeth, 2nd 

lateral with 3 to 6, marginal with 2 or 3 ; 
antennal scale much longer than broad. 

1. 2nd lateral carina of carapace with 5 or 6 

teeth, marginal with 3 ; median carina 
of 2nd abdominal tergum bispinous .. 

2. 2nd lateral carina of carapace with 3 

teeth, marginal with 2 ; median carina 
of 2nd abdominal tergum unispinous .. 



cafap'n-actiis 
(Olivi). 



peiniata, Bate. 



pi'opeiisalata, 
Bate. 



oriejitalis, 

Henderson. 



andamanense 
(\\'ood- Mason) 



heiigaleiise 

( Wood- Mason ). 



Aegeon cataphractus (Olivi). 

1900. Aegean cataplwuctiis. Stabbing, Marine Invest. S. Africa, I, p. 50 

{ubi syn,). 
1905. Aegean cafaph nicfiis. Pearson, Ceylon Pearl Oyster Fish.. Macrura 

p. 89. 



376 Records of the Indian Museum. [Vor,. XII, 

Except that the teeth on the carapace are blunter and that 
the abdominal sculpture is a little less sharply defined, I can find 
no difference between the two Indian specimens and others of 
similar size from the Mediterranean. 

Characteristic of A. cataphractiis are the supernumerary tu- 
bercles between the longitudinal carinae of the carapace. Between 
the median and uppermost carinae are two or three tubercles 
arranged to form an oblique transverse row, which commences in 
the middle of the carapace and extends forwards and outwards on 
either side. Between the first and second lateral carinae there is 
a single tubercle placed on the posterior edge of the hepatic groove. 
Though both the Indian examples are small these tubercles are 
clearly visible. 

The occurrence of this species in India is interesting, for very 
few sub-littoral Decapoda are common to the Mediterranean and 
to Indian waters. Miers, however, states that the species prob- 
ably occurs at Senegambia, while vStebbing records it from the Cape 
of Good Hope, so that there is reason to believe that the distribu- 
tion is continuous round the African coasts. 

In Indian waters A. cataphractiis appears to be very scarce. 
Pearson has recorded it from the Ceylon Pearl Banks and there are 
two specimens in the Indian Museum., both obtained on the west 
coast of the peninsula : — 

jiiijiiL 26 mi. W. S. W. of Honawar, N. ' In\estigator. ' 1$, 15 mm. 
Kanara dist., Bomba)' Pres., 28 fms. 

^\%- Karachi. \\'. T. Blanford. i^, 23111111. 

Aegeon pcnnata (Bate). 

1888. Pontocaris pe>i)!ata. Bate, Rep. ' Challenger ' Macriira, p. 449, 

pi. xci, 
1895. Pontocaris peiinnfa, Ortniann, Proc. Acad. Sci. Philadelphia, 

P- 175- 
1901. Aegeon affine, Alcock, Cat. Indian deep-sea Crust. Macriira and 

Anomala, p. 188, and Illiist. Zool. 'Investigator,^ pi. 11, figs. 3, 4. 
1914. Aegeon ohsoletiim, Balss, Ahh. viath.-pliys. Klasse Baver. Ahad. 

Wiss. Mi'mchen, Suppl. Bd. II, p. 70, pi. i, figs. 3. 

Alcock, when describing Aegeon affine, suggested that the 
species might prove to be identical with Bate's Pontocaris pennata. 
The description and figures of the latter species being inadequate, 
the point could only be determined by actual comparison of speci- 
mens. In order to settle the question I sent co-types of A. affine 
to Dr. Caiman, who, with his usual kindness, readily undertook to 
give me an opinion. He informs me that Alcock's suggestion is 
correct and that there is no doubt that the two forms are specific- 
ally identical. 

An example of Aegeon obsoletum, determined by Balss, has 
been received in exchange from the Munich Museum ; it was ob- 
tained in vSagami Bay, Japan, at a depth of 50-100 m, The in- 
dividual agrees precisely with Indian specimens of A. pennata. 

In addition to the characters noted by Alcock for the separa- 
tion of this species from A. medium { = A. propensalata. Bate), 



1916.] S. Kemp : Notes on Crustacea Decapoda. 377 

there is a marked difference between the two in the sculpture of 
the second abdominal somite. In A. propensalata, on either side 
of the middle line, there is a broad sinuous ridge which extends 
obliquely throughout the length of the somite. In A. pennala 
this ridge is broken in two by a deep vertical furrow. 

Dr. Caiman has kindly sent me the following notes regarding 
the types obtained by the ' Challenger '— " The three specimens 
of P. pennata differ among themselves in the form of the rostrum 
and other characters. In two specimens the rostrum is relatively 
short, bifid at tip, and with the lateral spines as large as in ^ . 
medutm. In the third specimen the rostrum is longer, sharp-point- 
ed, and with very small lateral spines. In this last specimen also 
there is a tendency towards a softening of the inequalities of the 
general surface, i.e. the keels and ridges are not so prominent. 
In particular the two lobules on either side of the median carina of 
the second abdominal somite are not sharply defined, although 
the vertical furrow separating them is distinct." 

The following records of occurrence in Indian waters may be 
added to those given by Alcock : — 

-*fAi Persian Gulf, 26°2o'3o" N., ^4°52'3o" E., 

35 fms. 
±±§fi Persian Gulf, 26°33' N., 52°23' E.. 

40 fms. 
^W-- Arabian Sea, 24°26'5o" N.. 66°35'5o" E., 

35 fms. 
^i^^ Coromandel coast, i4°25' N., 8o°i5'45" 

E., 12 fms. 

il.Q7^-_S 2037-9 ) 

2395-401. ii87;92_ Ganjam coast, 26-93 fms. 

10 ' 10 ' ' 
J-^°^ 28 mi. S.W. of Puri, Orissa, 25 fms. ... 

^■i<^ Off Gangetic delta, 20^18' N., 90°5o' E., 

65 fms. 
^'\¥'- Off Tennasserim coast, i3°27'3o" N., 

97°37' E , 50 fms. 
iLi_o_o Off Cheduba, Arakan coast, 20 fms. ... 

According to the labels the individual from the neighbourhood 
of the Gangetic delta was " grey, touched with dark brown and 
green marks", while some of tho.se from the Ganjam coast were 
irregularly banded with lichen green and mottled pink. 

On the Indian coasts A. pennata is evidently common ; it has 
been found at depths ranging from 12 to 93 fathoms. The type 
specimens were obtained by the ' Challenger ' in the Arafura Sea, 
south of New Guinea, 8° 56' S., 136° 5' E., at a depth of 49 fathoms. 
Balss, under the name A. obsoletum, records numerous specimens 
from Japan from depths of 80 to 150 metres. The species is ap- 
parently one of wide Indo-pacific distribution. 

Aegeon propensalata (Bate). 

1888. Pontocaris propensalata, Bate, Rep ' Challenger ' Macritra p. 469, 

pi. xc, figs. 2, 3 ; pi. Ixxxv, fig. 5. 
1895. Pontocaris propensalata, Ortmann, Proc. Acad. Sci. Philadclplna. 

P- 175- 



Investigator' 


Five. 


,, 




One. 


>" 




Seven. 


,. 




Two. 


, , 




Twenty-two 


M 




Three 


J> 




One. 






Two. 






One. 



378 Records of the Indian Museum. [Vol. XII, 

1899. Pontccaris media, Alcock and Anderson, A)i>i. Mag. Nat. Hist. 

(7), III, p. 282. 

1900. Poiitocaris propeiisalata, Whitelegge, Mem. Australian Mtis., W , 

p. 198. 

1901. Aegean medium, Alcock, Cat. Indian deep-sea Crust. Macrura and 

Anomala, p. 120, and Illust. Zool, ' Investigator,' pi. xli, fig. 6. 

In this case also I am indebted to Dr. Caiman for the elucida- 
tion of the synonymy. Dr, Caiman has kindly compared co-types 
of A. medium with the type of Bate's P. propensalata and has sent 
me the following note on the subject. — " 1 cannot find any differ- 
ence between the type of P. propensalata and A. medium. The 
sculpturing of the abdominal somites is less sharp in the former 
and the serration of the supramarginal carina of the carapace is 
very obscure — as it tends to be in the smaller of' the two speci- 
mens of A. medium that I have examined." 

The only specimens in the Indian Museum are those described 
by Alcock from the Andaman Sea, 55-66 fathoms. Bate's type 
specimen was obtained off the Ki Is., south of New Guinea, 5°49' 
15" S.. 132° 14' 15" E., at a depth of 140 fathoms, and Whitelegge 
has recorded the species from 50 fathoms in Botany Ba^^ 

Aegeon orientalis, Henderson. 

1893. Aegeon orientalis, Henderson, Trans. Linn . Soc , Zool. (2), V, p. 446, 
pi. xl, figs. 16, 17. 

Three specimens in rather poor condition from the Persian 
Gulf and the Andamans evidently belong to this species, which 
does not appear to have been recognised since it was first described 
more than twenty years ago. 

The spinulation of the carapace agrees exactly with Hender- 
son's description except that the serrations on the marginal carina 
vary in number from 7 to 9. The abdominal sculpture also agrees 
with the original description ; but there are two longitudinal carinae 
on either side of the second abdominal somite, and the five carinae 
on the first somite, as well as the median carina on the second, end 
anteriorly in sharp spines. These spines were perhaps worn awaj' 
in the type, which is larger than any of the three specimens here 
recorded. 

Although, as Henderson has remarked, the species bears a 
rather marked resemblance to A. caiaphractus, it is not in reality 
a veryclose ally of that species. As has already been pointed out 
it is intermediate in character between the more typical species 
and those that Alcock referred to the subgenus Parapontocaris. 
Pearson's suggestion that A. orientalis is merely an extreme varia- 
tion, oi A. cataphractus^ is certainly incorrect. A. orientalis may 
readily be distinguished (i) by the complete absence of the hepatic 
groove, (ii) by the smaller number of serrations on the marginal 
carina of the carapace, (iii) by the sharp longitudinal lateral carinae 
of the first two abdominal somites and (iv) by the presence of only a 

' Pearson, Ceylon Pearl Oyster Fisheries, Macrura, p. 89 (1905). 



1916.] S. Kemp : Notes on Cmstacea Dccapoda. 379 

single retrorse spine behind the middle point of each of the sub- 
median carinae of the last abdominal somite. The spines on the 
first two abdominal somites, if their presence proves to be con- 
stant, will also serve to distinguish the two forms. 

I think it improbable that the specimens from deep water off 
the Hawaiian Is., recorded by Miss Rathbun as Egeon orientalis ^, 
are correctly referred to this species. In the examples in the 
Indian Museum the middle tooth of the median carina of the cara- 
pace is not smaller than the rest and the denticulation of the second 
lateral and marginal carinae is also different. Moreover, the third 
and fourth abdominal somites though strongly sculptured, only 
bear a single lateral longitudinal carina. These carinae, which 
are submedian in position and are clearly shown in Henderson's 
figure, are sinuous and towards the hinder end of the somite are 
directed obliquely outwards; that on the third is entire, while 
that on the fourth is interrupted in the middle. There are certainly 
not two lateral carinae on the third and three on the fourth as 
in Miss Rathbun 's description. 

The specimens examined are registered as follows: — 

if^ Persian Gulf, 26^22' N., 56°i(/ E., ' Investigator.' f i J, 18 mm.> 

48-49 fms. 1 I ? , 15 mm. 

9x^ Port Blair, Andamans. J. Wood-Mason. i ^. 14 mm. 

The type and only other known example of the species is re- 
corded by Henderson from the Gulf of Martaban. 

Aegeon atidamanense (Wood-Mason). 

1901. Aegean (Parapoiifocaris) nndaniaiicnse, Alcock, Cat. Indian deep- 
sea Crust. Maci'iira and Ajiomala. p. 121, and Ilhist. Zool. ' Investi- 
gator,' Crust., pi. ix, fig. 2. 

Aegeon bengalense (Wood-Mason). 

1901. _ Aegean {Parapuntocaris) bengalense, Alcock, Cat. fjidian deep-sea 
Crust. Macrura and Anomala, p. 122, and Ilhist. Zool. ' hivesti- 
gator,' Crust., pi. ix, fig. i. 

1912. Aegeon (Parapontocaris) bengalense, Kemp and Sewell, Rec. Iiid. 
Mus., VII, p. 22. 

Genus Prionocrangon, Wood-Mason. 
Prionocrangon ommatosteres, Wood-Mason. 

1901, Prionocrango)i oniniatosteres, Alcock, Cat. Indian deep-sea- Crust. 
Macrura and Anomala, p. 123, and Illust. Zool. ' hivestigator,' 
Crust., pi. ix, fig. 4. 

Genus Crangon, Fabricius. 

Crangon crangon (Linnaeus). 

I have compared the Indian specimens with examples from 
Plymouth and the only appreciable distinctions that I can find are 



' Rathbun, Bull. U.S. Fish Co>nin. far IQ03, p. gi i (.1906) 



380 Records of the Indian Mnseuni. [Vol. XII, 

that in the Indian form the rostrum is narrower and distinctly- 
longer, reaching almost to the end of the eyes {cf. text-figs, ya, b) 
and that the sixth abdominal somite is less distinctly grooved in- 
feriorly. There is the closest resemblance between the two groups 
of specimens in the form of the subchela and antennal scale. 

The characters yielded by the rostrum and last abdominal 
somite may ultimately afford grounds for the recognition of the 
Indian form as a distinct subspecies, but in my opinion are insuffi- 
cient for specific distinction. 

A number of forms very closely allied to the common European 
species have been recorded from Japan; Miss Rathbun ', indeed, 
has reported the presence of C. crangon itself at Rikuoku (Rikuchu) 
and Hokkaido. Balss^, the most recent author to discuss the 
Japanese forms, notes that Brashnikow •'' (writing in Russian) has 
established the fact that C. crangon crangon does not occur in 





A A 



Oy. 



Fig. 7. — Crangon crangon (l.inn.). 

Anterior portion of carapace, rostrum and eyes : (a) of an Indian specimen ; 
(1)) of a specimen from Plymouth. 

Japanese waters. He, however, gives a summary of the characters 
of C. affinis, de Haan, C. propinquus , Stimpson, C. hakodatei, 
Rathbun, C. consobrmiis , de Man, and C. cassiope, de Man, and 
remarks that in the collections that he himself has examined these 
characters are inconstant, even in specimens from a single gather- 
ing. He regards the last four of the names just mentioned as 
synonyms of C. affinis, a form which he apparently considers to be 
merely a subspecies of C. crangon. 

If Balss is correct, the retention of a distinct subspecific 
name for the Japanese form seems to have little to recommend it. 
The characters of C. crangon, if tabulated on Balss 's plan, will 
evidently fall within the rajige of variation of the single Japanese 

' Rathbun, Proc. U.S. Nat. Mtis., XX Vi, p. 42 ( 1902). 

2 Balss, Ab/iandl. math.-pliys. Klasse K. Bayer. AkaiL Wiss. Mi'tnchen, 

Suppl.-Bd. II, p. 62 (1914). 
" Brashnikow, Mem. Acad. Imp. Sci. Nat. .St. Ft'tersbiirg, (8), XX, p. 84 

(1907). 



igT6.] S. Kemp : Notes on Crustacea Decapoda. 381 

race that he recognises, the difference between the European and 
Japanese races consisting solely in the greater variability exhibited 
by the latter. 

The Indian specimens do not show any marked variation, but 
the series is small. And even should their form prove constant, 
it is useless to speculate on the precise status of the different races 
until some general consensus of opinion on the Japanese forms has 
been reached. 

Crangon crangon appears to be very rare on the Indian coasts ; 
the only specimens in the Museum are the following ; — 

'■'-'J-" Akyab, Arakan coast. F. Stoliczka. 3, 55-52 mm. 



The Structure of the Pleopods in Pontophilus. 

The recognition of the fact that in certain species of Pontophilus 
there are often marked differences between the sexes in the form 
of the pleopods, and that the species themselves also differ to a 
great extent in the development of these appendages, has led me 
to re-examine the material available in the Museum collection. In 
the Indian Museum twenty-one species of the genus are represented 
a very considerable proportion of those that are known; but, un- 
fortunately*, in the case of thirteen only do we possess examples of 
both sexes. 

Although iti the development of the pleopods there is a certain 
amount of intergradation, it is possible roughly to classify the 
species according to the development of these appendages into 
five groups : — 

Group I. 

P, norvegicus, M. Sars ( ^^^^opod of last four pairs of 
P. gracilis, Smith ) Pl^opods well developed m both 

P. hrevirokris. Smith / ^^f^^' ^^^^^ conspicuous appendix 

' interna. 

P. spinosus, lycach, P. abyssi, Smith, and P. occidentalis, 

Faxon, represented in the collection by female specimens onl}-, 

doubtless also belong to this group. 

Group II. 

Kndopod of last four pairs of 
pleopods comparatively well deve- 
loped in male, reduced in female. 
P. sculptus (Bell) Appendix interna present in male 

P. incisus^ sp.nov. \ on all four pairs, but somewhat 

P. austral is, Thomson rudimentary on the last; in female 

present on 2nd and 3rd pairs, rudi- 
mentary on 4th and absent from 
5th. 

P. chiltoni, Kemp, known from female specimens only, also in 
all probability belongs to this group. 



382 Records of the Indian Museuin. [Vol.. XII, 

Group III. 

. . / Endopod of last four pairs of pleo- 

■ ^^'*^^' P- • pods comparatively well developed 
r, j-j' ' , { in male, reduced in female. Appen- 
p ^/h ' ' ^^^ interna present on all four pairs 

■ r ^ ^> V- • y in male, but entirely absent in female. 

Group IV. 

Endopod of last four pairs of pleo- 

pods large and well developed in 

P. sabsechota, Kemp { female, quite rudimentary in male. 

Appendix interna absent in both 
sexes. 

Group V. 

-r^ , . , . XT •■■ > .' Endopod of last four pairs of 

P. hsptnosus Hailstone \^ {^ ^^,,,1, ,,,^^,ed in both 

and Westwood. ^^^^^ Appendix interna absent 

P. trisptnosus, Hailstone, f • 1 . 1 " 

'^ ' in both sexes. 

P. echinulatus (M. Sars), P. victonensis, Fulton and Grant, P. 
hendersoni, Kemp, and P. parvirostris , sp. nov., represented in the 
Museum collection by examples of one sex only, also in all prob- 
ability belong to this group. 

In Group I the appendix interna is usually tipped with a series 
of small coupling hooks, which are ill-developed or absent in other 
groups that possess this appendage. In Group V the separation of 
a distinct segment at the base of the endopod is clearly marked, 
whereas in Group I the division is obscurely indicated.^ 

P. sabsechota, the sole species comprised in Group IV, is appa- 
rently an abnormal form, the distinction between the sexes in the 
size of the endopod being the reverse of that found in any other 
species which in this respect exhibits sexual differences. The re- 
maining groups clearly form a morphological series characterised 
by the progressive reduction of the endopod and by the reduction 
and suppression of the appendix interna. Group I in which the 
pleopods have retained their full development is clearly the most 
primitive, while Group V in which they are more reduced than in 
any other is the most specialised. It is noteworthy that Group I 
includes all the deep-water forms in the collection. 

The facts are not only of interest in the light they throw on 
the development of the species within the genus; they also, as it 
appears to me, form a valuable clue to the evolution of the family 
as a whole, for the other genera can be divided into two sections 
agreeing, respectively, in the development of their pleopods with 



i Cf. W'ollebaek, Bergens Mitseiims Aai-bog, 1008, no. 12, p. 44, text-tig. 2. 



1916.] S. Kemp : Notes on Crustacea Decapoda. 383 

Groups I and V of Pontophilus. Ortmann ' in 1890 published a 
genealogical tree of the five genera known to him ; but the evidence 
afforded by the pleopods leads to results directly at variance with 
those which he obtained and it will be well therefore to discuss the 
matter briefly. 

The two most primitive groups of species in the family are in 
all probabilit}' Aegean and Pontophilus, Group I. They possess — 
most of them at any rate — a rudimentary exopod on the first legs, 
the number of branchiae is at least as great as that in any other 
genus and the endopod of the last four pairs of pleopods is well 
developed and possesses an appendix interna. In Aegean the 
second leg is larger than in Pontophilus, Group I, agreeing more 
nearly with that of Group V, and the former genus also possesses 
a rather larger number of branchiae than the latter. In this last 
feature it appears to be the more primitive of the two, but in 
the curious C-shaped form of its gills it presents a character not 
known in any other genus of Car idea. Aegean, in m}^ opinion, 
must be regarded as an offshoot of the original stock from which 
the other genera are descended. 

The evolution of the remaining genera of Crangonidae can, I 
think, be traced back to Pontophilus, from which there have been 
tvk^o main lines of descent, originating respectively in Group I and 
in Group V 

In Group I of Pontophilus, as has already been noted, the 
second leg is shorter than in the other groups and it is not difficult 
to understand how Sabinea, Owen, and Paracrangon, Dana, have 
arisen from it by successive steps. In Sabinea the pleopods are 
as well developed as in any species of Group I and possess a con- 
spicuous appendix interna ; the second leg has, however, under- 
gone further reduction ; it is smaller than in an}/ species of Ponto- 
philus and terminates simply, the chela being altogether sup- 
pressed. Paracrangon is apparent!}^ a further development on the 
same line. The second legs are entirely absent and the endopod 
in the last four pairs of pleopods, though large and well-formed, is 
without appendix interna. 

The other line of development has apparently arisen through 
forms similar to those of Group V and terminates in four branches, 
rejjresenting respectively the genera Crangon, L., Sclerocrangon, 
Sars, Argis, Kroyer {= Nectocrangon, Brandt) and Prionocrangon, 
Wood-Mason. In all the.se genera the endopod of the last four 
pleopods is greatly reduced, possesses a well marked basal segment, 
and is devoid of appendix interna. 

The evidence afforded by the development of the second leg 
is, in this case, rather difficult to interpret. In all the four genera 
named above it has a proportionatel}^ greater length than in any 
species of Pontophilus; in Prionocrangon, evidently a. very highly 
specialised form, it terminates simply, while in the other three it 
is chelate. But it must be presumed that all Crangonidae have 

1 Ortmann, Zool. Jalirb., Syst., V, p. 530 (1890). 



384 Records of the Indian Museum. [Vol. XII, 1916.] 

primarih'^ arisen from a form in which this limb was well developed 
and a priori it was not to be expected that the four genera had 
passed through a stage in which it was to some extent reduced. 

It is, however, difficult to see how it could have been other- 
wise. Crangon and its allied genera might, indeed, have arisen 
independently from an ancestor of Pontophilus , that is to say from 
a form differing from Group I of that genus only in the possession 
of long second legs. In this case the pleopods must have evolved 
separately in the two instances ; with the result that their identity 
of structure, as we see it to-day in Crangon and the related genera 
on the one hand and in Pontophilus, Group V, on the other, is an 
example of convergence. 

I am inclined to think that this conclusion is erroneous. The 
tendency that clearly exists towards the reduction or suppression 
of the second pair of legs shows that these apj^endages are un- 
usually plastic in Crangonidae : the monodact3dous condition of 
these limbs in Sahinea and Pricnocrangon is evidenth^ an instance 
of convergence and affords no evidence of real affinity. The struc- 
ture of the pleopods is more likely to yield a trustworthy estimate 
of relationship. 

Of the genera Vercoia, Baker \ and C or allio crangon, Nobili*, 
I have seen no examples. In the former, according to a sketch 
kindly sent me by Mr. Baker, the endopod of the last four pleo- 
pods is comparatively large, but without appendix interna. The 
genus has perhaps arisen separately from forms similar to those 
in Group III of Pontophilus ; it differs from all species of the latter 
in the monodactylous character of the second legs. Owing to lack 
of information regarding the pleopods, it is impossible to make any 
suggestion regarding the relationships of Coralliocrangon. This is 
particularly unfortunate, for the persistence in the genus of the 
linea thalassinica points to its being a survival of some very primi- 
tive form. 

1 Baker, Ti-ans. Roy. Soc. S. Australia, XXVIII, p. 158 (1904). 

2 Nobili, Ann. Set. Nat. Zool. Paris, (9), IV, p. 82 (1906). 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE VIII. 

Fig. I. — Pontophilus incisus, sp. nov. 

,, 2. — Pontophihis lowisi, sp. nov, 

,, 3. — Pontophilus candidus, sp. nov. 

., 4. — Pontophilus pilosus, sp. nov. 

,, 5. — Pontophilus plebs, sp. nov. 

,, 6. — Pontophilus parvirostris, sp. nov. 



Rec. Ind. Mus.,Yol.Xn 1316. 



Plate VIII. 





2. 






C--' 




A C Chavrdhary , dfil 



Bemrose.CoHo, Derby 



NEW INDIAN SPECIES OF PONTOPHILUS. 



XXI. NOTES ON CRUSTACEA DECAPODA 
IN THE INDIAN MUSEUM. 

VII. Further Notes on Hippoeytidae. 

By vStanley Kemp, B.A., Superintendent, Zoological Survey 

of India. 

(Plate XXXVI). 

Although only two years have elapsed since my previous paper 
on the Indian Hippolytidae was published, a number of interest 
ing forms have come to light, obtained partly during the recent 
cruises of the 'Investigator' by Capt. R. B. Seymour Sewell, 
I.M.S., partly by Dr. Annandale in Japan, and partly by myself 
during a short visit to Port Blair in the Andamans. 

The Hippolytid fauna of Port Blair is one of great richness. 
During three weeks' collecting, fully half the known Indian species 
of the family were met with, enabling me to obtain notes on the 
natural colouration of several forms hitherto unknown in this 
respect. In addition, three forms were found that had not pre- 
viously been recognised, one representing a new generic type. 
Of these, Thor discosomatis is of particular interest owing to the 
fact that it lives commensally with a large anemone of the genus 
Discosoma, and is most peculiar in its colouration ; the species of 
Phycocaris, gen. nov. , is extremely grotesque in appearance and 
closely mimics the weed among which it lives. 

Borradaile, in a recent paper,* has briefly described a genus 
and three new species of Hippolytidae from the Maldives, the 
Seychelles and other localities. If my identification is correct, 
two of these, Thor maldivensis and Lysmatella prima (the latter 
the type of the new genus), occur in the Andamans; but I am 
inclined to think that Lysmatella should at most be distinguished 
only subgenerically from the closely allied Hippolysmata. Ex- 
hippolysmata, recently proposed by Stebbing'^ to include Hippolys- 
mata ensirostris and a nearly related form from S. Africa, does not 
appear to differ sufficiently to warrant either generic or subgeneric 
separation. 

Genus Saron, Thallwitz. 
Saron marmoratus (Olivier). 

1914. Saron viarmoratits, Kemp, Rec. hid. Mils., X, p. 84. 

A number of specimens of this well-known species were ob- 
tained at Port Blair; the majority were found under stones left 

' Borradaile, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (8), XV, pp. 206, 208 (1915). 
2 Stebbing, Ann. S. African Mus., XV, p. 94 (1915). 



386 Records of the Indian Museum. [V'OL. XII, 

bare at low water, but one individual was dredged at a depth of 
two fathoms. 

There are tufts of setae on the carapace and abdomen of all 
the specimens ; the males are small and do not possess the enlarged 
third maxillipedes and first peraeopods characteristic of well-grown 
examples of their sex. 

On close inspection the colouration of living specimens is 
very wonderful, resembling that of a rich Turkey carpet. At a 
casual glance, however, the animal is dull in tone and it is clear 
that the vivid tints blend and cause it to harmonise with its sur- 
roundings, just in the same way that the splashes of bright colour 
on gun-mountings are effective in rendering them inconspicuous. 

On the carapace and abdomen are numerous large ocellar 
spots of an irregular shape ; in the centre these spots are buff, 
dotted with red and circumscribed with white and reddish orange. 
Between the spots are patches, irregularly lobulate in form, but 
symmetrical on either side of the animal. They are of a deep red- 
dish brown colour with numerous large bright blue spots. Each 
patch is sharply defined, its sinuous margin being outlined with 
black and pale grey. At the antero-lateral angle of the carapace 
there is a dull red spot. The rostrum, antennules and antennal 
scales are pale buff, barred with dark brown, the brown bearing 
numerous white flecks. The anterior two pairs of legs are reddish 
at the base ; their distal segments and all segments of the last 
three pairs are pale yellowish green broadly barred with black. 
The tail-fan is obscurely mottled with brown and buff. 

The largest specimen, an ovigerous female, is only 36 mm. in 
total length. 

^f^ Port Blair, Andamans. S. Kemp. Eleven. 

Genus Spirontocaris, Bate. 
Spirontocaris pandaloides (Stimpson). 

1907. Spirontocaris pandaloides, de Man, Trans. Linn. .Soc, Zoo/.. 
(2), IX, p. 418, pi. xxxii, figs. 47, 48. 

A number of exam.ples of this species were obtained by Dr 
Annandale during his recent visit to Japan from Mr. Kuma Aoki. 
The teeth on the rostrum vary from 8 to 10 on the upper border 
and from 10 to 13 on the lower. 

^gL Misaki, Japan. Kuma Aoki. Fourteen, 

46-49 mm. 

Spirontocaris rectirostris (Stimpson). 

1907. Spirontocaris rectirostris, de Man, Trans. Linn. Soc, Zool.. 
(2), IX, p. 411, pi. xxxii, figs. 31-34. 

Two fine specimens in Dr. Annandale's Japanese collection 
(presented by Dr. S. Yoshida) agree very closely with de Man's 
description of the male of this species. Both individuals have 
only 5 teeth on the upper border of the rostrum; on the lower 



1916.J vS. Kemp : Notes on Crtistacea Decapoda. 387 

border there are 2 in one specimen and 3 in the other. The telson 
in one case bears four pairs of dorsal spinules, in the other five. 

De Man has drawn attention to the great development of the 
third maxillipedes and first peraeopods in the male. In the two 
specimens obtained by Dr. Annandale this character is well shown, 
the proportions of the limbs agreeing preciseh^ with de Man's des- 
cription. The enlargement of these appendage^ in the adult male 
is a feature of considerable interest, for though apparently rare in 
the genus Spirontocaris, an almost precisely similar phenomenon 
is met with in the genera Alope and Saron. 

~^%- Tanabe, Kii prov,, Japan. S. Yoshida. Two, .^4, 36 mm. 

The third maxillipedes in the larger specimen are 30 mm. in 
length ; in the smaller they are 26 mm. 

Genus Thor, Kingsley. 

The definition of this genus requires modification in order to 
include T. maldivensis, Borradaile, in which supraorbital spines 
are found on the carapace. In addition to the greater number of 
segments in the carpus of the second peraeopods and the presence 
of a movable plate at the distal end of the antennular peduncle — 
characters by which the genus is readily distinguished from Hippo- 
lyte — the outer antennular flagellum, in Thor , is greatly swollen 
in both sexes. 

An interesting species, hitherto undescribed, was obtained at 
Port Blair ; it lives commensally with giant sea-anemones of the 
genus Discosoma and is very peculiar in its pigmentation. 

The three known species of Thor, all of which have been found 
in the Andamans, may be distinguished as follows : — 

I. Rostrum with two or more dorsal teeth; 
supraorbital spines absent. 
^4. Apex of rostrum bifid ; lateral process 
of antennule without a tooth at its 
proximal end .. ... T. paschnlis (HqW&y). 

B. Apex of rostrum simpl}- pointed ; 
lateral process of antennule with a 
small upstanding tooth at its prox- 
imal end ... ... ... T. (fiscoso/natis, sp.nov. 

II. Rostrum with only a single dorsal tooth; 

supraorbital spines present ... ... T. nialdiveijsis, Borra- 

daile. 

Thor paschalis (Heller). 

1914. Thor paschalis, Kemp, Rec. hid. Miis., X, p. 94, pi. i, figs. 6-10. 

Additional specimens are from Singapore and from Port Blair 
in the Andamans. The species was found on several occasions in 
the latter locality, living among weeds at depths of from 2 to 5 
fathoms in the neighbourhood of Ross I. The specimens are 
smaller than the majority of those obtained in the Gulf of Manaar ; 
the largest is only 8 mm. in length and ovigerous females some- 
times do not exceed 6*5 mm. The single individual from Singa- 
pore, a male, was obtained at low water under a block of coral. 



?88 



Records of the Indian Museum. 



[Vol. XII, 



•^§3. Port Blair, Andamans. 
■^§i Tanah Merah Besar, 
Sinc^apore I. 



S. Kemp. 

N. Annandale. 



Ten. 
One. 



Thor discosomatis, sp. nov. 

(Plate xxxvi, fig. i). 

Thor discosomatis is a very close ally of T. paschalis and agrees 
with that species in the great majority of its structural features. 
It differs, however, in the following points: — 




Fig. I. — f/ior d/scosoiiKtfis, sp. no\'. 

a. Antennule. e. Third peraeopod. 

b. Antennal scale. /. Second pleopod of male. 

c. First peraeopod. g. Telson. 

d. vSeeond peraeopod. //. Apex of telson. 



The rostrum is a little shorter ; at its apex it is sharply point- 
ed, not bifid, and on its upper margin it bears only two or three 
teeth. These teeth are larger and all of th^^m are situated on the 
rostrum in front of the hinder limit of the orbit. The basal seg- 
ment of the antennular peduncle (text-fig. i^) bears a spine on 
its infero-internal aspect, as in T. paschalis; but the lateral pro- 
cess, though variable in length, is usually longer than in that 
species, often reaching the end of the third segment. The process 
bears, near the proximal end of its outer margin, a sharp upstand- 
ing tooth of which no trace exists in the allied species. 



1916.] S. Kemp : Notes on Crustacea Decapoda. 389 

The peraeopods closely resemble those of T. paschalis. The car- 
pus of the second pair (text-fig. id) is composed of six sub-segments 
the proportional lengths of which are much the same as in T. pas- 
chalis, except that the third is comparatively a little shorter. 
There is practically no difference between males and females in 
the length of the third pair of legs (text-fig. le). On the lower 
border of the merus of the third and fourth pairs there is a small 
subterminal spine. This spine is present on all the last three pairs 
in r. paschalis} whereas in T. discosomatis it is absent from the 
last pair. 

On the telson (text-tig. ig) as in T. paschalis there are three 
or four pairs of dorso-lateral spinules. At the apex, however, 
there are four pairs of spines, the outermost the shortest, the 
second the longest and the two inner pairs sub-equal (text-fig. ih). 
In T. paschalis there are only three pairs of terminal spines. 

In the shape of the antennal scale (text-fig. 16) and in all 
other features, T. discosomatis seems to bear the closest resem- 
blance to T. paschalis. 

The largest specimen obtained, an ovigerous female, is 13 mm. 
in length. 

The colouration of living specimens was very remarkable, the 
animal being of a deep reddish brown tint, semitransparent, with 
very large spots and patches of pale greenish yellow. On the 
carapace are two such spots, round and confluent in the mid- 
dorsal line ; there is one on either . side of the second abdominal 
somite, a broad transverse band on the fourth somite with a small 
spot on each side below it, a ventral transverse bar on the fifth 
somite and a patch, forming a complete ring, on the sixth somite. 
Each of these spots or patches is very pale green in the centre, 
with a broad margin of bright yellow, the whole being narrowly 
circumscribed by blue. The central portions are traversed by 
streaks of yellow extending inwards from the margin. The apex 
of the telson is greenish yellow and there is a circumscribed spot 
in the middle of each uropod. On the upper side of the eyestalk 
there is a greenish yellow patch ; all the other appendages are 
reddish brown. 

The specimens of Thor discosomatis were found along with a 
Palaemonid in the immediate vicinity of large anemones of the 
genus Discosoma. Two very small individuals were obtained in 
the dredge, but it is probable that on this occasion the net was 
drawn over an anemone in the course of its passage along the 
bottom. 

The Palaemonid has been described b3^ Nobili under the name 
Ancylocaris aberrans,^ and of this species Miss Rathbun's Pericli- 
menes hermitensis^ is apparently a synonym. Coutiere,* who 



1 These spines are omitted in the figure gi\-en in pi. i, Hg. 0, «/). r/Y., 1(014. 

2 Nobih, Bull. sci. France Belgiqite, XI., p. 52, pi. iv, tigs. y-y6 (igi)()y. 
=> Rathbun, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1914, p. 655, pi. i, figs. \--^. 

* Coutiere, Bull. Miis. d'Hist. nat., Parii, IV, p. ig8 (1S98). 



3go Records of the Indian Museum . [Vol. XII, 

refers to the same form as a species of Bithynis, has given the 
following account of its habits.—'' Un Palemonide du genre Bithy- 
nis Dana merite une mention speciale par son habitat et sa colora- 
tion. II est absolument transparent, mais se signale par quelques 
anneaux d'un violet pale sur les appendices et I'abdomen, et sur- 
tout par des taches d'un blanc nacre eclatant, occupant la region 
stomacale tout entiere, le coude de I'abdomen, I'extremite des 
rames caudales et les epimeres du deuxieme segment. Ce magni- 
fique Crustace se tient obstinement dans la zone de protection que 
circonscrit une grande Actinie assez commune dans les flaques 
profondes qui separent les Madrepores. Etale sur le sable, le disque 
oral de 1' Actinie de couleur blanchatre, arme d'un tres grand 
nombre de courts tentacules urticants, atteint souvent o m. 30 de 
diametre. Bithynis se tient dans ce cercle, nageant a pen de dis- 
tance au-dessus, souvent par couples, et se laisse assez aisement 
capturer a I'aide d'une eprouvette pleine d'eau que Ton descend 
doucement sur I'animal." 

The anemone at Port Blair was one with greenish tentacles, 
not whitish as in Coutiere's description. It was not uncommon 
at low water on the foreshore at " Aberdeen" and was sometimes 
left high and dry by the tide. On anemones from which the water 
had completely retreated we failed to find any shrimps, even 
though the whole specimen was dug up and most carefully ex- 
amined. On the other hand the shrimps were seldom absent from 
anemones living in a few inches of water, and were easily caught 
in a tube full of water as described by Coutiere. The Ancylocaris ' 
was found swimming and crawling on the column of the anemone 
beneath the fringe of tentacles and wandering occasionally on to 
the disc. Thor discosomatis had similar habits, but seemed to 
wander further afield and rarely ventured among the tentacles. 

The curious feature of the shrimps is that in both species the 
pigmentation takes the form of very large spots almost pure white 
in colour. This, too, is a characteristic of certain fish, Amphiprion 
percula (Lacep.) and Tetradvachmum trimaculatum (Riipp.),'^ which 
also appear to live commensally with the Discosoma ; the latter was 
found beneath the fringe of tentacles and was black with a broad 
transverse band of white at the back of the head, extending down- 
wards to the eye, and a large white spot below the dorsal fin ; the 
former, which was commonly found swimming among the ten- 
tacles, was bright orange with three broad bands of white tinged 
with green and narrowly margined with black. The presence of 
white patches in all four commensal species is a most curious 



' Coutiere, in this brief description, has scarcely done justice to the marvel- 
lous colouration of Ancylocaris nhevrans ; the large white patches are frequently 
circumscribed by red or orange pigment and on the tail-fan are eye-spots with 
reddish centres. A complete account of the colouration of this Palaemonid would 
be out of place in the present paper, but it ma}' be mentioned that the pigmenta- 
tion varies somewhat in the two sexes and alters considerably with age. The 
colouration of Thor discosomatis, on the other hand, is apparently constant 
throughout life. 

■■^ I am indebted to \">y. B. I.. C'haudhuii lor lliese determinations. 



1916.] vS. Kkmp : Notes on Crustacea Decapoda. 391 

feature and one of which it is impossible to offer an explana- 
tion. 

S. Kemp. Fourteen. 



The types bear the number 9261/10. 

Thor maldivensis, Borradaile. 

igiS- Thor ii/aldlveiisis, Bornidnile, Ann. Mag. Nat. H ist.. dSi, X\", 
p. 2u8. 

A single ovigerous female, about 9 mm. in length, doubtless 
belongs to this species. It differs, however, from Borradaile's 
brief description in possessing six distinct segments in the carpus 
of the second peraeopods. The presence of strong supraorbital 
spines and the ver}^ short rostrum, armed with only a single dor- 
sal tooth are characters which readily distinguish it from the two 
preceding species. According to Borradaile the first leg is enlarged 
in adult males. 

^fgi Port Blair, Andamans. S. Kemp. One. 

The specimen was found at low water on the coral reef in 
North Bay and was, when living, rather conspicuously mottled. 

Thor maldivensis was described from Minikoi, the Maldives 
and Salomon Atoll. 

Genus Hippolyte, Leach. 
Hippolyte ventricosus, Milne-Edwards. 

J914. Ilippolvte vcntricosiis, Kemp, Rcc. Ind. J/iis., X, p. ()6, pi. ii, 
figs. 1-3. 

This species is not very abundant in Port Blair harbour. The 
majority of the specimens obtained were taken at Corbyn's Cove 
North, not far from the entrance to the harbour, living in a fucoid 
weed washed by the waves. All the individuals taken in this 
situation were of a dull olive-brown colour closely resembling that 
of the sea-weed. 

The collection includes many ovigerous females, an unusually 
large specimen being 21 mm. in length. 

-Yo~ Port Blair, Andamans. S. Kemp. Many. 

Genus Phycocaris, nov. 

Carapace with supraorbital and antennal spines; antero- 
lateral (pterygostomian) spine absent. lyateral process of anten- 
nular peduncle spiniform ; upper flagellum uniramous. Mandible 
with incisor-process, but without palp. Third maxillipede with 
exopod. Neither epipods nor arthrobranchs at base of first four 
peraeopods. Carpus of second peraeopods composed of two seg- 
ments. Endopods of second to fifth pleopods very large in female, 
small and slender in male. 

Type and only species, Phycocaris siintilans, sp. nov. 



392 Records of the Indian Museum. [Voi, XII , 

This genus is formed for the reception of a small and peculiar 
Hippolytid of the most grotesque appearance, that lives on weeds 
in the vicinity of Port Blair. On its appendages, including the 
eyestalks, are long straggling hairs and these, in conjunction with 
its colour and the unusual attitude it adopts, combine to give it a 
most extraordinarily close resemblance to small tufts of algae. 

In most of the characters mentioned above the genus agrees 
with Caiman's Trachycaris,^ though in outward appearance there 
is the widest possible difference between them. The type and onl3^ 
known species of Trachycaris^ is that described by Spence Bate 
from the West Indies under the name Platyhema rugosum. It 
agrees with Phycocaris in having only two segments in the carpus 
of the second peraeopods and in the great size of the endopods of 
the second to fifth pairs of pleopods. The latter character, though 
given without qualification in Caiman's diagnosis, is probably 
found only in females. 

Phycocaris differs from Trachycaris in the absence of the antero- 
lateral spine of the carapace and in the presence of an incisor-pro- 
cess on the mandible.^ The latter feature is of considerable 
importance and indicates that the genus is in reality allied to Thar 
and Hippolyie rather than to Trachycaris and other genera of the 
Latreutid section of the family. From Thor, Hippolyie and the 
peculiar N. Atlantic genus Cryptocheles, it is easily distinguished 
by the number of segments in the second legs. 

Phycocaris simulans, sp. nov. 
(Plate xxxvi, fig. 2). 

The carapace is arched above and is produced anteriorly to a 
short and simple rostrum that reaches only a little beyond the end 
of the basal antennular segment. On the frontal margin above 
the 63^6 there is, on either side, a short and stout supraorbital 
spine. The antero-lateral (pterygostomian) spine is absent, but 
there is a small spine at the base of the antenna; the antero- 
inferior angle is rounded. The carapace is not carinate in the 
middle line and bears a few long scattered hairs. 

The eyes are comparatively long and slender. In dorsal view^ 
the cornea is not broader than the stalk and is about half its 
length. There is no ocellus ; but at the junction of the cornea and 
stalk there is a circlet of long hairs, a remarkable feature not 
known in any other Hippolytid. 

The basal segment of the antennular peduncle (text fig. 2a) is 
fully as long as the two following combined; its lateral process is 



1 Caiman, Ajih. Mng. Xaf. Hist., [J). XVII, \J. 3,^ 1 iqv()). 

■^ Platybema pristis, Nobili, \Aini. Mus. civ. Gcnova. (2), XX, p. 233 1,1899)1 
sl:ould doubtless be referred to the genus Latrentes. 

-^ The statement that the mandible in Tvachycavis is without incisor-process is' 
given by Caiman on the authorit\- of Spence Bate. I have examined a specimen 
T . riigosus and am able to confirm the accuracv of the observation. 



I9I6.] 



S. Kemp : Notes on Cnislacea Decapoda. 



393 



slender, incurved and spine-like, extending a little beyond the end 
of the segment and bearing a few hairs externally. The second 
and third segments are nearly equal in length, each bearing near 
its distal end one or two very long plumose setae. The outer 
flagellum is longer and stouter in the male than in the female. 
In the former sex the thickened portion is composed of some seven 
segments and is longer than the peduncle; in the latter it is shorter 
than the peduncle and consists only of five more slender segments. 




Fig: 2. — PIi vcocarii 

a. Antennule. 

b. Antennal scale. 

c. Mandible. 

d. Third maxillipede, the distal 

segment seen obliquely. 

e. Distal segment of third maxilli- 

pede. 
/. First peraeopod. 



s!jii/iliii/s, gen. el sp. nov. 

Chela of first peraeopod. 

Second peraeopod. 
/. Third peraeopod. 
/. Dactylus of third peraeopod. 
k. Second pleopod of female. 
I. Telson. 
m. Apex of telson. 



h. 



The inner flagellum is short and is usually carried reflected back- 
wards. 

The antennal scale (text- fig. 26), which reaches a little beyond 
the antennular peduncle, is broadest near the base and is less than 
twice as long as wide ; the outer margin is convex, terminating in 
a spine that reaches as far forwards as the apex of the lamella. 
The peduncular segments bear long setae similar to those on the 
antennule. 



394 Records of the Indian Museutn. [V^oi,. XII^ 

The mandible resembles that found in the genus Thor ; the 
incisor-process is well developed and is furnished with about seven 
teeth at the apex. The palp is entirely absent and the molar pro- 
cess is cleft and furnished with slender spines, many of which are 
serrate. 

The second maxilla is normally developed ; the distal endite 
of the endopod is divided into two parts of equal breadth. The 
first and second maxillipedes possess epipods, that of the former 
being emarginate distally, while that of the latter is deeply bilobed. 
The ultimate segment of the endopod of the second maxillipede is 
placed terminally at the end of that which precedes it and is not 
applied as a strip along the outer margin of the latter as in the 
great majority of the Caridea. The third maxillipede (text-fig. 2d) 
does not possess an epipod ; the exopod is small but foliaceous, 
reaching about to the middle of the antepenultimate segment. 
The ultimate segment (text-fig. 2e) is less than twice the length 
of the penultimate and is not three times as long as broad ; in 
addition to numerous hairs it bears a series of nine or ten sharp 
spinules in its distal half. 

The first peraeopods (text-fig. 2/) are stout, but very short ; 
the ischium and merus and carpus are sub-equal, a little shorter 
than the chela. The se.gments bear long setae but are otherwise 
unarmed. The chela (text-fig. 2g) is rather more than twice as 
long as broad and the fingers are distinctly longer than the palm. 
On the interna] surface of the chela the fingers are deeply hollowed 
or spooned near the cutting margin, while externally each forms 
a thin blade with a saw-like edge, the two meeting throughout 
their length when the claw is closed. At the extreme tip each 
finger is provided with three large teeth. 

The second peraeopods (text-fig. 2h) are much longer, reach- 
ing nearly to the tip of the antennal scale. The carpus is almost 
as long as the ischium and merus combined and consists of two 
segments, the second a little shorter than the first and about twice 
as long as broad. The chela is almost two-thirds the length of the 
carpus and nearly two and a half times as long as wide the fingers 
being about one- third shorter than the palm. When the claw is 
closed the fingers meet only at the tips where they cross each other. 

The last three pairs of peraeopods (text-fig. 2i) are similar and 
show no sexual differences. The carpus is scarcely shorter than 
the merus and is a trifle longer than the propodus. The propodus 
is armed beneath with five or six spines, two pairs towards the 
distal end and one or two others, which are smaller, near the mid- 
dle. When the dactylus is folded inwards it lies between the two 
spines constituting the distal pair and thus forms a poorly de- 
veloped grasping organ. The dactylus (text-fig. 2/) is short, spines 
included about two-fifths the length of the propodus : on its in- 
ferior edge it bears a series of seven or eight spinules which in- 
crease in size distally, the two terminal ones being large spines. 
All the legs bear very long plumose setae, especially conspicuous 
on the ischium, merus and carpus. 



1916.] vS. Kemp : Notes on Crustacea Decapoda. 395 

The abdominal somites are not carinate dorsally. The third 
is very strongly humped and the sixth, which is but little longer 
than the fifth, is produced to a rounded prominence in the middle 
of its posterior margin. The endopod of the last four pairs of 
pleopods bears an appendix interna and is enormously expanded 
in the female (text-fig. 2k) ; in the male it is not broader than the 
exopod. The margins of both rami bear long setae. 

The telson (text-fig. 2/) is nearly twice the length of the sixth 
somite and is feebly sulcate above. It bears two or three pairs of 
small dorso-lateral spines and terminates in a broad, almost trun- 
cate apex (text-fig. 2m) armed with three pairs of spines, the 
innermost the longest, about equal to the breadth of the apex, 
and the outermost much the shortest. Between the innermost 
pair of spines are two minute spinules, while a similar spinule 
occurs on either side between the bases of these spines and those 
of the intermediate pair. The outer uropods do not reach the 
apex of the telson ; they are shorter than those of the inner pairs 
and are rather more than two and a half times as long as wide. 

The long setae that have been described above as plumose 
differ considerabl}^ from those to which this term is generally ap- 
plied, for the plumes have not the form of very fine microscopic 
hairs, but are comparatively short and blunt processes from the 
main axis of the seta. 

The largest specimen obtained, an egg-bearing female, is barely 
9 mm. in total length; other ovigerous individuals do not exceed 
7 mm. 

This curious little species was found at Port Blair near Ross 
I., living among weeds in water from 2 to 4 fathoms in depth. 
We found it impossible to obtain specimens at all freely by the 
usual methods, but if the contents of the net were immediately 
transferred to a bucket of sea-water^ individuals were sometimes 
found swimming at the surface and alighting on floating fragments 
of weed. 

The illustration on Plate xxxvi, which is based on